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GENOA and HyperWorks Integration for Advance Composite Product Design and Analysis

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GENOA and HyperWorks Integration for Advance Composite Product Design and Analysis

  1. 1. 1 GENOA and Hyperworks Integration for Advance Composite Product Design and Analysis Frank Abdi , Anil Mehta, Harsh Baid, Cody Godines AlphaSTAR Corporation, Long Beach, CA, USA and Robert Yancey, Harold Thomas ALTAIR Engineering Inc., Irvine, CA Altair Conference May 5-7 2015 Detroit Michigan
  2. 2. 2 Outline • AlphaSTAR • Methodology – De-homogenized-Multi-Scale Modeling – Progressive Failure Dynamic Analysis – Progressive Failure Static Analysis • Case Studies – RADIOSS: Numerical Simulations of Composite Tubes – OPTISTRUCT: • Lap Shear Damage Mode evolution and Propagation • Optimization of Storage Tank shape (composite overwrapped Pressure Vessel) • HMMWV Suspension System • Summary & Conclusions
  3. 3. 3 AlphaSTAR Corporation (ASC) • Founded in 1989 - Headquartered in Long Beach, Ca/Rome, Italy Mission Provide physics based composites simulation solutions and software Service industry and government for advanced composite parts/systems Focus composites structural design and advanced simulation including: composites, metals, ceramics, polymer, hybrid Industry Validated Software Aerospace: Commercial aircraft Certification by Analysis with Reduced Tests Automotive: Racing cars, Hydrogen Tank Infrastructure: Bridge, Wind & Energy Long Beach, CA Rome, IT
  4. 4. 4 GENOA Composite Multi-Scale Modeling Computational Tool Predict Test and Consider Uncertainties & Defects MATERIAL CLASS • Fiber reinforced polymer composites (Chopped, Continuous) o Thermoset o Themo-plastic o Elastomer • Metals o Fracture Toughness o Fatigue Crack Growth • Hybrid Composites (Glare) • Ceramics • Nano composites Applicationproduct • Continuous fiber (MCQ-composite) • Chopped fiber (MCQ-chopped) • Ceramics (MCQ-ceramics) • Nano composites (MCQ-nano) Manufacture Processes Applicationproduct • Filament winding (GENOA GUI) • Resin Transfer Molding (GENOA GUI) Durability Damage Tolerance/Reliability Applicationproduct • GENOA running FE (GENOA Suite *) • GENOA as subroutine (GENOA (V)UMAT) ABAQUS (V)UMAT Environment Damage Evolution Integrated MCQ and automatic UMAT generation as CAE-plugin Damage Location Ply damage visualization Failure mode and index * WWFE I-III Round Robin 1991, 1998, 2013 Journal of Composite Materials, Aug 2013, F Abdi, M Garg, et al. Product line Material Characterization & Qualification (MCQ)
  5. 5. 5 De-Homogenized vs. Homogenized Approach •Chopped Fiber-Elastomer: Galib H. Abumeri, M. Lee, “A Computational Simulation System for Predicting Performance of Chopped Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites”. ERMR-2006- Elastomer-Reno Filename: a) 7-06_Abumeri-Paper-ERMR2006.doc; b) 7-06_Presentation-Abumeri-chopped-fiber-ERMR2006.pdf Schematic View of De-Homogenized vs. Homogenized • Multi-Scale Modeling of composite constituents • fiber, matrix, and interface • Manufacturing Effect of Defects • fiber waviness, agglomeration, interphase, • resin rich, void shape/size • Fiber angle orientation Through-thickness • Design Parameters Saturation on stiffness/ strength : •fiber length (limitation using homogenized method) •fiber shape Multi-Scale Nano-micro Damage mechanics: De-homogenization Modeling Approach De-Homogenization Homogenization * Courtesy of * Courtesy of Architecture Homogenized De-Homogenization Homogenization * Courtesy of * Courtesy of Architecture Homogenized De-Homogenization Homogenization * Courtesy of * Courtesy of Architecture Homogenized Homogenization
  6. 6. 6 Progressive Failure Dynamic Analysis • Perform explicit FE analysis at a specified time step • stress and strain distributions and deformation shape • Stress and strain calculations in each ply • Stress and strain calculation in micro-level • Estimate damage in different length scales • Ply level failure surface • Constituent level (fiber-matrix) failure surface – micromechanical approach • Check convergence criteria • Number of damaged plies (ply level damage) • Number of fractured elements (total laminate damage). • Update the stiffness properties of damaged elements • Proceed to the next time step/iteration (restart) Procedure of Explicit Finite Element Framework
  7. 7. 7 GENOA Platform 1. UMAT+ GUI Plug In: Integrated with ABAQUS (implicit/explicit), RADIOSS, ANSYS FEA 2. GENOA-MS-PFA: Uses FE solvers as subroutine: (OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, LSDYNA, NASTRAN) 3. Damage/Fracture Evolution: GENOA GUI GENOA Abaqus Radioss Ansys GENOA Optistruct * ABAQUS, Optistruct, LSDYNA, ANSYS, NASTRAN and MHOST GENOA is an augmentation to FEA software with 2 Options + pre/ post UMAT+GENOA GUI GENOA with ALL FEA* Radios UMAT Environment Damage Evolution Damage Index
  8. 8. 8 Technical Approach: Damage & Fracture Evolution Delamination Regions (Overlap Damage/Fracture) Fracture Mechanics DelaminationDamage Mechanics Delamination Type ILT ILS RROT Simulation Process • STEP 1: Simulate the problem with PFA (Stage1-5) • Estimate damage accumulation in FE model • Predict damage and failure initiation and damage propagation • Predict crack path • STEP 2: Simulate with VCCT/DCZM (Stage 3-5) • Prepare a coarser FE model again with pre-defined crack path (predicted via PFA simulation or test) • Simulate and predict complete damage and failure process (damage initiation and propagation, crack initiation and propagation and final failure) of the component • DCZM combined with PFA to account for damage accumulation for improved predictions • STEP 3: combined PFA+VCCT/DCZM (Stage 1-5) 8
  9. 9. 9 PFA takes full-scale FEM and breaks material properties down to microscopic level. Material properties are updated, reflecting any changes resulting from damage or crack In-Depth Evaluation of Multi-scale Process Vehicle Component Laminate 3D Fiber, Weave, Stitch Lamina 2D Woven Decomposition Traditional FEM Stops Here GENOA goes down to micro scale Unit cell At node or element depending on solver Sliced Unit Cell Micro Scale FEM results decomposed to micro scale Reduced properties propagate up to vehicle scale
  10. 10. 10 *Options: Tsai-Wu, Tsai-Hill, Hashin, User defined criteria, Puck, SIFT, **Honeycomb: Wrinkling, Crimpling, Dimpling, Intra-cell buckling, Core crushing. *** Environmental: Recession, Oxidation (Global, Discrete), aging, creep Ref: C. Chamis, F. Abdi, M. Garg, L. Minnetyan, H. Baid, D. Huang, J.Housner, F. Talagani,” Micromechanics-based progressive failure analysis prediction for WWFE-III composite coupon test cases”. Journal of Composite Materials Part A 47(20–21) 2695–2712, 2013 Damage, and Fracture Mechanics based Unit Cell damage criteria Delam criteria MATRIX 1. Micro crack Density (TT) ,LT 2. Matrix: Transverse tension 3. Matrix: Transverse compression 4. Matrix: In-plane shear (+) 5. Matrix: In-plane shear (-) 6. Matrix: Normal compression FIBER 7. Fiber: Longitudinal tension 8. Fiber: Longitudinal compression 9. Fiber Probabilistic 10.Fiber micro buckling 11.Fiber crushing 12.Delamination DELAMINATION 15. Normal tension 16. Transverse out-of-plane shear (+) 17. Transverse out-of-plane-shear (-) 18. Longitudinal out-of-plane shear (+) 19. Longitudinal out-of-plane shear (-) 20. Relative rotation criteria 21. Edge Effect 13.Strain limit FRACTURE 22. LEFM :VCCT (2d/3d) 23. Cohesive: DCZM (2d/3d) 24. Honeycomb** 25. Environmental*** 14. INTERACTION* • MDE (stress) or SIFT (strain) Multi-Scale Multi Failure Criteria
  11. 11. 11 • Good agreement between the deformation mode from experiment and simulation • Similar deformation mode approves the energy absorption mechanism observed in the experiment. Crush Tubes Progressive Damage Analysis Deformations from Experiment Deformations from Simulation Progressive damage analysis used to Simulate crush tubes
  12. 12. 12 Energy Absorption Characteristics • Crush load versus crush distance as a measure of energy absorption • Tape composite systems considered • Serrations arise as a result of the stick-slip nature of crushing mechanism • required stress to initiate microcracks and damage are higher than those for propagation • Higher second peak observed Crush load versus crush distance of tape laminate with the layup of [45/0/-45/0/-45/0/45] Damage Index Table 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 CrushForce(Normalized) Crush Displacement (Normalized) TEST 1 TEST 2 TEST 3 GENOA PFA + MDNASTRAN GENOA+RADIOSS: Good Agreement Between Test and Simulation
  13. 13. 13 Damage Evolution Distribution During Crushing Process Fiber Longitudinal compressive failure (11C) Crush Distance Δ=15 mm (1.88%*) Δ=40 mm (5.00%*) Δ=80 mm (10.00%*) Δ=350 mm (43.75%*) Defromati onState Ply 1 Ply 2 Ply 3 Ply 4 Ply 5 Ply 6 Ply 7
  14. 14. 14 Chopped Fiber Composite: Crush Modeling Process Determine Ply Angle Through Thickness – De-Homogenization Approach Shell Model – Low Fidelity Orientation Data Moldex3D Model 2 mm Laminate PART Orientation Tensor Mapping • Material Characterization • Mapping from Un- structured mesh to structured mesh using orientation tensor • De-Homoginization Process: Determine Chopped fiber orientation through-the-thickness • Multi-Scale damage assessment by Progressive Failure Analysis: Mapping (un-structured to Structured/solid)
  15. 15. 15 Validation: Chopped Fiber Composite Characterization Simulation Vs. Coupon Tests (PBT-GF20) Flow, Cross Flow, Shear (Stress-Strain) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Orientation NormalizedThickness[z/H] Test-A11 Test-A22 Test-A33 MCQ-A11 MCQ-A22 MCQ-A33 Orientation Distribution Vs. Test 3 point Bending Coupon Analysis 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 2 4 6 8 10NormalizedLoad Displacement[mm] Flow-Test Cross-Flow-Test Flow-MCQ-GENOA Cross-Flow-MCQ-GENOA Flow, Cross Flow (L-D Curves) Through-thickness damage Ref: H.K. Baid, F. Abdi, M. C. Lee, Uday Vaidya, “Chopped Fiber Composite Progressive Failure Model under Service Loadin”,SAMPE 2015 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 Strain [mm/mm] Stress[MPa] Test-Flow Test-45-Deg Test-Cross-Flow MCQ-Flow MCQ-45-Deg MCQ-Cross-Flow
  16. 16. 16 Chopped Fiber Crush Tube AnalysisAcceleration(m/s2) Time (s) Test De-homogenized Load Displacement Curves 10 (ms) 20 (ms) 30 (ms) 40 (ms) Deformation Vs. Time Acceleration Vs. Time Explicit chopped fiber crush tube simulation NormalizedLoad Displacement TEST De-Homogenized Simulation results matches well with test
  17. 17. 17 Effect of Weak Interphase & Agglomeration Effect of Defects 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Baseline Interphase Agglomeration Young'sModulus[GPa] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Baseline Interphase Agglomeration Strength[MPa] Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Shear Strength Nano-comp: Mohit Garg, F. Abdi, J. Housner, “PREDICTION OF EFFECT OF WAVINESS, INTERFACIAL BONDING AND AGGLOMERATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON THEIR POLYMER COMPOSITES ”. SAMPE- Conference, Longbeach, Ca-may2013. Predicted modulus, tensile, compressive and shear strengths for the 3D randomly oriented MWCNTs in epoxy; baseline; baseline with interphase of 1 nm thickness and baseline with agglomeration (no interphase); amplitude (a) = 0.0 to 700.0 nm Modulus Effect Strength Effect
  18. 18. 18 Experiments – Modified Thick Lap Shear Test 18 • ASTM standard D5656 test • The film adhesive bondline thickness are 0.01” – 0.03” Modified ASTM D5656 - Thick Lap shear Test * A modified extensometer is implemented to improve strain measurement A modified biaxial extensometer allows accurate measurement Test Shows Adhesive Failure Test and analysis average shear stress- strain curve ASTM D5656 Ref: Yibin Xue, Frank Abdi, Suresh Keshavanarayana, and Waruna Senevirantne, “Physics-based modeling and progressive failure and probabilistic sensitivity analysis for adhesively bonded structural components, ”, 10th International Conference On Durability Of Composite Systems, September 16-18, Brussels Belgium
  19. 19. 19 Multi-Scale Material Modeling 19 Assumed Reverse Engineered Effective Matrix Equivalent SS Curve from MCQ Composites Material Library 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 Stress[MPa] Strain [mm/mm] Effective Equivalent Matrix SS Curve Effective Matrix Equivalent SS Curve Bond Properties (PU-1340) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 Stress[MPa] Strain [mm/mm] PU-1340 SS Curve (Engineering) Test Bond Test (Mechanical Properties) Bond Test (Strain) PU-1340 Strain Limit Value Eps11T 3.147E-02 Eps22T 3.147E-02 Eps33T 3.147E-02
  20. 20. 20 Results: Load Displacement Curve FE Model Damage Progression Events & Failure Modes B C E A D F Normal tension [Eps33T] All DamageAll Damage Transverse Out-plane Shear strain [Eps23S] Longitudinal Compression Strength [S11C] Normal tension Strain[Eps33T] Final Damage 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Load(N) Displacement(mm) Test MS-PFA A B C D E F Ref: S. DorMohammadi, F. Abdi, C.Godines, R. Yancey, H. Thomas, " Zig-Zag Crack Growth Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Lap shear specimen", SAMPE/CAMX Oct, 2014,. Orlando Floida
  21. 21. 21 Hybrid Suspension Damage Fracture of Upper Control Arm At Ultimate Load Damage/Fracture Modes Steel Steel Damage Initiates in Steel in Upper Control Arm Fractured Suspension Unit Damage Evolution Under Static Loading Reference: G. Abumeri, B. K. Knouff, D. Lamb, D. Hudak, and R. Graybill, “BENEFITS OF HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING IN THE DESIGN OF LIGHTWEIGHT ARMY VEHICLE COMPONENTS”, Presented ArmyScienceCOnference-Nov2010, Orlando, FL Improved L-D curve
  22. 22. 22 Failure Locations Spring Support Upper Control Arm Lower Control Arm Spindle is Damaged because of modeling constraints GENOA Predicted Damage Under Fatigue Spectrum Cycling Loading Ref: G. Abumeri, M. Garg, D. Lamb, “Technical Approach for Coupled Reliability-Durability Assessment of Army Vehicle Sub-Assemblies ”. SAE World Congress, 2008, 08M-126, Detroit Mi, April 2008. HMMWV: Durability of double A-arm suspension
  23. 23. 23 3D printing process introduces significant thermal loading in structure 3D-Printing BAAM •Thermoplastic resin (ABS) reinforced with chopped carbon fiber is placed while hot and not fully solidified. Layer by layer (beads) the 3D structure is produced. Cross section of two beads Robot printer head Delamination Thermo-graphical image of the printing process Printing process •Temperature difference and cohesion between the individual beads, • results in asymmetric shrinkage, • bending moments introduced in structure V. Kunc, B. Compton, S. Simunovic, C. Duty, L. Love, B. Post, C. Blue1, F. Talagani, R. Dutton, C. Godines, S. DorMohammadi, H. Baid, F. Abdi , “Modeling of Large Scale Reinforced Polymer Additive Manufacturing”, Anetc Conference Orlando Florida. March 23- 2015.
  24. 24. 24 Damage and fracture evolution analyzed in ~12 hrs 3D-Print –Strati Car Delamination during simulation Fracture evolution pattern Production process simulation Damage location and % of contributing failure mechanisms
  25. 25. 25 Approach: model generator; characterize chopped fiber; progressive damage/fracture analysis 3D-Print: Solution approach Multiple solution strategies have been considered Tensor orientation
  26. 26. 26 Delamination Initiation (P= 22.06 MPa) Burst Initiation (P = 34.75 MPa) Delamination Progression (P= 30.9 MPa) Durability: Delamination Initiation / Progression and Fracture Simulation Test Test Reliability: Predict scatter in failure load, ranking of random variables Test Burst pressure: 33.72 to 36.56 MPa (Low-Fidelity Durability and Reliability) 20.7 27.6 34.5 41.4 48.3 55.2 [MPa] Tank Storage Analysis/Validation G. Abumeri, F. Abdi, M. Baker, M. Triplet and, J. Griffin “Reliability Based Design of Composite Over-Wrapped Tanks”. SAE World Congress, 2007, 07M-312, Detroit Mi, April 2007
  27. 27. 27 High Fidelity Validation US Army Optimized COPV Tank Failure process Damage Initiation (3 Mpa) 50% pressure (15.5 MPa) Fiber Failure (Final Burst) (31 MPa) 75% pressure (21.7 MPa)
  28. 28. 28 High Fidelity Validations: Optimized COPV Process of Shape Optimization and design dome parameter from OPTISTRUCT
  29. 29. 29 Summary & Conclusions • MCQ performs material characterization and qualification including PFA. • Virtual testing is made possible by conducting PFA and combining those results to predict structure/component safety based on physics and micro/macro mechanics of materials, manufacturing processes, available data, and service environments. • The approach takes progressive damage and fracture processes into account and accurately assesses reliability and durability by predicting failure initiation and progression based on constituent material properties. • Such approaches are becoming more widespread and economically advantageous in some applications • Composite Multi-scale Modeling De-Homogenized Approach validated with test for various applications: (1) Crush tubes; (2) Lap-shear; (3) 3D printing; (4) Storage tank • GENOA-PFA enabled the application of multi-scale progressive failure Dynamic criteria with ALTAIR products (RADIOSS and OPTISTRUCT).