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Impact of ipr on biodiversity

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Impact of ipr on biodiversity

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  • This presentation has been copied from my research article published in Patentmatics (ejournal) in June 2003. http://eprints.rclis.org/7905/
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Impact of ipr on biodiversity

  1. 1. IMPACT OF IPR ON BIODIVERSITY Raghavi R
  2. 2. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY • Protects ideas, inventions and work of human beings A Patent • Protects invention. • Provides the right to make, market the invention to the patent owner for a period of 20 years Intellectual property rights are decades old However, the extension of IPR to living beings- relatively new concept.
  3. 3. IPR to living beings Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems. Trend started with US Plant Patent Act in 1930. • Gave IPR for asexually reproduced plant varieties
  4. 4. Patentability patentable subject matter • Novel- either by asexually cultivation or by the first person who sees it. • Useful- industrial application Diamond v Chakrabarty- 1980 Onco mouse case- 1988 TRIPS Agreement
  5. 5. USPTO Cotton patent Soyabean patent • Monopoly • Income for pharmaceutical companies • Ethical argument • Growth of Non commercial indegeneous crops affected. • grasses supporting birds and butterflies, bees and other biodiversity shrink as patented crops take over
  6. 6. FIGHT AGAINST MONOPOLY Kalpavriksh- a delhi based NGO Fought against patenting and use in pharma industry of microbes from India Turmeric Neem Basmati Rice – GI act
  7. 7. ROLE OF INDIAN LAWS IN PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY Sec 3 of patent Act • method of agriculture/horticulture not patentable • 3(j) plants and animals in whole or any part thereof other than micro organisms but including seeds, varieties and species and essentially biological processes for production or propagation of plants and animals.
  8. 8. Sec 3 (b) • contrary public order or morality • causes serious prejudice to human, animal or plant life or health or to the environment • 3(i) • Process of Medical Treatment of animals , to render them free of disease • Section 47 • Government use • Research purpose,tutoring pupils
  9. 9. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ACT 2002 • Sec 6 No person shall apply for any intellectual property right, by whatever name called, in or outside India for any invention based on any research or information on a biological resource obtained from India without obtaining the previous approval of the National Biodiversity Authority before making such application

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