Red Fort and President House both are situated in Delhi.
Both are the Historical Monument of our country. Well in this Power Point Presentation we have compared some of the facts of Red Fort and President House.
2. CONTRIBUTERS:Aman Gupta (8298)
Anish Kumar Agarwal (8312)
Ambuj Singh (8326)
Abhishek Vaid (8253)
Ahsan Haider (8263)
Arpan Kumar (8267)
Aditya Utkarsh (8328)
Supervisor: Dr Manish Kanwar
Bachelor With Honours in Commerce
Shyam Lal College (Evening)
-University Of Delhi
3. HISTORY OF RED FORT:-
Analyzing the red fort history, one can find various facts about the
monument in a wonderful manner. It was built by the legendary
Mughal King called Shahjahan, who was an amazing admirer of
the medieval architecture.
As per the information about red fort, it is located near the
river called Yamuna which is very famous in the history of India.
Shahjahanbad was the place where the fort was constructed in an
impeccable style. It is a well known fact that people can access the
website to know more about red fort history.
4. There are different perspectives about the red fort in terms of size
It is very long and is considered to be 2
kilometers in length which provides it an amazing appearance.
People are amazed by the height of the fort because it is said to be
more than 100 feet and was built to ward off invaders in an amazing
Red fort history has been quite intriguing because it has been
witness to crucial events in the past. Different designers were used
to build the place and they used a fabulous square grid to achieve
the task in a wonderful style.
5. Architectural designs: The Red Fort covers a total area of about 254.67 acres enclosed
within 2.4 kilometres of defence walls. The walls are punctuated by
turrets and bastions. They vary in height from 18 m on the river side
to 33 m on the city side. The fort is shaped like an octagon with the
north-south axis longer than the east-west axis. The use of
marble, floral decorations, double domes in the buildings inside the
fort exemplifies the later phase of Mughal architecture.
It showcases a very high level of art form and ornamental work. It is
believed that the Kohinoor diamond was a part of the furniture. The
art work in the Fort is a synthesis of Persian, European and Indian
art which resulted in the development of unique Shahjahani style
which is very rich in form, expression and colour. Red Fort is one of
the important building complexes of India which encapsulates a long
period of Indian history and its arts. Even before its notification as a
monument of national importance in the year 1913, efforts were
made to preserve and conserve the Red Fort, for posterity.
6. The walls of Lahore and Delhi gates were for the general public and
Khizrabad Gate was for emperor's personal use.The Lahore Gate is
the main entrance leading to the domed arcade containing shops
called the Chatta Chowk (covered bazaar). Silk, jewellery and other
items which catered to the royal household were sold in Chatta
Chowk in the Mughal period. Chatta Chowk leads to a large open
space where it crosses the large north-south street that was
originally the division between the fort's military functions, to its
west, and the palaces, to its east. The southern end of this street is
the Delhi Gate.
7. Lahore Gate: The Lahore gate is the main gate to
the Red Fort named after its
orientation towards Lahore, Pakistan.
It is said that during Aurangzeb's
reign the beauty of both the gates
was spoiled by adding bastions: "The
vista like a veil drawn across the face
of a beautiful woman". Every year
1947, the national flag has been
raised and the Prime Minister has
made a speech from the ramparts at
the Lahore Gate. In the 1980s, the
security of the area was increased by
blocking the tower windows as a
security measure against sniper
attacks. A lift was also added to the
8. Diwan-i-Aam: In the Diwan-i-Aam (or the Hall of Public Audiences) the Emperor,
seated in a canopied alcove, would hear complaints and pleas of the
commoners through a jharokha (balcony). The hall was ornamented
with stuccowork and featured a series of gold columns. It also
included a large railing that separated the commoners from the
emperor. The Diwan-i-Aam was also used for state functions.The
spacious mardana or courtyard behind the Diwan-i-Aam is
surrounded by several interesting structures.
9. Diwan-i-Khas: In the Diwan-i-Khas( or the Hall of Private Audiences) the Emperor
held private meetings with courtiers and state guests. The hall
comprises a rectangular chamber with engraved arched openings
supported on piers, on all of its sides. Each of the piers is
gilded, painted and decorated with floral designs. Pillared chatris
(umbrellas) cover the corners of the roof. At the centre of the
chamber, the famous Peacock Throne throne was placed over a
marble pedestal. The throne was looted in 1739 by Nadir Shah. Two
of the marble pedestals were taken away by Captain Tytler from the
fort after the 1857 uprising and one of these is located at the New
York Metropolitan Museum.
10. In 1760, the Marathas removed and melted the Silver ceiling of
the Diwan-i-Khas to generate funds for the defence of Delhi from
the Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Durrani. Nahr-i-Bihisht or the
"stream of paradise" flowed through the centre of the hall. The
arches at the corner of the walls contain the inscription of the
famous verse of the 9th century Persian poet Ferdowsi, which
reads– "Agar Firdaus Bar Rooe Zaminast Haminasto Haminasto
11. Moti Masjid: To the west of the hammam is the Moti Masjid, the Pearl Mosque.
This was a later addition, built in 1659 as a private mosque for
Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's successor. It is a small, three-domed
mosque carved in white marble, with a three-arched screen which
steps down to the courtyard.
The Moti Masjid measures approximately 12 × 9 metres, with a
height of nearly 8 metres.
12. Others:Other attractions within Red Fort include:
The Hammams (Royal Baths)
The Muthamman-Burj was the octagonal tower where the emperor
appeared before the commoners.
The Rang Mahal (Palace of Colours) housed the Emperor's wives
and mistresses. This palace was crowned with gilded turrets. It was
painted and decorated with an intricate mosaic of mirrors. It also
had a ceiling overlaid with gold and silver that was reflected in a
central pool, which was located in the marble floor of the palace.
Naqqar Khana (Drum House) was located at the entrance point of
the Rang Mahal. Music was played at specific times in the day
alongside a large gate. People who visited the fort and would come
on elephants, would get off of at this gate.
13. History of Rashtrapati Bhawan: When the plan for a new city New Delhi adjacent to and south of Old
Delhi was developed in the beginning of the 20th century, the
Governor-General's House was given an enormous size and
prominent position. About 4,000 acres of land was acquired to begin
the construction of the Viceroy's House and adjacent Central
Secretariat between 1911 and 1916.
The British architect Edwin Landseer Lutyens, a major member of the
city-planning process, was given the primary architectural
Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official home of the President of India. As
the plan for New Delhi was developed, the Governor-General's
residence was given an enormous scale and prominent position.
14. Meanwhile, between 1911 and 1916, 300 families were evicted
under the "1894 Land Acquisition Act" from Raisina and Malcha
villages, thus clearing about 4,000 acres to begin the construction
the Viceroy’s House. Lutyens and Baker who had been assigned to
work on the Viceroy's House and the Secretariats, began on friendly
terms. Baker had been assigned to work on the two secretariat
buildings which were in front of Viceroy's House.
The original plan was to have Viceroy's House on the top of Raisina
Hill, with the secretariats lower down. It was later decided to build
400 yards back, and put both buildings on top of the plateau. While
Lutyens wanted the Viceroy's house to be higher, he was forced to
move it back from the intended position, which resulted in a dispute
with Baker. After completion, Lutyens argued with Baker, because
the view of the front of the building was obscured by the high angle
of the road.
15. Plan of Rastrapati Bhawan: Rashtrapati Bhawan is the house of the President of India. It is a
real masterpiece that was built in the British period. It is the focal
point of New Delhi and situated in the Raisina Hills.
The plan of the building is designed around a massive square
with multiple courtyards and open inner areas within. The plan
called for two wings; one for the Viceroy and residents and
another for guests.
The residence wing is a separate four-storey house in itself, with
its own court areas within. This wing was so large that the first
Indian governor-general, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, opted to
live the smaller guest wing, a tradition that has since been
followed by subsequent presidents. The original residence wing is
now used primarily for state receptions and as a guest wing for
visiting heads of state.
16. The centre of the main wing of the building, underneath the main
dome, is the Durbar Hall, which was known as the Throne
Room during British rule when it had thrones for the Viceroy and
Vicereine (his wife). The interior of this room and almost all the
rooms of the palace are bare, relying on stonework and shapes to
show austerity rather than intricate decoration.
In the hall, the columns are made in Delhi order which combines
vertical lines with the motif of a bell. The vertical lines from the
column were also used in the frieze around the room, which could
not have been done with one of the traditional Greek orders of
columns. The hall has a 2-ton chandelier which hangs from a 33metre height. The two state drawing rooms, the state supper room
and the state library are each on the four corners of the hall. There
are also other rooms such as many loggias (galleries with open air
on one side) which face out into the courtyards, a large dining hall
with an extremely long table, sitting rooms, billiards rooms, and a
large ball room, and staircases.
Water features are also through the palace, such as near the
Viceroy's stairs, which has eight marble lion statues spilling water
into six basins. These lions were symbolic of the heraldry of Great
Britain. There is also an open area in one room to the sky, which
lets in much of the natural light.
17. Architecture designs: Various Indian designs were added to the building. These included
several circular stone basins on top of the building, as water features
are an important part of Indian architecture. There was also a
traditional Indian chujja or chhajja, which occupied the place of a
frieze in classical architecture; it was a sharp, thin, protruding
element which extended 8 feet (2.4 m) from the building, and created
deep shadows. It blocks harsh sunlight from the windows and also
shields the windows from heavy rain during the monsoon season. On
the roofline were several chuttris, which helped to break up the
flatness of the roofline not covered by the dome. Lutyens appropriated
some Indian designs, but used them sparingly and effectively
throughout the building. There were also statues of elephants and
fountain sculptures of cobras in the gar of the retaining walls, as well
as the bas-reliefs around the base of the Jaipur Column, made by
British sculptor, Charles Sargeant Jagger. The column has a "distinctly
peculiar crown on top, a glass star springing out of bronze lotus
18. There were grilles made from red sandstone, called jalis or jaalis
citation needed.These jalis were inspired by Rajasthani design. The
front of the palace, on the east side, has twelve unevenly spaced
massive columns with the Delhi Order capitals. These
capitals have a fusion of acanthus leaves with the four pendant Indian
bells. The bells are similar in style to Indian Hindu and Buddhist
temples, the idea being inspired from a Jain temple at Moodabidri in
Karnataka. One bell is on each corner at the top of the column. It was
said that as the bells were silent British rule in India would not end.
The front of the building does not have windows, except in the wings at
the sides. Lutyens established ateliers in Delhi and Lahore to employ
local craftsmen, The chief engineer of the project was Sir Teja Singh
Malik, and four main contractors included Sir Sobha Singh.
Lutyens added several small personal elements to the house, such as
an area in the garden walls and two ventilator windows on the
stateroom to look like the glasses which he wore. The Viceregal Lodge
was completed largely by 1929, and (along with the rest of New Delhi)
inaugurated officially in 1931. Interestingly, the building took
seventeen years to complete and eighteen years later India became
independent. After Indian independence in 1947, the now ceremonial
governor-general continued to live there, being succeeded by the
president in 1950 when India became a republic and the house was
renamed "Rashtrapati Bhavan".
19. Dome: The dome in the middle involved a mixture of
Indian and British styles. In the centre was a
tall copper dome surmounted on top of a
drum, which stands out from the rest of the
building, due to its height. The dome is
exactly in the middle of the diagonals
between the four corners of the building. The
dome is more than twice the height of the
rest of the building.
The height of the dome was increased by
Lord Hardinge in the plan of the building in
1913. The dome combines classical and
Indian styles. Lutyens said the design
evolved from that of the Pantheon in
Rome, while it is also possible that it was
modelled partly after the great Stupa at
Sanchi. The dome is supported by evenly
spaced columns which form a porch with
open area between the columns. In the New
Delhi summer heat haze this gives an
impression of the dome being afloat. The
reinforced concrete shell of the outer dome
began to be formed at the beginning of
1929. The last stone of the dome was laid on
6 April 1929.
20. Mughal Gardens: The Mughal Gardens situated at the back of the Rashtrapati Bhavan,
incorporates both Mughal and English landscaping styles and feature
a vast variety of flowers. The Rashtrapati Bhavan gardens are open
to public in February every year.
Main garden: Two channels running North to South and two running
East to West divide this garden into a grid of squares. There are six
lotus shaped fountains at the crossings of these channels. Wheresas
the energetic fountains rising up to a height of 12 feet create
soothing murmur that enthralls the visitor, the channels are so
tranquil in their movement that they seem frozen. In the channels at
appropriate times of day can be seen reflections of the imposing
building and the proud flowers. There are wooden trays placed on
stands in the centre of the channels where grain is put for the birds
to feed upon.
21. Terrace garden: There are two longitudinal strips of garden at a higher
level on either side of the Main Garden forming the Northern and
Southern boundary. The plants grown are the same as in the Main
Garden. At the centre of both the strips is a fountain which falls
inwards forming a well. On the Western tips are located two gazebos
and on the Eastern tips two ornately designed sentry posts.
Long Garden or the 'Purdha Garden': This is located to the West of the
Main Garden, and runs along on either side of the central pavement
which goes to the circular garden. Enclosed in walls about 12 feet high
this is predominantly a rose garden. It has 16 square rose beds
encased in low hedges. There is a red sandstone pergola in the centre
over the central pavement which is covered with Rose creepers,
Petrea, Bougainvillea and Grape Vines. The walls are covered with
creepers like Jasmine, Rhyncospermum, Tecoma Grandiflora, Bignonia
Vanista, Adenoclyma, Echitice, Parana Paniculata. Along the walls are
planted the China Orange trees.
Around the circular garden there are rooms for Office of the
horticulturist, a green house, stores, nursery etc. Here is housed the
collection of Bonsais, one of the best in the country.
22. All the presidents who have stayed at the Rashtrapati Bhavan have
taken keen interest in the maintenance and upkeep of the Mughal
Gardens. All have contributed in their own way. The underlying
themes however have remained unaltered.
23. Conclusion: Both these institutions are in Delhi and are related to the politics of
India ...........as Rashtrapati bhavan is the official residence of
president of India and on 15th Aug i.e on independence day the
prime minister addresses the nation from red fort !
Both are related to office of the highest administrative heads of a
nation. One represents king ship and another democracy. One is
built by red stone another with granite.
But the environment near Red fort is quite good area we have
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib, Church, Jain Mandir, Gori Shankar Mandir,
Hazrat Nizamuddin Dargrah.
On the other hand the area near the Rastrapati bhavan is very
pleasant and a very charming.