Assessment techniques in effective
and psychomotor domain
■ Direct observation is the best means we have for assessing some
aspects of learning and development.
■ The use of anecdotal records can turn informal teacher observations
into a systematic source of information about student development.
■ Peer judgments are especially useful in assessing personal-social
■ Self-report methods provide a fuller understanding of students’
needs, problems, adjustments, interests and attitudes.
■ Observation, self report, rating scale, anecdotal records, checklists
and peer appraisal etc. are used for assessment of students
learning and attitudes.
■ Observation is the recording of the
behavior of the sample.
■ Researcher relies on his or her own
powers of observation what he or
she has witnessed rather than
communicating with people in order
to obtain information what they say
or think about issues.
■ Good has defined observation as
‘Observation deals with the overt
behavior of persons in appropriate
Types of observation
A. Participant versus Non-participant
B. Direct versus indirect
C. Disguised versus undisguised
D. Structured versus unstructured
E. Human versus mechanical
A. Participant versus Non-participant
■ Participant observation: the researcher/observer joins a group and observes
their activities, while at the same time taking care to observe what is going on.
■ Non-participant observation: the researcher/observer simply observes the
activities, but doesn’t take part in them.
B. Direct versus Indirect
■ Direct observation: observing behavior as it occurs.
■ Indirect observation: observing the effects or results of the behavior rather than
the behavior itself.
C. Disguised versus Undisguised
■ Disguised observation: subject is unaware that he or she is being observed.
■ Undisguised observation: respondent is aware of observation.
D. Structured versus Unstructured
■ Structured observation: researcher identifies beforehand which
behaviors are to be observed and recorded.
■ Unstructured observation: no restriction is placed on what the
observer would note: all behavior in the episode under study is
E. Human versus Mechanical
■ Human observation: observer is a person hired by the researcher, or,
perhaps the observer is the researcher.
■ Mechanical observation: human observer is replaced with some form
of static observing device.
Steps of observation
■ Selection of various aspects of behavior for observation
■ Making clear thee meaning of selected behavior
■ Training of observers
■ Quantifying observation
■ Report writing or data recording
Principles of observation
■ Observe the whole situation
■ Observe students in their routine activities
■ Observation over a long period
Advantages of Observation
■ Collect data where and when an event or activity is occurring.
■ Does not rely on people’s willingness to provide information.
■ Directly see what people do rather than relying on what they say they
■ Immediately detects problems.
Disadvantages of Observation
■ Susceptible to observer bias.
■ Observer’s paradox: people usually perform better when they know
they are being
■ Does not increase understanding of why people behave the way they
■ Its slow and laborious.
■ A self-report is any method which involves asking the participants
about their feelings, attitudes, beliefs and so on.
■ Examples of self-reports are questionnaires and interviews.
■ Self-reports are often used as a way of gaining participants’
responses in observational studies and experiments.
■ A set of predetermined questions for all respondents that serves as a
primary research instrument in survey research.
■ Used to collect factual information
■ Consist of a form containing a series of questions
■ A questionnaire is a series of questions asked to individuals to obtain
statistically useful information about a given topic.
■ When properly constructed and responsibly administered,
questionnaires become a vital instrument by which statements can
be made about specific groups or people or entire populations.
Characteristics of a good questionnaire
■ Should be concerned with specific and relevant topic
■ Should be short
■ Directions and wording should be simple and clear
■ Questions should be objective
■ Embarrassing questions, presuming questions and hypothetical
questions should be avoided.
■ Should be presented in a good order
■ Should be attractive, neatly printed and clearly arranged
WORDING OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE:
■ Simplicity in language
■ Avoid ambiguity
■ Avoid vague words
■ Avoid embarrassing questions
■ Avoid double negatives
■ Avoid leading questions
■ Presuming questions
■ Hypothetical questions
■ It is economical way of collecting information of significance to researcher.
It is economical in terms of time, effort and cost.
■ It is the best tool for scattered subjects. It permits a nationwide as well as
■ It allows group administration and covers a large group at the same time.
■ It is easy to plan, construct and administer.
■ It is regarded as dependable when used to obtain statement of facts.
■ Personal information can be obtained when respondents are allowed to
omit name and signature or if assured that their replies will be kept
■ It permits the respondents to answer at leisure. It does not place pressure
for immediate response.
■ Low responses
■ Limited validity of data
■ No clarification
■ Emotional topics
■ Body language remains unnoticed
■ Lack of motivation
■ Lacks representative sample
■ Interview is the verbal conversation between two people with the
objective of collecting relevant information for the purpose of
■ Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a
■ The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic.
■ Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents.
TYPES OF INTERVIEW
■ Personal Interview
■ Telephone Interview
■ Focus Group Interview
■ Depth Interview
■ Projective Techniques
Advantages of Interview Method
■ Opportunity for Feedback – Interviewer can provide direct feedback to the
respondent, give clarifications and help alleviate any misconceptions or
apprehensions over confidentiality that the respondent may have in answering the
■ Probing Complex Answers – Interviewers can probe if the respondent’s answer is
too brief or unclear. This gives interviewers some flexibility in dealing with
unstructured questions and is especially suited for handling complex questions.
■ Length of Interview – If the questionnaire is very lengthy, the personal interview is
the best technique for getting respondents to cooperate, without overtaxing their
■ Complete Questionnaires – Personal ensures ensure that the respondent will
answer all questions asked, unlike in telephone interview where the respondent
may hang up or in mail questionnaire where some questions may go unanswered.
■ Props & Visual Aids – Interviewers have the opportunity of showing respondents
items such as sample products, graphs and sketches, which can aid in their
Disadvantages of Interview Method
■ Cost – Personal interviews are usually more expensive than mail, telephone and
internet surveys. Factors influencing the cost of the interview include the
respondents’ geographic proximity, the length and complexity of the questionnaire,
and the number of no respondents.
■ Lack of Anonymity – Respondents are not anonymous in a personal (face-to-face)
interview and may be reluctant to disclose certain information to the interviewer.
Hence, considerable must be expended by the interviewer when dealing with
sensitive questions to avoid bias effects on the respondent’s part.
■ Necessity for Callbacks – When a person selected for interview cannot be reached
the first time, a callback has to be scheduled which result in extra cost and time
■ Variance Effects – It has been shown that the demographic characteristics of the
interviewer can influence the answers of the respondents. In one study, male
interviewers had a much larger variance of answers than female interviewers in a
sample of most female individuals
■ Dishonesty – Interviewers cheat to make their life easier and save time and effort.
3. Rating scale
■ A rating scale is a measuring instrument that requires the rater or observer to
assign a rated object to categories or continua that have numerals assigned to
■ All rating scales can be classified into one or two of three types:
a) Descriptive rating scales
b) Numerical rating scales
c) Graphical rating scales
d) Comparative rating scales
Characteristics of rating scales
■ These are value judgements about attributes of one person by
■ These are most commonly used tools to carry out structured
■ These are generally developed to make qualitative judgement about
■ Provide more flexibility to judge the level of performance.
Advantages of rating scales
■ Easy to administer and score.
■ Wide range of application.
■ Graphic rating scale is easier to make and less time consuming.
■ Easily used for large group.
Disadvantages of rating scales
■ It is difficult to fix up rating about many aspects of an individual.
■ Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.
■ There are chances of subjective evaluation, thus the scales may
become unscientific and unreliable.
4. Anecdotal records
■ Informal device used by the teacher to record behavior of students as
observed by him from time to time.
■ According to jones, “It may be defined as “on the spot” description of
some incident, episode or occurrence that is observed and recorded
as being possible significance. When these reports are collated they
are known as anecdotal records”
■ Strong has defined it as follows. ‘Anecdotal record is a specialized
form of incidental observation. It is a description of child’s conduct
and personality in terms of frequent, brief, concrete observation of
the pupil made and recorded by teacher’.
■ They should contain a factual description of what happened, when it
happened and under what circumstance the behavior occurred.
■ Each record should contain a record of single incident.
■ The incident record should be that is considered to significant to the
pupil’s growth and development.
■ The exact behavior of the student should be recorded inference, guesses
or assumption must be avoided, unless it signifies.
■ The record should be regarded as confidential. It should not fall into
■ They act as supplement for other records.
■ To stimulate the teacher to look to information.
■ To understand individual basic personality pattern and his reaction
■ The teacher is able to understand his pupil in a realistic manner.
■ It provides an opportunity for health pupil teacher relationship.
■ Helps the student to improve their behavior, as it is direct feedback
to an entire observed incident.
■ Can be used by student for self-appraisal.
Steps in anecdotal records
■ Getting cooperation
■ Length of detail
■ Preparing the circular
■ Producing the main narrative
■ Main file
■ Use of formative feedback.
■ Economical and easy to develop.
■ Provision of insight into total behavioral incident.
■ It help in clinical service practices.
■ They record critical incidents of spontaneous behavior in natural
■ They can be use as supplement to quantitative data.
■ They stimulate teacher to use in record and contribute to them.
■ Anecdotal records are subjective type. It is totally dependent on
teacher’s vision. Thus the chances of narrative being tax are higher.
While writing the anecdotal record, the event must be watched very
carefully so that the description is vivid, objective , impartial and brief.
■ Writing these records is a difficult task because of the spiraling
number of students in schools. Even if narratives are prepared for all
the students, then preserving them becomes difficult.
■ These accounts are available for either brilliant students or those who
are at the lower end of the ladder. Teachers hardly pay any attention
to the average level students.
■ These narratives by mentioning either good or bad deeds do not give aa
balanced account of student activities.
■ The most common and perhaps the easiest instrument in the
affective domain is to construct the checklist.
■ It is a prepared list of behavior or items. The presence or absence of
the behavior may be indicated by checking yes or no, or the type or
number of items may be indicated by inserting appropriate word or
1) Identify each of the specific actions desired in the performance.
2) Add to the list those actions that represent common errors (if they
are useful in the assessment, are limited in number , and can be
3) Arrange the desired actions in the approximate order in which they
are expected to occur.
4) Provide a simple procedure for checking each action as it occurs (or
for numbering the actions in sequence, if appropriate).
6. Peer appraisal
■ Peer assessment involves students taking responsibility for
assessing the work of their peers against set assessment criteria.
■ In some instances it is possible to have students rate their peers on
the same rating device used by the teacher.
■ At the conclusion of a students’ oral report before the class, for
example, the other students could rate the performance on a
standard rating form. The average of these rating forms is a good
indication of how group felt about student’s performance
Purpose of peer assessment
■ To enhance learning (for assessor and assessee)
■ To encourage student autonomy
■ To develop critical judgement
a. Guess who technique
■ Each student is presented with a series of brief behavior descriptions
and asked to name those students who best fit each description.
■ Who is best fit for each description.
■ May +ve or negative characteristic.
■ Here is some one who is always
■ Here is some one who is never friendly.
■ Nomination method.
■ To assess personal--- social development.
■ Appraising personality characteristic.
■ Also in creativity ,critical thinking &problem solving.
■ Usability at all age levels for different aspects of
b. Sociometric techniques
■ Useful for evaluating growth in social relation. Observing changes in
the social structure of a group.
■ Every group as learning laboratory.
■ I would like best to work with these children. -------------------------------------------
■ I would like best to play with these
Advantages of peer appraisal
■ Encourages student involvement and responsibility
■ Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills.
■ Provides more relevant feedback
■ Can reduce a lecturer's marking load
■ Can help reduce the ‘free rider’
Disadvantages of peer appraisal
■ Reluctance of one or more to participate in process
■ General dislike of assessing/judging friends
■ Character conflicts
■ Time consuming
■ Lack of evaluative/assessment skills
■ Lack of accuracy of peer grading
■ Legal issues relating to degree classification
Hemos actualizado su política de privacidad para cumplir con las cambiantes normativas de privacidad internacionales y para ofrecerle información sobre las limitadas formas en las que utilizamos sus datos.
Puede leer los detalles a continuación. Al aceptar, usted acepta la política de privacidad actualizada.