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July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 1
Discovering Our Way
Karen Calhoun
‘New Age of Discovery’ Institute
ASERL, SOLINET, ...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 2
The Catalog: First Self-Service
Information Tool
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 3
“Within the next five years …
… a large number of libraries will no longer
have loc...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 4
“Within the next five years …
…there will no longer be a monolithic library
Web sit...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 5
The Well
“They come and go and draw
from the well” I Ching, hexagram 48
•The Librar...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 6
The River
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 7
Where Do You Begin a Search for
Information on a Topic?
Starting an Information Sea...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 8
The Larger Context: Knowledge
Management
Knowledge communities “interpret informati...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 9
DOMAIN
EXPERTS:
Professors, grad.
students, researchers, deans,
university leaders ...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 10
A Hierarchy of Organizational Learning
Transformation of information
into learning...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 11
Knowledge Creation and Social
Networks
“Improving efficiency and effectiveness in
...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 12
Implications
 Students and faculty engage in information
network processes with o...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 13
A New Kind of Library
 Build a vision of a new
kind of library
 Be more involved...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 14
Who ARE These Guys?
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 15
Knowing our Learners
 Baby boomers
 1946-1964
 Generation X
 1965-1982
 Net G...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 16
Generations of Students
22%
55%
23%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Bo...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 17
Net Generation Learners
 Intuitive visual
communicators
 Can integrate the virtu...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 18
Net Geners and Library Services: A
Disconnect
 They like
 Multimedia
environment...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 19
Digital Repositories and Interactive
Learning
http://valley.vcdh.virginia.edu/
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 20
Michael Habib’s Library 2.0
“Academic Library 2.0 Concept Model,” p. 35.
http://et...
Gaps in Satis faction
-1.6
-1.4
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
E-resources
remote access
Easy-to-use
web site
P...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 22
What Did Users Say They Want? (2002)
•Faculty and students do more work
and study ...
Cornell Catalog and E-Resource Searching, First Quarter 2005
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 24
Networked E-Resources at
Cornell
About 10% of the collection
36% of the material...
A multidimensional framework for academic support: a final report submitted to
the Mellon Foundation from the University o...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 26
VIVO: Connecting Life Sciences Researchers
Combining social networking, traditiona...
So what about
the catalog????
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 28
Unanswered Questions
Who uses the online catalog?
Who uses library Web pages?
F...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 29
Who Uses the Online Catalog?
8.6
15.9
1.5
61.2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Percent
Unde...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 30
Review of Unanswered Questions
Who uses the online catalog?
faculty and graduate...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 31
 Strong preference for full text and media, other
Web content
 Some are familiar...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 32
The Catalog in Context
•Online catalogs
represent one node in
the student’s and
sc...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 33
The Continuing Importance of the
Catalog
 Books and
serials are not
dead, and the...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 34
New Models for the Catalog
What is Primo? “an enterprise-level solution for the
di...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 35
Longer Term Vision
 Local catalog one link in a chain of services, one repository...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 36
Find It on Google,* Get It from
My Library
 Open WorldCat
 WorldCat.org, WorldCa...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 37
Intermediate Vision
 Better library interface > better user
experience >> more in...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 38
Intermediate Vision, 2
Start to build bigger scholarly information
environments—w...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 39
Intermediate Vision, 3
Beginning of the era of special
collections
Aggregate dis...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 40
Vision for Change: The Catalog
 The catalog will evolve
toward full integration w...
July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 41
Thank You!
 Karen Calhoun
 VP, WorldCat and Metadata Services
 OCLC, Inc.
 cal...
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Discovering Our Way

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A detailed briefing on the current position of the library catalog and its prospects in the age of internet discovery and changing preferences for information seeking. Based on the speaker's extensive research and writings abou the catalog and metadata at Cornell University Library and for the Library of Congress. Prepared for the "New Age of Discovery" Institute sponsored by ASERL and hosted by Auburn University Libraries. Presented July 19, 2007. Includes speaker notes.

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Discovering Our Way

  1. 1. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 1 Discovering Our Way Karen Calhoun ‘New Age of Discovery’ Institute ASERL, SOLINET, Auburn University Libraries Decatur, Georgia July 19, 2007
  2. 2. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 2 The Catalog: First Self-Service Information Tool
  3. 3. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 3 “Within the next five years … … a large number of libraries will no longer have local OPACs. Instead, we will have entered a new age of data consolidation (either shared catalogs or catalogs that are integrated into discovery tools), both of our catalogs and our collections.” Provocative Statement #5, http://www.taigaforum.org/docs/ProvocativeStatements.pdf
  4. 4. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 4 “Within the next five years … …there will no longer be a monolithic library Web site. Instead library data will be pushed out to many starting places on the Web and directly to users.” Provocative Statement #6, http://www.taigaforum.org/docs/ProvocativeStatements.pdf
  5. 5. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 5 The Well “They come and go and draw from the well” I Ching, hexagram 48 •The Library as a center of collections •The Library as a center of experts and tools to guide users to appropriate resources
  6. 6. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 6 The River
  7. 7. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 7 Where Do You Begin a Search for Information on a Topic? Starting an Information Search 89 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Search engine Library Web site Where Search Begins Percent College Students’ Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: a Report to the OCLC Membership: http://www.oclc.org/reports/perceptionscollege.htm
  8. 8. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 8 The Larger Context: Knowledge Management Knowledge communities “interpret information about the environment in order to construct meaning … create new knowledge by converting and combining the expertise and know-how of their members … [and] analyze information in order to select and commit to appropriate courses of action.”—Chun Wei Choo, professor of Information Studies, University of Toronto The Knowing Organization: How Organizations Use Information to Construct Meaning, Create Knowledge, and Make Decisions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), xii.
  9. 9. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 9 DOMAIN EXPERTS: Professors, grad. students, researchers, deans, university leaders and staff COMMUNITY INFORMATION EXPERTS: Librarians, records managers, archivists, others IT EXPERTS: Desktop, computer lab and server support; applications for academic, research, administrative support; networks, telecommunications, security Knowledge Pyramid Adapted from Choo, Information Management for the Intelligent Organization, 238.
  10. 10. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 10 A Hierarchy of Organizational Learning Transformation of information into learning, insight and action Info resources, IT (tools), policies and practices ID informa- tion needs Use informa -tion Acquire info Organize/ store info Develop products/ services Distri- bute info Adapted from Choo, Information Management for the Intelligent Organization, p. 24-25.
  11. 11. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 11 Knowledge Creation and Social Networks “Improving efficiency and effectiveness in knowledge-intensive work demands more than sophisticated technologies—it requires attending to the often idiosyncratic ways that people seek out knowledge, learn from and solve problems with other people.”—Rob Cross, University of Virginia Rob Cross et al., “Knowing what we know” Organizational Dynamics 30, no. 2 (November 2001), 101.
  12. 12. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 12 Implications  Students and faculty engage in information network processes with or without libraries  Libraries have the opportunity to engage more proactively with teachers and learners  Librarians have natural partnerships with subject domain and IT experts  Libraries and librarians need to better understand how social networks and information seeking styles contribute to learning and teaching
  13. 13. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 13 A New Kind of Library  Build a vision of a new kind of library  Be more involved with research and learning materials and systems  Be more engaged with campus communities  Make library collections and librarians more visible  Move to next generation systems and services An online social network
  14. 14. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 14 Who ARE These Guys?
  15. 15. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 15 Knowing our Learners  Baby boomers  1946-1964  Generation X  1965-1982  Net Generation  1982-1991 http://www.educause.edu/educatingthenetgen
  16. 16. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 16 Generations of Students 22% 55% 23% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Boomers Gen X Net Gen 95% 5% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 25 Years Or Less Other Ages Joel Hartman et al. University of Central Florida study. In Educating the Net Generation Robert B. Kvavik. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. 2004 study. In Educating the Net Generation
  17. 17. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 17 Net Generation Learners  Intuitive visual communicators  Can integrate the virtual and physical (gamers)  Learn better through discovery than lecture  Able to shift attention rapidly  Respond quickly and expect rapid response  “People want to build stuff” Diana and James Oblinger. Is it age or IT? In Educating the Net Generation.
  18. 18. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 18 Net Geners and Library Services: A Disconnect  They like  Multimedia environments  Figuring things out for themselves  Working in groups  Multitasking  Learning directly related to courses  We offer  Text-based environments  Systems that require prior understanding (or librarian help)  Services for individual use  Focus, logical sequence  Catalogs, databases, subject guides and pathfinders Joan Lippincott, Coalition for Networked Information. In Educating the Net Generation
  19. 19. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 19 Digital Repositories and Interactive Learning http://valley.vcdh.virginia.edu/
  20. 20. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 20 Michael Habib’s Library 2.0 “Academic Library 2.0 Concept Model,” p. 35. http://etd.ils.unc.edu/dspace/handle/1901/356
  21. 21. Gaps in Satis faction -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 E-resources remote access Easy-to-use web site Print or e- journals Printed library materials M ultimedia collections Space for study Group space Undergrad Graduate Faculty Online library Collections Space LibQUAL+ 2005 Survey: Cornell University Library. Association of Research Libraries. http://www.libqual.org
  22. 22. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 22 What Did Users Say They Want? (2002) •Faculty and students do more work and study away from campus •Loyal to the library, but library is only one element in complex information structure •Print still important, but almost half of undergraduates say they rely exclusively or almost exclusively on electronic materials •Seamless linking from one information object to another is expected •Fast forward to 2007: these trends many times stronger! Do you use electronic sources all of the time, most of the time, some of the time, or none of the time? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% All of the time/most of the time Some of the time None of the time Responses Percent Faculty/Graduate Undergrad http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub110/contents.html
  23. 23. Cornell Catalog and E-Resource Searching, First Quarter 2005 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Weeks 1 to 13 NumberofSearches/Sessions Catalog Sessions E-Resource Searches Total (Library Resources) Students return E-resource system problems Spring break Average/week (Q1 2005): Google: 441 million Library: 47 thousand Titles in catalog: > 4 million E-resources: 379 thousand
  24. 24. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 24 Networked E-Resources at Cornell About 10% of the collection 36% of the materials budget (2005) About 50% of the use All searches from library pages = a tiny fraction of the use of search engines
  25. 25. A multidimensional framework for academic support: a final report submitted to the Mellon Foundation from the University of Minnesota Libraries, June 2006, p. 47. http://www.lib.umn.edu/about/mellon/docs.phtml
  26. 26. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 26 VIVO: Connecting Life Sciences Researchers Combining social networking, traditional library services, & more
  27. 27. So what about the catalog????
  28. 28. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 28 Unanswered Questions Who uses the online catalog? Who uses library Web pages? For what? How much? Compared to what? Compared to library e-resource discovery systems? Compared to Amazoogle?
  29. 29. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 29 Who Uses the Online Catalog? 8.6 15.9 1.5 61.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percent Undergraduate Graduate Never At least once a week Surveying the Students: the 2005 Student Survey On the University of Virginia Library. p. 15 http://www.lib.virginia.edu/mis/reports/stusurv05/ultra_short_final.pdf
  30. 30. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 30 Review of Unanswered Questions Who uses the online catalog? faculty and graduate students (comparatively more) students (comparatively less) librarians Who uses library Web pages? How much? strong preference for search engines
  31. 31. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 31  Strong preference for full text and media, other Web content  Some are familiar with bibliographic data/tools, many are not (and find what they want anyway?)  Personal and professional networking are important aspects of information seeking Compared to What?
  32. 32. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 32 The Catalog in Context •Online catalogs represent one node in the student’s and scholar’s information universe •As information systems, catalogs are hard to use
  33. 33. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 33 The Continuing Importance of the Catalog  Books and serials are not dead, and they are not yet digital  ARL libraries spent the lion’s share of $665 million on books and serials in 2004 The legacy of the world’s library collections is tied to the future of catalogs
  34. 34. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 34 New Models for the Catalog What is Primo? “an enterprise-level solution for the discovery of institutional resources and the delivery of materials and services for different types of collections.” Thirteen Libraries Join Innovative for Encore Development (Press release October 2006) worldcat.org eXtensible Catalog (XC) “an open-source online system that can unify access to traditional and digital library resources.” WorldCat Local Pilot
  35. 35. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 35 Longer Term Vision  Local catalog one link in a chain of services, one repository managed by the library  More coherent and comprehensive scholarly information systems, perhaps by discipline  Infrastructure to permit global discovery and delivery of information among open, loosely-coupled systems  Critical mass of digitized publications and special collections online  Many starting points on the Web leading to many types of scholarly information objects  Switch users from where they find things to library-managed collections of all kinds
  36. 36. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 36 Find It on Google,* Get It from My Library  Open WorldCat  WorldCat.org, WorldCat Local  Google Scholar  Google Library Project  Microsoft Live Search Books  Million Book Project  Open Content Alliance  E-books  Print on demand *The word "google" was first used in the 1927 Little Rascals silent film "Dog Heaven", used to refer to a having a drink of water. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_(verb)
  37. 37. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 37 Intermediate Vision  Better library interface > better user experience >> more interaction, more fun!  Draw on the local catalog’s strongest suit: support for inventory control and delivery  Shared online catalogs: begin to aggregate discovery function for books, serials, and their e-counterparts  Larger scale collaboration on collection development/resource sharing, storage, preservation
  38. 38. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 38 Intermediate Vision, 2 Start to build bigger scholarly information environments—with libraries playing a role—to aggregate more of the expanding universe of scholarly digital assets Metadata and outreach skills = strategic assets
  39. 39. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 39 Intermediate Vision, 3 Beginning of the era of special collections Aggregate discovery of digital collections More emphasis on visual resources
  40. 40. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 40 Vision for Change: The Catalog  The catalog will evolve toward full integration with other discovery tools  Shared catalogs and open information systems will radically democratize access to library collections and boost scholarly productivity to new levels
  41. 41. July 2007 Calhoun / Age of Discovery 41 Thank You!  Karen Calhoun  VP, WorldCat and Metadata Services  OCLC, Inc.  calhounk@oclc.org

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