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DEFINITION• The belief that pleasure is the most important thing in life • The name derives from the Greek word for "delight" • hēdonē "pleasure"+ ism = HEDONISM
characteristics believes pleasure should play a central role in life likes tattoos, likes strip clubs, prone to substance abuse, prone to shoplifting, thinks marijuana should be legalized, Gay marriage celebrated not opposed to breaking laws, promiscuous, prone to cheat in relationships, kinky,
characteristics likes to dress provocatively, willing to break the law if the monetary benefit is great enough, can be crude, believes religion is foolish, does not worry about consequences of actions, addictive tendencies, more a night person than a day person,
characteristicserotic,more likely to have been on anti-depressants, gets attention through negative behavior, reckless with money,prone to nihilism,unpredictable, self destructive
TYPES1. Psychological(a) Motivational hedonism is the claim that only pleasure or pain motivates us most significant form of psychological hedonism.
(b) Normative Hedonism• is the claim that all and only pleasure has worth or value, and all and only pain has disvalue.• Jeremy Bentham endorsed both sorts of hedonism in his An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation:“Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain, and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do” (Bentham 1789)
Normative Hedonism Pleasure Painunderstood broadly, include all unpleasantto include all pleasant feeling or experience:feeling or experience, aches, throbs, irritations,such as elation, anxiety, anguish,ecstacy, delight, joy, chagrin, discomfort,and enjoyment. despair, grief, depression, guilt and remorse
2.Ethical hedonism• is the view that our fundamental moral obligation is to maximize pleasure or happiness.• Ethical hedonism is most associated with the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus who taught that our lifes goal should be to minimize pain and maximize pleasure. In fact, all of our actions should have that aim:• In A Letter to Menoeceus -Epicurus explains how we can reduce the psychological anguish that results from fearing the gods and fearing death.• Concerning the nature of pleasure, Epicurus explains that at least some pleasures are rooted in natural and, as a rule, every pain is bad and should be avoided, and every pleasure is good and should be preferred.
History & Development1. Sumerian civilization• In the original Old Babylonian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Siduri gave the following advice "Fill your belly. Day and night make merry. Let days be full of joy. Dance and make music day and night [...] These things alone are the concern of men", • represent the first recorded advocacy of a hedonistic philosophy.
Ancient Egyptian Civilisation• Harpers Songs• Scenes of a harper entertaining guests at a feast was common in ancient Egyptian tombs and sometimes contained hedonistic elements, calling guests to submit to pleasure because they cannot be sure that they will be rewarded for good with a blissful afterlife.
Cārvāka• was an Indian hedonist school of thought that arose approximately 600 BCE, and died out in the 14th century CE.• The Cārvākas maintained that the Hindu scriptures are false, that the priests are liars, and that there is no afterlife, and that pleasure should be the aim of living.• Unlike other Indian schools of philosophy, the Cārvākas argued that there is nothing wrong with sensual indulgence.• They held a naturalistic worldview.
Islamic PerspectiveWhosoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward, and whosoever desires the reward of this world, We give him thereof, and he has no portion in the Hereafter ( As –Syuraa :20)O my people, this worldly life is only [temporary] enjoyment, and indeed, theHereafter - that is the home of [permanent] settlement. (Surat Ghāfir : 39) “Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the hereafter. Butlittle is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared to the hereafter.” (At-Tawbah:38)