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Industrial Summer Training Report at Construction Site of CPWD

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Construction of Police Station Khajuri Khas, Near Sonia Vihar, Delhi (SH: C/o Police Station Building, Electric sub Station & External Development Work i.e. Internal Electrical Installations)

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Industrial Summer Training Report at Construction Site of CPWD

  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is indeed a great pleasure and privilege to present this report on training at CPWD.I am extremely grateful to my training and placement officer for issuing a Trainingletter, whichmade my training possible at CPWD,Delhi.I would like to express my gratitude to Er P R CHARAN BABU for his invaluablesuggestions, motivation,guidance and support through out the training.Hismethodology to start from simple ant then deepen through made me to bring outthis project report without anxiety.Thanks to all other CPWDofficials, operators and all other members of CPWD, yetuncounted for their help in completing the project and see the light of success.I am very thankful to friends, colleagues and all other persons who rendered theirassistance directly or indirectly to complete this project work successfully.I extended my due thanks to Er. VINOD who gave mevaluable time and suggestions andguide me a lot at various stages of my Summer Training.Dated- July 2012ALOK MISHRACentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 3
  5. 5. 1.INTRODUCTIONABOUTThe Central Public Works Department of India is a Central Government owned authority thatis in charge of public sector works in the country. Central Public Works Department (CPWD)under Ministry of Urban Development is entrusted with construction and maintenance ofbuildings for most of the Central Government Departments, Public undertakings andautonomous bodies.In the Indian History both pre and post independence - CPWD has a glorious era of more than 150 yearwith dedicated, energetic and committed corps of Engineers and Architects. Before being re-structured toits present form in 1930 “Central Public Works Department” originated in July 1854 when the GovernorGeneral of India decided to set up a Central Agency:“to exercise universal control over public works in India with best of scientific knowledge withauthority & system”.Central Public Works Department, Delhi is the premier agency of Govt. of India engaged inplanning, designing, construction and maintenance of Government assets in the field of builtenvironment and infrastructure development. Assets in built environment include Hospitals,Schools, Colleges, Technical Institutes, Police Buildings, Prisons, Courtsetc; assets ininfrastructure development include Roads, Bridges, Flyovers, Footpaths, Subways etc.CPWD Delhi also sustains and preserves these assets through a well developed system ofmaintenance which includes amongst others specialized services like rehabilitation works, roadssignage and aesthetic treatments like interiors, monument lighting, landscaping.MISSIONCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 5
  6. 6. 1. Sound Planning and Design 2. Engineered Construction 3. Effective Maintenance 4. Benchmarking the Standards 5. Capacity Building 6. Public Private Partnership 7. Manpower Planning 8. Transparency in Management1.Sound Planning and DesignCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 6
  7. 7. 1. All building norms and specifications to be standardized.2. Architectural and structural design to be undertaken in-house as far as possible.3. Detailed planning of all services to make the buildings operational in all respects.4. Architectural and structural designs to be coordinated to evolve an efficient building system compliant with latest Indian Standards.2.Engineered Construction1. Standardization of different building elements including theirpre-fabrication, mechanization in construction, use ofinnovative materials and technologies adopting clean developmentmechanism resulting in conservation of energy and natural resources.3.Effective MaintenanceCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 7
  8. 8. 1. To preserve and maintain buildings and services in good operating condition.2. To improve the specifications depending upon the development that is taking place in the built environment.4.Benchmarking the Standards1.Updation of Specifications and standards for public works includingDelhi Schedule of Rates, Analysis of Rates, Works and MaintenanceManual on regular basis. 5.Capacity Building1. Updatingtechnical knowledge of engineers, architects by effective training and participation in seminars, workshops etc.2. Effective training to develop managerial skills and handling public grievances so that engineers, architects and horticulturists become development managers for tomorrow.3. Target oriented training to workers on contemporary skills and behaviouralCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 8
  9. 9. science to improve service delivery mechanism.6.Public Private Partnership 1. To undertake contract or concession agreement with private sector company for delivering General Pool Residential Accommodation and General Pool Office Accommodation on payment of user charges to:- (1) Increase the stock of dwelling units thereby providing housing to government employees. (2) Increase the office space thereby providing comfortable working environment to government employees7.Manpower Planning1. To provide the manpower of CPWD with professional environment, excellent working opportunities and state of art technology.2. To provide performance and ability based approach to career development as perpolicy of the Government.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 9
  10. 10. 8.Transparency in Management of Works1. e- tendering shall be introduced.2. Effective use of websites in discharge of regulatory, enforcement and the functions shall be introduced through integrated computerization.3. Web based work progress monitoring system shall be introduced.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 10
  11. 11. CENTRAL DESIGN ORGANISATION (CDO)CDO was created in the year 1969 with a view to provide higher level of design inputs inmulti-storeyed projects which could not be handled by the design units under ChiefEngineers. As pressures on availability of land increased, CPWD could utilize the servicesof CDO for high rise built habitats and complex projects such as jetties and bridges. CDOhas provided its services to over 350 projects in CPWD and 35 projects in last four yearsalone. Important projects designed by CDO are Parliament Library Complex, ParliamentAnnexe Building, National Gallery of Modern Art, National Museum, Supreme CourtExtension, National Stadium, and Afghan Parliament in Kabul, Lal Bahadur ShastriNational Academy of Administration Mussoorie, and Hall of States ITPO etc.At present, Central Designs Organisation has the responsibility of structural design ofcomplex structures (with structural cost over Rs. 25 Crores) incorporating state of artengineering practices and technology. It is also responsible for contributing to theconsultation process of BIS for framing new Codes and handbooks and thus settingstandards for the Construction Industry as a whole. CDO also offers its services inpreparing several technical documents/reports such as Handbook on Seismic Retrofitting,Design Manuals, Fly ash utilization guidelines, and seismic assessment reports of criticalgovernment buildings. CDO also develops computer aided design and planning softwaresuch as Integrated Analysis & Design of Buildings (IADB).Important projects beingdesigned in CDO at present are Extension to Parliament Annexe Building, IndiraCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 11
  12. 12. ParyavaranBhawan, New Campus for Supreme Court, NWAI Jetty at Kolkata and Guwahati,Underground Parking for NirmanBhawan, and AG Office Building Lucknow.CDO is headed by the Chief Engineer (Designs) who is responsible for the overalladministrative and technical control of the unit. Four Superintending Engineers directlyreport to the C.E (Designs). S.Es are the direction officers for control, coordination andexecution of all tasks related to modelling analysis, design, detailing and drafting ofstructural drawings. Out of four Superintending Engineers, one is in-charge of ComputerCell CPWD responsible for e-Governance in the department. Each SE has three ExecutiveEngineer (Designs) reporting to him, who is responsible for all modelling, design anddrafting tasks and preparing design proposals. Each EE is assisted by a small team of AsstExecutive Engineers/ Asst Engineers, Junior Engineers and Draughtsmen. CDO is mannedby civil engineers having experience in structural design.All design and drafting work in CDO is fully computerised. Design and analysis is done byusing softwares such as STAAD, eTABS, STRUDS, SAP, STAADFoundation etc. Draftingwork is done through AUTOCAD using heavy duty full size HP drafter plotters. Computingis done through high end Intel Core i7 – 2600 Processors.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 12
  13. 13. Computer Cell, CDOThe CPWD is determined to use IT to usher in era of e-Gov to simplify processes, bringingin transparency, accountability, efficiency; effectiveness and need based timely and qualityinformation to all its stakeholders, and to use the available resources more effectively.The CDO unit of CPWD has been entrusted this job. Many steps towards e-Gov initiativeshave already been taken e.g. PIMS for HR management, including training module andmonitoring of PG and VIP references; web based project monitoring system for monitoringphysical and financial progress of the projects, access to client to view the progress of theprojects and also to furnish the remarks; CPWDSEWA in Delhi & NCR and being extended for PAN India for maintenance relatedcomplaints management; enlistment for class one contractors; and CPWD website forpublishing all circulars and OMs and other information. 2. PROJECT OVERVIEWCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 13
  14. 14. NAME of WORK:Construction of Police Station KhajuriKhas, Near Sonia Vihar,Delhi (SH: C/o Police Station Building, Electric sub Station & ExternalDevelopment Work i.e. Internal Electrical Installations)AGREEMENT NO. : 03/EE/CD-III/2011-12NAME OF CONTRACTOR: M/S ROSHAN REAL ESTATES PVT LTD.PLOT SIZE:5984Sqm. AreaESTIMATED COST: Civil Work- Rs 6, 01, 47,287/-Elec. Work- Rs 24, 75,332/-Rs 6, 26, 22,609/-TENDERED COST: Civil Work- Rs 6, 57, 88,182/-Elec. Work- Rs 28, 69,490/-Rs 6, 86, 57,672/-DATE OF START: 04-08-2011STIPULATED DATE OFCOMPLETION: 02-08-2012ACTUAL DATE OF Work is Under ProgressCOMPLETION:(80% Work is Completed)TIME ALLOWED : 365 DaysCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 14
  15. 15. Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 15
  16. 16. 3.SITE LOCATION:-“Police Station& Staff Quarters at KhajuriKhas near Sonia Vihar, New Delhi”Advantages of this site:- 1. Land 2. Store 3. Health unit 4. Car parking stand 5. Canteen 6. Connectivity of the yard 7. Ease of transportation FacilitiesCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 16
  17. 17. 4. FORMWORKFormwork is a mould or die used to support and shape the concrete until it attains sufficient tocarry its own weight. The formwork holds the concrete until it hardens to required shape andsize.SIGNIFICANCE OF FORMWORK1) Formwork constitutes 30% of the cost and 60% of the time in concrete construction.2) Quality of concrete finish and soundness of concrete depends very much on the formworksystem3) Desired shape of concrete is not possible if formwork not done properly.4) Formwork should be properly designed, fabricated and erected to receive concrete.5) Accidents happen because of the faulty formwork and scaffolding or staging.SAFETY IN USING FORMWORK:-1) Components are light in weight for manual handling.2) Loose or hanging components are minimal.3) Appropriate use of tools.4) Minimum operations are involved in each reuse.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 17
  18. 18. TYPES OF FORMWORK1) Flex system2) Quick deck system3)Aluform system4) Flex table formworkCuring work and refilling of earth around footing.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 18
  19. 19. Workers on a construction site building.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 19
  20. 20. Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 20
  21. 21. CURING V/S COMRESSIVE STRENGTHCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 21
  22. 22. COLUMN CONSTRUCTION WORKCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 22
  23. 23. 6.PLANNINGCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 23
  24. 24. Planning of a CPWD Project mainly includes:- Pre-requisites for execution of work. Deposit works Preparation of estimates. Execution of original work. Expenditure on survey, exhibition. Register of buildings. Green building norms. Preparation and accounting of Standard Measurement book. Preparation and passing bills for payment. Documentation of accounts. General departmental charges. Contracts and forms. Preparation of tender documents. Publicity of tenders Sale of documents Earnest money. Issue of material to contractors. Issue of tool and plant. Payment to contractors Insurance Losses or damages. Budgeting Quality assurance and technical audit wing. Inspection and Audit by Chief Controller. Public accounts committee.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 24
  25. 25. 6. SEQUENCE OF STRUCTURE WORK Site clearance Demarcation of site Positioning of central coordinate i.e. (0,0,0) as per grid plan Surveying and layout Excavation Bar binding and placement of foundation steel Shuttering and scaffolding Concreting Electrical and plumbingCONSTRUCTION PROCESS AND MATERIAL USED:-SITE CLEARANCE-A number of conditions determine the kind of building that may be erected on a plot of ground.These conditions may determine where on the lot it may be located. There are also covenantsthat are legally binding regulations. These may, for example, set the minimum size of a house,prohibit utility buildings, or ban rooftop television antennas.Zoning laws regulate the setback and other factors that play into the equation of house locationon a lot. Septic tanks also require special consideration.A Certificate of Occupancy is an important piece of paper. Itis the final piece of paper, the sign-off, that says the constructionof the building is complete and it is ready to be occupied. Any town that has adopted the BOCAor UBC building codes requires a CO. In most instances, the bank making the mortgage loanrequires a certificate of occupation as well.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 25
  26. 26. CONCRETE:-There are eight types of Portland cement. They are designated by Roman numerals and with anA suffix on three of themNormal concrete is made of fine aggregates (sand) and regularaggregates (crushed stone orgravel), plus water. Concrete will set up hard enough in normal weather in about 3 hours.However, it takes 28 days for it to reach its fullest strength. Concrete may have admixtures. TheRomans added lard, blood, milk, and other materials to make the concrete more workable.There are at least 6 known admixtures.Normal concrete contains a small amount of air by adding anair-entrainment admixture, theamount of air in the concrete can be increased by 10 percent or more by volume. By using anaccelerator, it is possible to have concrete reach its 28-day full strength in only 7 days. Calciumchloride is the most common accelerator. Pozzolonas are natural volcanic ash or artificialmaterials that react with lime in the wet concrete to form cementing compounds. Fly ash is aby-product of coal-burning power generating stations.Romansobtained fly ash from Mount Vesuvius eruptions. Fully loaded concrete mixer trucksmay weigh as much as 80,000 lbs, or 40 tons. If the mixer can’t get close enough to unload theconcrete where needed, it is necessary to use chutes, mixer-mounted conveyors, motorizedbuggies, or wheelbarrows.Another term for rebar is deformed steel bar. This is the steel reinforcement used in concreteto increase its tensile strength. Three types of bar support material are available: wire, precastconcrete, and moulded plastic. Rebar is supported by chairs made of plastic or welded wire.Welded-wire fabric (WWF) looks like fencing and is manufactured with plain or deformed cold-drawn wire.Slump is a measure of how consistent, fluid, and workable a batch of freshly mixed concrete is.Any change in the slump may mean that the amount of water, the temperature, hydration, orsetting has changed. Slump is a measure of the amount of water in the mix.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 26
  27. 27. FoundationsThough the foundation supports a building, the earth is the ultimate support. The foundation isa system comprising foundation wall, footing, and soil. The prime purpose of an efficientstructural foundation system is to transmit the building loads directly to the soil withoutexceeding the bearing capacity of the soil. A properlyDesigned and constructed foundation system transfers the loads uniformly, minimizessettlement, and anchors the structure against racking forces and uplift. Because soil type andbearing capacity are the crucial factors in the foundation system, the foundation must bedesigned and built as a system. Too many residential foundations are designed and builtwithout any concern for the soil.Types of FoundationsThe many types of foundations can be separated into two broad groups: shallow foundationsand deep foundations. Shallow foundations consist of four types: deep basements (8-footwalls), crawl spaces, slabs-on-grade, and frost-protected shallow foundations. They includespread footings, mat or raft footings, long footings, and strap footings.Deep foundations extend considerably deeper into the earth.They include drilled caissons or piers, groups of piles driven and cast-in-place concrete piles,and floating foundations.A number of different construction systems can be used. Casting- place concrete is the mostwidely used material for residential foundations, followed by concrete block. Other methodsinclude precast foundation walls, cast-in-place concrete sandwich panels, and masonry orconcrete piers, all weather wood foundations (AWWF), which are now called permanent woodfoundations (PWF), or preserved.Wood foundations in Canada. Expanded polystyrene (EPS)Blocks, polyurethane blocks, andother similar systems using EPS blocks filled with concrete are also used.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 27
  28. 28. FOOTINGSFootings (which may be square, rectangular, or circular) are strips of concrete or filled concreteblocks placed under the foundation wall. Gravel or crushed stone footings are used with PWFs.The purpose of the footings is to transfer the loads from walls, piers, or columns to the soil. Thespread footing is the most common type used to support walls, piers, or columns. The NationalConcrete Masonry Association (NCMA) has developed a system of solid.Pile foundation systemsFoundations relying on driven piles often have groups of piles connected by a Pile cap (a large concreteblock into which the heads of the piles are embedded) to distribute loads which are larger than onepile can bear. Pile caps and isolated piles are typically connected with grade beams to tie the foundationelements together; lighter structural elements bear on the grade beams while heavier elements beardirectly on the pile cap.Monopile foundationA monopile foundation utilizes a single, generally large-diameter, foundation structural element tosupport all the loads (weight, wind, etc.) of a large above-surface structure.Dried PilesAlso called caissons, drilled shafts, drilled piers, Cast-in-drilled-hole piles (CIDH piles)or Cast-in-Situ piles. Rotary boring techniques offer larger diameter piles than any other piling method and permitpile construction through particularly dense or hard strata. Construction methods depend on the geologyof the site. In particular, whether boring is to be undertaken in dry ground conditions or through water-logged but stable strata - i.e. wet boring.Wet boring also employs a temporary casing through unstable ground and is used when the pile borecannot be sealed against water ingress. Boring is then undertaken using a digging bucket to drill throughthe underlying soils to design depth. The reinforcing cage is lowered into the bore and concrete is placedby tremie pipe, following which, extraction of the temporary casing takes place.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 28
  29. 29. Under reamed pilesUnderreamed piles have mechanically formed enlarged bases that have been as much as 6 m indiameter. The form is that of an inverted cone and can only be formed in stable soils. The larger basediameter allows greater bearing capacity than a straight-shaft pile.Augercast pileAn augercast pile, often known as a CFA pile, is formed by drilling into the ground with a hollow stemmedcontinuous flight auger to the required depth or degree of resistance. No casing is required.Augercast piles cause minimal disturbance, and are often used for noise and environmentally sensitivesites. Augercast piles are not generally suited for use in contaminated soils, due to expensive wastedisposal costs. In cases such as these however a displacement pile may provide the cost efficiency of anaugercast pile and minimal environmental impact. In ground containing obstructions or cobbles andboulders, augercast piles are less suitable as refusal above the design pile tip elevation may beencountered. In certain cases drill motors that produce more torque and horsepower may be able tomitigate these events.Specialty Piles: 1. Micro piles 2. Tripod piles 3. Sheet piles 4. Soldier piles 5. Suction Piles 6. Ad freeze PilesCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 29
  30. 30. Types of shallow foundations:Interlocking concrete blocks called IDR footer-blocks. The minimum width of the footing isbased on the foundation wall thickness. An 8-inch thick foundation wall would have an 8-inchwide footing. However, footings are made wider than the foundation wall, and the extra widthprojects (or cantilevers) equally beyond each side of the wall.Contrary to widespread belief, the purpose of footings is not for spreading out and distributingthe loads to the soil. The extra width is used to support the wall forms while the concrete ispoured, or as a base for concrete masonry blocks or brick.Finishing and Curing ConcreteWhen working with concrete, certain methods and techniques must be employed to ensure thebest finished product. This chapter discusses the following: 1) Screeding 2) Tamping and jitterbugging 3) Finishing (including Floating, Troweling,Brooming, Grooving, and Edging) 4) Curing (including curing time and curing methods)1)ScreedingTo screed is to strike-off or level slab concrete after pouring. Generally, all the dry materialsused in making quality concrete are heavier than water. Thus, shortly after placement, thesematerials will have a tendency to settle to the bottom and force any excess water to thesurface. This reaction is commonly called bleeding. This bleeding usually occurs with non–air-entrained concrete. It is of utmost importancethat the first operations of placing, screeding, and darbyingbe performed before any bleeding takes place.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 30
  31. 31. The concrete should not be allowed to remain in wheelbarrows, buggies, or buckets any longerthan is necessary. It should be dumped and spread as soon as possible and struck-off to theproper grade, then immediately struck-off, followed at once by darbying. These last twooperations should be performed before any free water is bled to the surface. The concreteshould not be spread over a large areabeforescreeding—nor should a large area be screeded and allowed to remain before darbying.If any operation is performed on the surface while the bleed water is present, serious scaling,dusting, or crazing can result. This point cannot be overemphasized and is the basic rule forsuccessful finishing of concrete surfaces.The surface is struck off or rodded by moving a straightedgeback and forth with a sawlike motion across the top of the forms or screeds. A small amount ofconcrete should always be kept ahead of the straightedge to fill in all the low spots andmaintain a plane surface. For most slab work, screeding is usually a two-person job because ofthe size of the slab.2)Tamping or JitterbuggingThe hand tamper or jitterbug is used to force the large particles of coarse aggregate slightlybelow the surface to enable the cement mason to pass a darby over the surface withoutdislodging any large aggregate. After the concrete has been struck-off or rodded (and, in somecases, tamped), it is smoothed with a darby to level any raised spots and fill depressions. Long-handled floats of either wood ormetal (called bull floats) are sometimes used instead of darbiesto smooth and level the surface.The hand tamper should be used sparingly and, in most cases,not at all. If used, it should be used only on concrete having a low slump (1 inch or less) tocompact the concrete into a dense mass. Jitterbugs are sometimes used on industrial floorconstruction because the concrete for this type of work usually has a very low slump, with themix being quite stiff and perhaps difficult to work.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 31
  32. 32. 3)FinishingWhen the bleed water and water sheen have left the surface of the concrete, finishing maybegin. Finishing may take one or more of several forms, depending on the type of surfacedesired.Finishing operations must not be overdone, or water under thesurface will be brought to the top. When this happens, a thin layer of cement is also brought upand later, after curing, the thin layer becomes a scale that will powder off with usage. Finishingcan be done by hand or by rotating power-driven trowels or floats. The size of the jobdetermines the choice, based on economy.The type of tool used for finishing affects the smoothness of the concrete. A wood float puts aslightly rough surface on the concrete.A steel (or other metal) trowel or float produces a smooth finish.Extra rough surfaces are given to the concrete by running a stiffbristled broom across the top.4)FloatingMost sidewalks and driveways are given a slightly roughened surface by finishing with a float.Floats may be small, hand-held tools , with the work done while kneeling on a board, orthey may be on long handles for working from the edge.shows a worker using a long-handled float, and showsthe construction details for making a float.When working from a kneeling board, the concrete must be stiff enough to support the boardand the worker’s weight without deforming.This will be within two to five hours from the time the surfacewater has left the concrete, depending on the type of roof.A roof includes the roof cover (the upper layer, which protectsagainst rain, snow, and wind) or roofing, the sheathing to which it is fastened, and the framing(rafters) that support the other components. Because of its exposure, roofing usually has alimited life. It is made to be readily replaceable. Roofing may be made of many widelydiversified materials, among which are the following:Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 32
  33. 33. 1) WoodThese are usually in the form of shingles (uniformmachine-cut) or shakes that are hand-cut. They are seen inMany areas of the country. 2) Metal or aluminiumSimulates other kinds of roofing. 3) Slatethis may be the natural product or rigid manufactured slabs, often cement asbestos, thoughthese are on the decline since the controversy over asbestos. 4) Built-up covers of asphalt or tar-impregnated felts, with a mopping of hot tar or asphaltthese are placed between the pliesand a mopping of tar or asphalt overall. Tar-felt roofsusuallyhave the top covered with embedded gravel or crushed slag. 5) Roll roofingWhich, as the name implies, is marketed in?Rolls containing approximately 108 ft2. Each roll is usually36 inches wide and may be plain or have a coating of coloredMineral granules. The base is a heavy asphalt-impregnated felt.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 33
  34. 34. 6) Asphalt shinglesThese are usually in the formOf strips with two, three, or four tabs per unit. These shinglesIs asphalt with the surface exposed to the weather heavily?Coated with mineral granules. Because of their fire resistance,Cost, and durability, asphalt shingles are the most popular roofing material for homes. Asphaltshingles are available in a wide range of colours, including black and white._ Glass fibre shingles—These are made partly of a glass fibre mat (which is waterproof) andpartly of asphalt. Like asphalt shingles, glass fibre shingles come with self-sealing tabs and carrya Class-A fire-resistance warranty. For the do-it-yourself, they may be of special interestbecause they are lightweight, about 220 pounds per square (100 ft2 of roofing).RoofsThe slope of the roof is frequently a factor in the choice of roofing materials and method usedto put them in place. The lower the pitch of the roof, the greater the chance of wind gettingunder the shingles and tearing them out. Interlocking cedar shingles resist this wind pryingbetter than standard asphalt shingles. For roofs with less than a 4-inch slope per foot, do notuse standard asphalt. Down to 2 inches, use self-sealing asphalt. Roll roofing can be used withpitches down to 2 inches when lapped 2 inches. For very low-pitchedSlopes, the manufacturers of asphalt shingles recommend that the roof be planned for someother type of covering.Aluminium strip roofing virtually eliminates the problem of wind prying, but these strips arenoisy. Most homeowners object to the noise during a rainstorm. Even on porches, the noise isoften annoying to those inside the house.Spaced roofing boards are sometimes used with cedar shingles.This is usually done as an economy measure and because the cedar shingles add considerablyto the strength of the roof. The spaced roofing boards reduce the insulating qualities.Roll RoofingRoll roofing is an economical cover especially suitedFor roofs with low pitches. It is also sometimes used for valley flashing instead of metal. It has abase of heavy asphalt-impregnated felt with additional coatings of asphalt that are dusted toCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 34
  35. 35. prevent adhesion in the roll. The weather surface may be plain or covered with fine mineralgranules. Many different colours are available. One edge of the sheet is left plain (no granules)where the lap cementIs applied. For best results, the sheathing must be tight, preferably 1 × 6 tongue-and-groove, orplywood. If the sheathing is smooth.These asphalt shingles have a three-dimensional look.Asphalt shingles are the most popular.CEMENTSECOND SHEETFIRST SHEETMethod of cementing and lapping the first and secondStrips of roll roofing.Roofing (with no cupped boards or other protuberance), the slate-surfacedroll roofing willwithstand a surprising amount of abrasion from foottraffic, although it is not generallyrecommended for that purpose.Windstorms are the most relentless enemy of roll roofing. If the wind gets under a loose edge,almost certainly a section will be blown off.Built-Up Roof (BUR)A built-up roof is constructed of sheathing paper, a bonded base sheet, perforated felt, asphalt,and surface aggregates.The sheathing paper comes in 36-inch-wide rolls and has approximately 432 ft2 per roll. It is arosin-size paper and is used to prevent asphalt leakage to the wood deck. The base sheet is aheavy asphalt-saturated felt that is placed over the sheathing paper.It is available in 1, 11/2, and 2 squares per roll. The perforatedfelt is one of the primary parts ofa built-up roof. It is saturated with asphalt and has tiny perforations throughout the sheet. Theperforations prevent air entrapment between the layers of felt.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 35
  36. 36. The perforated felt is 36 inches wide and weighs approximately 15 lbs per square. Asphalt isalso one of the basic ingredients of a built-up roof. There are many different grades of asphalt,but the most commonare low-melt, medium-melt, high-melt, and extra-high-meltSHEATHING PAPERBASE SHEETPERFORATED FELTASPHALT AGGREGATESectional plan of a built-up roofPrior to the application of the built-up roof, the deck should beInspected for soundness. Woodboard decks should be constructed of 3/4-inch seasoned lumber or plywood. Any knotholesCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 36
  37. 37. larger than one inch should be covered with sheet metal. If plywood is used as a roof deck itshould be placed with the length at right angles to the rafters and be at least 1/2 inch inthickness.The first step in the application of a built-up roof is the placing of sheathing paper and basesheet. The sheathing paper should be lapped in 2 inches and secured with just enough nails tohold it in place. The base sheet is then placed with 2-inch side laps and 6-inch end laps. Thebase sheet should be secured with 1/2-inch diameter head galvanized roofing nails placed 12inches on center on the exposed lap. Nails should also be placed down the center of the basesheet. The nails should be placed in two parallel rows, 12 inches apart.The base sheet is then coated with a uniform layer of hot asphalt.While the asphalt is still hot, a layer of roofing felt is placed and mopped with the hot asphalt.Each succeeding layer of roofing felt is placed and mopped in a similar manner with asphalt.Each sheet should be lapped 19 inches, leaving 17 inches exposed.Once the roofing felt is placed, a gravel stop is installed aroundthe deck perimeter. Two coated layers of felt should extend 6 inches past the roof deckingwhere the gravel stop is to be installed. When the other plies are placed, the first two layers arefolded over the other layers and mopped in place. The gravel stop is then placed in an 1/8-inch-thick bed of flashing cement and securely nailed every 6 inches. The ends of the gravel stopshould be lapped 6 inches and packed in flashing cement.AGGREGATEGRAVEL STOPASPHALTROOF CEMENTNAILS—3" O.C.The gravel stop.After the gravel stop is placed, the roof is flooded with hot asphalt and the surface aggregate isembedded in the flood coat. The aggregates should be hard, dry, opaque, and free of any dustor foreign matter. The size of the aggregates should range from 1/4 inch Roofing to 5/8 inch.When the aggregate is piled on the roof, it should be placed on a spot that has been moppedwith asphalt. This technique ensures proper adhesion in all areas of the roof.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 37
  38. 38. 7.PROJECT MONITORING :-PROJECT MONITORING SYSTEMThis is done to continuously track the performance of the project progress, cost sand conditioncontribution. Corrective actions can be taken when required and provides data.The following three reports are made for the tracking- Monthly progress report Job cost report Project performance report. 8. QUALITY:-Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 38
  39. 39. The technical audit of works done by CPWD used to be done in-house right from its inception. The functions of Quality Assurance and Technical Audit of works were shifted to CVC in the year 1964. On the recommendation of Ranganathan Committee, the Quality Assurance functions were again shifted to CPWD in the year 1979. The implementation of Quality Assurance in the field will require close co-operation among the three agencies, namely (a) field engineers (b) the construction agency, and (c) the Quality Assurance team at Circle level for strict compliance of Quality Assurance Procedure forming part of agreement. Quality Control System Of The Department Multi level Quality checks have been created in CPWD as detailed below: Field level The direct responsibility for ensuring proper quality of work as per approved specifications for achieving the intended performance and structural, functional and aesthetical parameters, and the desired life of the building/installation/structure rests with the construction team of Executive Engineer, Assistant Engineer and Junior Engineer. Quality Control team at Circle Level To keep a watch on the effectiveness/adequacy of Quality Assurance measures at site, a Quality Assurance team with SE of the circle as its head and comprising of one AE. The functions of the Quality Assurance team at Circle level are to check the compliance of Quality Assurance system by the field units, to locate the lapse/deficiency in the implementation of the Quality Assurance Plan, and to guide the field engineers in quality related aspects of the work.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 39
  40. 40. Core Wing at Directorate Level This Core Wing carries out the following main functions to ensure systematic and comprehensive Assurance of quality in the works: - · Quality Assurance of works under the Special DG(S&P), (TD), ADG (Border) and Engineer- in- Chief (CPWD), Delhi. · Carry out comprehensive examination & technical audit of works. · To carry out investigations and enquiries with regard to quality related aspects.Quality Assurance units in the Regions Quality Assurance works in various Regions are being looked after by the Regional QA units headed by the Superintending Engineer (TLQA) or Director Works of the Region. CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE (CSQ) The CSQ unit of CPWD is responsible for Contract related matters and quality assurance functions. The unit headed by a Chief Engineer is located in Nirman Bhawan and has 5 separate cells headed by superintending engineers to look after specific areas. The specific areas are 1. Contract & Manual 2. Standards and SpecificationsCentral Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 40
  41. 41. 3. Quality Assurance 4. Techno-Legal matters 5. Technology Application & Standards Unit. The unit is also responsible for enlistment of class-1 contractors in CPWD besides formulating rules and regulations for enlistment of contractors by different authorities. All contract related issues, techno legal issues referred to DGW by field units or by other organisations are dealt by this unit. The responsibility of bringing out schedules and specifications also rests with the CSQ unit. 10.CONCLUSION:-Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 41
  42. 42. It was a wonderful learning experience at CPWD office, IP Bhawan, New Delhi 110002 forSix Weeks. I gained a lot of insight regarding almost every aspect of site. I was given exposure in almost all the departments at the site, but I had liked to highlight the areas of safety, quality management, material management and execution. I hope this experience will surely help me in my future and also in shaping my career.Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 42
  43. 43. Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 43
  44. 44. Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 44
  45. 45. Central Public Works Department, I P Bhawan,New Delhi Page 45
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Construction of Police Station Khajuri Khas, Near Sonia Vihar, Delhi (SH: C/o Police Station Building, Electric sub Station & External Development Work i.e. Internal Electrical Installations)


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