What is Teaching?
It is an act of imparting instructions to the learner in the classroom situation.
It is to cause the pupil to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skill and also desirable ways
of living in the society.
Thomas F. Green’s concept:
“Teaching is the task of teacher which is performed for the development of a child.”
“Teaching is a relationship which keeps the child to develop all his power.”
What is Learning?
Learning is said to be equivalent to change, modification, development, improvement and
“Learning is modification of behavior through experience”.
“The process of acquiring new knowledge and new responses is the process of learning.”
A plan or gaining success in activity.
Teaching learning strategies
Strategies which maximize opportunities for interaction.
According to Strasser: “Teaching strategy is generalized plan for a lesson or lessons which
includes structure, desired learner behavior, in terms of goals of instruction and an outline of
tactics necessary to implement the strategy”
According to B.O smith:
“Teaching strategy refers to a pattern of teaching acts that serves to attain certain outcomes”.
There are many strategies which enhance teaching and learning processes. Some of the
Question answer method
Assignment and presentation method
According to Perrott (1982):
In almost all lessons or learning sequences, the teacher has to present information and ideas. He
has to introduce topics, summarize the main points of the learning activity and stimulate further
learning. All these activities require the use of lecture-explanation techniques.
As Kauchak and Eggen (1988) concluded:
Lectures remain popular for several reasons as follows:
They are efficient; planning time is devoted to organizing the context. Less attention has
to be devoted to teaching strategy.
They are flexible and can be adapted to a wide range of subjects.
Most people can learn to lecture well enough to survive in a classroom. Lectures are
easier to learn than most other instructional strategies.
They are easier for teacher due to simply “telling” students about the subject.
So Lecture method also can be considered as a popular teaching model in different subjects. The
lecture model is the traditional style of teaching still found in many schools and colleges. This has
to be noted that the lecture method just like any other method is inappropriate as all-purpose
method, but it can serve many useful instructional functions. The lecture-explanation approach,
when used properly can inspire enthusiasm and capture the student imagination.
From the above discussion four main features can be suggested for the process of lecturing
The lecturer's intentions may be considered to provide coverage of a topic, to generate
understanding and to stimulate interest. Consideration of these goals of lecturing as also the
knowledge of the earlier learning of the students are essential constituents of lecture
A lecture sends a message verbally, extra verbally and non- verbally to the learners. The verbal
messages may consist of definitions, descriptions, examples, explanations or comments. The
'extra verbal' component is the lecturer's vocal qualities, hesitations, errors and use of pauses
and silence. The ‘nonverbal’ component consists of the teacher's gestures, facial expressions. All
of these types of messages may be received by the students, and what they perceive as the
important messages may be noted.
3. Receipt of Information:
The information, meaning, and attitudes conveyed by the lecturer may or may not be perceived
by the students. Attention fluctuates throughout the process of lecture. The attention of
students can be increased if the lecture includes some short activities for students such as brief
small-group discussions or simple problem solving. Any change of activity may renew attention.
Therefore, the receipt of information is an important feature in the process of lecturing which
has to be considered by the instructor
Any instructional strategy should lead directly to the objectives and interrelated goals for a
course of study (Gropper, 1976). So the student’s response or “output” is very essential in the
process of lecturing and it may occur on immediate reactions to the lecture and the lecturer. But
more important than the immediately observable responses to n lecture are the long term
changes in student. A lecture may change a student's perception of a problem or theory, it may
increase a student's insight, and it may stimulate the student to read, think, and discuss ideas
with others. The probabilities of these events are depending upon the student's knowledge,
attitudes, and motivation to learn and on the lecturer's preparation, lecture structure and
Types of Lectures
Lowman (1987) has classified the major types of lectures as follows:
Formal Oral Essay:
This model can be considered as a highly polished kind of lecture that presents information
primarily to support a conclusion (Kyle, 1972). In this process the lecturer has reviewed and
selected from a large body of knowledge.
The theories, research studies, and arguments that support his conclusion. The most formal of
such lectures are written out and read to the students. Listening to one can be an emotionally
and intellectually significant experience but this kind of lecture is rarely used in teaching process
In this lecture the instructor does most of the talking, with only occasional questions from the
students. These lectures are less elaborately planned than oral essay.
There is more intention of provoking thought in this process. Here the teacher challenges
students' existing knowledge and values and helps them to form a more complex and integrated
Here the teacher encourages students to comment or express concern rather than simply raise
questions. The lecture-discussion class begins with the instructor speaking for few minutes and
then stimulating a few minutes of discussion around a key point in his remarks. During such
discussion the instructor offers brief clarification or integration between students comments, but
students do most of talking.
In this process the teacher stops to ask specific questions or requests students to read prepared
material aloud. But the teacher provides the questions and students share.
In this method, students follow short lectures by making their own observations, experiments,
or other independent work. This lecture is used in science as well as in studio art and writing
The proper perspective and orientation of a subject can be presented and the general
outline of scope of the subject can be brought out.
Many facts can be presented in a short time in an impressive way.
The lecture can stimulate very good interest in the subject.
Greater attention could be secured and maintained, as interest leads to attention.
Spoken word has greater weight than mute appeal by books.
The language may be made suitable to all the members of the audience.
Lecture can present a number of facts belonging to different subjects and also it can
facilitate inter-disciplinary approach to topics.
Disadvantages and Limitations
It is waste of time to repeat the matter already present in books.
The teacher to make the lecture impressive may care more for manner and style but
very little for matter or content.
If the lecture is very fast, the pupil cannot easily take notes and will not have any written
record of the salient points made out.
A lecture delivered in a style not easily understood by pupils will serve no purpose.
In the process of lecturing, the learners are more passive than be active in class.
The problem solving attitudes of pupils may disappear in the lecture method.
There is no cooperation and interaction between the teacher and pupils in lecture
Discussion Methods is an organized teaching/learning process. By this method, the class may be
arranged in groups or panels. The class may remain together to exchange views, opinions or
ideas on pre-determined topics. This is a method in which the students are actively involved if
the groups are in small numbers and heterogeneous.
The discussion groups may be in three forms, i.e., the whole class, small groups or a panel
discussion. The teacher should guide the students, ensuring that students speak only when
allowed, they learn to respect the views of others and they avoid personal or verbal attacks
during and after discussions.
Types of Discussion method
PanelDiscussion:This is a discussion in which a few persons carry on a conversation in
front of audience.
FormalDiscussion: In this type of discussion class is divided into small groups. A topic
is given to all groups. Each group selects its leader and divide responsibilities in all group
members. Students participate in the discussion in form of groups.
Informal Discussion: In this type of discussion a topic is given by the teacher to
students. All the class participates in discussion. Grouping is not done in the class. Every
student has a chance to speech.
ParliamentaryDiscussion: In this type of discussion the whole class is divided into two
groups. One group is in the favor of the topic and other is in the opposite. Teacher guide
the students whenever necessary.
Students are encouraged to listen, think, analyze and evaluate points made.
Students learn from one another.
Students have opportunity to practice oral communication skills.
Students get training in respecting other people’s views.
It gives students training in looking for facts on their own.
Not all topics are amenable to this method. For instance, it is not very suitable for
mathematics, technical drawing or the sciences, in general.
Brighter students may show off while shy or weaker ones may find it difficult to argue
It is not ideal for a large group.
Question-Answer Method of Teaching
Question answer teaching strategy is an old strategy also known as “Socratic Method of
teaching”. It was developed by the famous philosopher Socrates.
According to Parke, “the question is the key to all educative activity above the habit-skill level. It
strategy is focused on to achieve the cognitive objectives and bringing knowledge to the
It has the following principle:
Theory of unfoldment, all knowledge is within the child, teacher cannot teach any ting
The knowledge can be emitted by linking the questions with his answers.
Steps of Question-Answer Method
To prepare questions and arrange them in a logical sequence.
To present the questions in such a way that curiosity arises among the learners.
To ask new questions by linking with the learners response.
While asking questions, the teacher keeps in mind the abilities, needs and interest of the
It involves the learners’ participation towards the subject matter and in teaching acts.
It helps in achieving cognitive objectives and bringing knowledge at conscious level.
Classroom verbal interaction is encouraged.
It is a useful strategy at all the levels of education.
It is difficult to prepare good questions, and arrange them logically.
The whole content-matter cannot be taught by this strategy.
The teacher wants the structured answers from the learners. There is no freedom for
WHAT IS COOPERATIVE LEARNING?
Teaching practices that provide opportunities to students to learn together in small groups are
known as Cooperative Learning. Cooperative Learning is children learning together in groups,
which are structured so that group members have to cooperate to succeed.
Students work together to learn and are responsible for their team-mates' learning as well as
their own. Cooperative Learning improves students' communication skills and enhances their
ability to be successful in the world of work and to live in the society.
During cooperative learning activities, each member of a team is responsible not only for
learning what is taught but also for helping team-mates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of
achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully
understand and complete it.
In cooperative learning students will:
Gain from each other's efforts.
Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.
Understand that all group members share in the outcome.
We all sink or swim together.
Know that how well you do is the result of both individual and team performance.
We cannot do it without you.
Elements for cooperative learning
Students must fully participate and put forth effort within their group.
Each group member has a task/role/responsibility therefore must believe that they are
responsible for their learning and that of their group.
Face-to-face promotive interaction:
Members promote each other's success.
Students explain to one another what they have or are learning and assist one another
with understanding and completion of assignments.
Individual and group accountability:
Each student must demonstrate mastery of the content being studied.
Each student is accountable for their learning and work, therefore eliminating "social
Social skills that must be taught in order for successful cooperative learning to occur.
Skills include effective communication, interpersonal and group skills.
Group processing occurs when group members (a) reflect on which member actions
were helpful and (b) make decision about which actions to continue or change.
The purpose of group processing is to clarify and improve the effectiveness with which
members carry out the processes necessary to achieve the group's goals.
More positive relationships and a wider circle of friends.
Greater intrinsic motivation.
Greater social support.
More on-task behavior.
Better attitudes toward teachers.
Better attitudes toward school.
Students are motivated to help one another learn.
Students are able to translate the teacher's language into "student language" for one
Not all students work well with others, and may cause conflict within a group. This can
potentially sabotage a cooperative learning environment.
Not all lessons are ideal for group work. Easy or straightforward concepts may not be as
interesting or successful in a cooperative learning assignment.
Groups will finish at different times. This can add a layer of classroom management
complexity for the instructor.
Cooperative learning groups can create a level of noise within the classroom that the
teacher might not be comfortable with, or know how to manage well.
Some students may not do their fair share of work, or certain students may monopolise
the task. This can lead to challenging grading situations for the teacher.
Studentsare required to prepare and maintain course
A student portfolio is a compilation of academic work and other forms of educational evidence
assembled for the purpose of
Evaluating coursework quality, learning progress, and academic achievement
Determining whether students have met learning standards or other academic
requirements for courses, grade-level promotion, and graduation
Helping students reflect on their academic goals and progress as learners
Creating a lasting archive of academic work products, accomplishments, and other
Advocates of student portfolios argue that compiling, reviewing, and evaluating student work
over time can provide a richer, deeper, and more accurate picture of what students have learned
and are able to do than more traditional measures—such as standardized tests, quizzes, or final
exams—that only measure what students know at a specific point in time.
Portfolios come in many forms, from notebooks filled with documents, notes, and graphics to
online digital archives and student created websites, and they may be used at the elementary,
middle, and high school levels.
The following arguments areoften made by educators who advocatefor the useof por tfolios in
Portfolios can help teachers monitor and evaluate learning progress over time.
Tests and quizzes give teachers information about what students know at a particular point in
time, but portfolios can document how students have grown, matured, and improved as learners
over the course of a project, school year, or multiple years. For this reason, some educators
argue that portfolios should not just be compilations of a student’s best work, but rather they
should include evidence and work products that demonstrate how students improved over time.
For example, multiple versions of an essay can show how students revised and improved their
work based on feedback from the teachers or their peers.
Portfolios can encourage students to take moreownership and responsibility over the
In some schools, portfolios are a way for students to evaluate their own work and academic
progress, often during the process of deciding what will be included in their portfolios. Because
portfolios document learning growth over time, they can help students reflect on where they
started a course, how they developed, and where they ended up at the conclusion of the school
year. When reviewing a portfolio, teachers may also ask students to articulate the connection
between particular work products and the academic expectations and goals for a course. For
these reasons, advocates of portfolios often recommend that students be involved in
determining what goes into a portfolio, and that teachers should not unilaterally make the
decisions without involving students. For related discussions, see student engagement and
Portfolios can improve communication between teachers and parents.
Portfolios can also help parents become more informed about the education and learning
progress of their children, what is being taught in a particular course, and what students are
doing and learning in the classroom. Advocates may also contend that when parents are more
informed about and engaged in their child’s education, they can play a more active role in
supporting their children at home, which could have a beneficial effect on academic
achievement and long-term student outcomes.
Five Steps to Building a Student Portfolio
Set a Purpose for the Portfolio: First, you need to decide what the purpose of the
portfolio is. Is it going to be used to show student growth or identify specific skills? Are
you looking for a concrete way to quickly show parents student achievement, or are you
looking for a way to evaluate your own teaching methods?
DetermineHow You Will You Grade it: Next, you will need to establish how you are going
to grade the portfolio. If your school district doesn't require portfolios, would the student
receive extra credit for it, or can you otherwise incorporate it into your lesson plan? Are
all your students going to create portfolios, or just those seeking extra credit, or who
want to track their work?
Decide What Will be Included: There are three main types of student portfolios:
Which usually include specific pieces that students are required to know, such as work that
correlates with the Common Core Learning Standards
Which include whatever the student is currently working on
Which showcase the best work the student produces
If you want the student to use the portfolio as a long-term project and include various pieces
throughout the year, be sure to assign it early enough in the semester.
Choose Paper or Digital: Digital portfolios are great because they are easily accessible,
easy to transport and easy to use. Today's students are tuned into the latest must have
technology, and electronic portfolios or personal websites are part of that.
Factor In Student Involvement: How much you involve the students in the portfolio
depends upon the students' age. While older students should be able to follow
instructions about how to build their portfolio and what's expected, younger students
may need more guidance and reminders.
Learner centered methods (do it yourself)
The Assignment method is the most common method of teaching especially in teaching of
Science. It is a technique which can be usually used in teaching and learning process. It is an
instructional technique comprises the guided information, self-learning, writing skills and report
preparation among the learners. The Assignment method is an important step in teaching and
Objectives of Assignment Method
It provides good training for information seeking and retrieval behavior.
It inculcates the self-learning attitude among the students.
It provides information analysis and research attitude to the learners.
It develops the learning experiences from various sources.
Steps / Stages in Assignment
The assignment must be Lesson concerned and related with the text books and
The topic / unit of the assignment must be explained with the availability of resources.
The core of the subject or unit must be clarified.
The hard and difficult portions of the assignment need to be explained well.
The topics / units irrelevant to the assignments must be defined very well.
The questions and answers for the assignment provided to the learners must comprise
The questions must investigate the learners / students attitude.
The answers must be simple and smaller in nature.
The questions must allocate space for diagrammatic illustrations by the students
The questions can provide experimental work and tools for the students.
The references and bibliography must be annexed by the students.
Types of Assignment
Page or Paragraph Assignment:
This assignment deal with the frequently used topic / unit in Text books. Usually
assignment confines with a page or few paragraphs only. It is the method of instant
answering or reporting in learning activities.
This is somewhat broader than the page or paragraph assignment. Its scope confines
with a chapter in the text book or a specific topic / unit to be described in the Text books.
Generally this assignment based on the contents of the chapter of a lesson hence it is
called as chapter assignment.
In order to solve a problem through scientific method this type of assignments were
given to the students. The problem solving is its primary objective. The students are
trained to learn the problem solving process through this assignment method. This
type of assignment is considered as exclusive one.
Individual or Group report Assignment:
This assignment has given to bring out the actual capabilities of a student or a group
of students. It helps to promote the cooperative learning and information seeking
behavior among the students. It is considered as one of the special methods to
develop and promote the individual’s learning experiences.
This type of assignment is usually given in mathematics. This is given to the students
to reinforce their memory skills and retention of the concepts. The repeated
exercises can be given through this assignment. Memorizing poems, tables, theorem
etc., can be done through this method.
Fundamental Elements of Assignments
Assignments must be clear and well defined.
It should be precise as well as having sufficient information enable to complete the task
by all students.
Students must have a proper understanding about the assignments.
Students need to understand the importance of assignments.
Assignments proposed must be interesting enable to complete within the stipulated time
by the students.
Assignments must balance the skills and interests of the students as well as with their age
Assignment must enhance the interest in learning experiences of the students.
Assignments proposed must consider the individual differences of the students and their
time management skills.
Library and laboratory facilities are mandatory for completion of assignments.
Provides opportunity in self-learning for the students.
Better learning experiences will be gained when combined with other science teaching
Teachers interruption is very much reduced and the students’ active participation is
Teacher acts as a role of guide only.
The information seeking and retrieval behaviour is developed among the students.
It gives better understanding in scientific method and projects.
This provides better feed back and gives exact solution for the problems faced by the
student in the learning process.
The learning by doing aspect in this assignment method promotes the self confidence
and self respect of each and every student engaged in assignment work.
Additional bibliographic information and references provide a good in depth knowledge
among the students in the subject they work.
For the Teachers:
It is time consuming and burden process.
Teacher has to collect the information from various sources before assigning the work to
Work burden extends in holidays too.
Teacher has to prepare the same at his own risk of time and money.
There are divergent group of students in a class, it poses problems for teacher assigning a
unique or uniform topic for assignment.
The success of the assignment method largely depends on library and laboratory facilities
provided for the teacher as well as students.
The teacher has to examine the copy work and eliminate it. The slow learners need much
more attention from the teacher. Again it gives more burden for the teacher.
For the Students:
The time limit given threatens the students which makes the substandard work.
The slow learners stay behind.
They tend to copy others works. It is found hard for the students having little scientific
The report writing is little bit costly.
It is one of the modern methods of teaching in which the students’ point of view is given
importance in designing the curricula and content of studies. This method is based on the
philosophy of Pragmatism and the principle of Learning by Doing. In this strategy students
perform constructive activities in natural condition. It demands work from the pupils.
According to W.H.Kilpatrick: “A project is a whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a
This teaching strategy focus on
To socialize a child.
To achieve cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives.
Principle of Utility. Choose those projects which are closer to the social life.
Principle of readiness. Involve the learners in finding the solution of the problem with
their active participation.
Learning by Doing. Learner performs certain tasks and experiences new things. This adds
to his knowledge and results in learning.
Socialization. It develops the feeling of cooperation and group work.
Inter-disciplinary Approach. To involve the knowledge of different subjects in solving the
Types of Project method of teaching
Kilpatric has classified the project method in four types.
Constructive: When learners have to construct some things related to social life. e.g.
charts, models, maps, parcels etc.
Artistic: These projects are generally allotted in the aesthetic fields of life. e.g. in music,
drawing, painting art and culture.
Problem-Solving: These projects are given to solve the problems related to any life-
situation or related to any subject e.g. how to operate bank accounts? Or how to send an
email or letter. These general problems if solved, will make a child efficient for social-life.
Group-Work: A team of students is assigned a work to be performed. e.g. to develop a
garden in the school.
It helps in developing social norms and social values among the learners.
It provides invaluable opportunities for correlation of various elements of the subject
matter and for transfer of training or learning.
It helps in growing knowledge very effectively as a results of their close cooperation on
social participation in the spirit of democracy.
The project cannot be planned for all subjects and whole subject matter cannot be taught by
It is not economical from the point of view of time and cost.
It is very difficult for a teacher to plan or to execute the projects to the learners and supervise
Development of test items
Designing tests is an important part of assessing students understanding of course content and
their level of competency in applying what they are learning. The test constructed by teachers
may be classified:
Objective test: It includes:
The short answer items:
The short answer items require pupils to supply the appropriate word, number, or
symbol to a direct to a direct question or incomplete statement. It can be used for
measuring simple knowledge outcomes and problem solving ability in science and
It is stated that a short answer type is between an essay type test and an objective test.
1. what does a thermometer measures? (Temperature)
2. what is the square root of 64? (8)
Easy to construct.
It is good to assess lowest level of learning(knowledge).
Guessing is not possible as pupils supply the answer not selection.
It is not suitable for measuring complex learning outcomes.
There is difficulty of scoring when answers are given with varying degree of correctness.
The true false items:
It is a selection type test. Students are required to select one of the two possible answers
in the form of
True or false
Right or wrong
Yes or no
1.London is the capital of France. ( T/ F )
2.Mecca is in Saudi Arabia. ( T/ F)
Easy to construct.
High degree of objectivity is possible.
Copying is possible.
It cannot measure complex learning outcomes.
They are frequently ambiguous.
The matching exercise:
It consist of two parallel columns of phrases, numbers, words, or symbols that must be
matched. It a selection type test.
Capital city country
It measures the large amount of materials in short time.
It can be easily constructed.
It generally provides clues.
Homogeneous material is difficult to find.
Multiple choice questions (MCQ’s):
The MCQ’s consists of a list of alternative solutions. OR one or more introductory sentences
which are called stem and a list of three or more choices. The pupil respond by selecting the
alternative that provides the correct or best solution to the problem. the incorrect
alternatives are called distracters because their purpose is to distract the pupil from correct
A large of course can be tested because examinee do not require much time for writing
They reduce the effort of guessing because there are more choices available
Students cannot express their ideas or solutions.
They cannot measure attitudes or motor skills which need active performance and
Time consuming. Require more time to construct.
Essay questions provide the freedom of response that is needed to adequately assess student’s
ability. Students express their ideas and discuss the topic in detail consists of several paragraphs.
Forms of Essay test:
Restricted response test: This usually limits both the content and the response. The
content is restricted by the scope of the topic to be discussed. Basically students are
bound or restricted.
Extended response test: This is consists of open ended questions. Freedom is given to the
pupils to demonstrate their ability to express their ideas. It measure complex learning
outcomes ad copying is difficult.
Merits of Essay test:
Abilities like logical thinking, critical reasoning can be best evaluated.
Help the students to organize their ideas, o criticize or justify a statement.
Relatively easier to administer essay tests.
Measure complex learning outcomes.
Time consuming both for the students and teachers.
Some examiners are too liberals in marking and some too strict.
The speed of writing may influence the performance of the students.
Here are a few general guidelines for developing test items:
Consider your reasons for testing.
Will this quiz monitor the students’ progress?
Will ongoing quizzes serve to motivate students?
The reasons for giving a test will help you determine features such as length, format,
level of detail required in answers, and the time frame for returning results to the
Maintain consistency between goals for the course, methods of teaching, and the tests used to
measure achievement of goals..
Use testing methods that are appropriate to learning goals.
For example, a multiple choice test might be useful for demonstrating memory and recall, for
example, but it may require an essay or open-ended problem-solving for students to
demonstrate more independent analysis or synthesis.
Help Students prepare.
Most students will assume that the test is designed to measure what is most important for them
to learn in the course. You can help students prepare for the test by clarifying course goals as
well as reviewing material. This will allow the test to reinforce what you most want students to
learn and retain.
Use consistent language.
If you want to use words like explain or discuss, be sure that you use them consistently and that
students know what you mean when you use them.
Design test items that allow students to show a range of learning.
That is, students who have not fully mastered everything in the course should still be able to
demonstrate how much they have learned.
Assessing your test
Regardless of the kind of exams you use, you can assess their effectiveness by asking yourself
some basic questions:
Did I test for what I thought I was testing for?
If you wanted to know whether students could apply a concept to a new situation, but mostly
asked questions determining whether they could label parts or dene terms, then you tested for
recall rather than application.
For example, your questions may have tested the students’ understanding of surface features or
procedures, while you had been lecturing on causation or relation–not so much what the names
of the bones of the foot are, but how they work together when we walk.
Did I test for what I emphasized in class?
Make sure that you have asked most of the questions about the material you feel is the most
important, especially if you have emphasized it in class. Avoid questions on obscure material that
are weighted the same as questions on crucial material.
Is the material I tested for really what I wanted students to learn?
For example, if you wanted students to use analytical skills such as the ability to recognize
patterns or draw inferences, but only used true-false questions requiring non-inferential recall,
you might try writing more complex true-false or multiple-choice questions.
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