What is a Disaster ?
“A serious disruption in the functioning of the
community or a society causing wide spread
material, economic, social or environmental losses
which exceed the ability of the affected society to
cope using its own resources
3. What is a Hazard ?
A dangerous condition or event, that threat or have
the potential for causing injury to life or damage to
property or the environment.
Hazards can be grouped into three broad categories
namely natural , manmade and Socio-natural .
4. Natural hazards are hazards which are caused
because of natural phenomena (hazards with
meteorological, geological or even biological origin).
Examples of natural hazards are cyclones, tsunamis,
earth- quake and volcanic eruption which are
exclusively of natural origin.
5. Manmade hazards are hazards which are due to
human negligence. Manmade hazards are associated
with industries or energy generation facilities.
For example and include explosions, leakage of toxic
waste, pollution, dam failure, wars or civil strife etc.
6. Socio-Natural Hazards Landslides, floods, drought,
fires are socio-natural hazards since their causes are
both natural and man made.
For example flooding may be caused because of
heavy rains, landslide or blocking of drains with
7. Types Hazards
Geological Hazards Earthquake
Water & Climatic Hazards Tropical Cyclone
Tornado and Hurricane
9. What is vulnerability ?
The extent to which a community, structure, services or
geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the
impact of particular hazard, on account of their nature,
construction and proximity to a disaster prone area.
Vulnerabilities can be categorized into physical and socio-
10. Physical Vulnerability
It is based on the physical condition of people and
elements at risk, such as buildings, infrastructure etc;
and their proximity, location and nature of the
hazard. It also relates to the technical capability of
building and structures to resist the forces acting
upon them during a hazard event.
11. Socio-economic Vulnerability
The degree to which a population is affected by a hazard
will not merely lie in the physical components of vulnerability but
also on the socio- economic conditions.
The socio-economic condition of the people also determines the
intensity of the impact.
For example, people who are poor and living in the sea coast don’t
have the money to construct strong concrete houses. They are
generally at risk and loose their shelters when ever there is strong
wind or cyclone
13. What is capacity ?
Capacity can be defined as “resources, means and
strengths which exist in households and communities
and which enable them to cope with, withstand,
prepare for, prevent, mitigate or quickly recover from
14. Physical Capacity: People whose houses have been
destroyed by the cyclone or crops have been
destroyed by the flood can recover things from their
homes and from their farms. Some family members
have skills, which enable them to find employment if
they migrate, either temporarily or permanently.
15. Socio-economic Capacity: In most of the disasters,
people suffer their greatest losses in the physical and
material realm. Rich people have the capacity to
recover soon because of their wealth. In fact, they are
rarely hit by disasters because they live in safe areas
and their houses are built with stronger materials.
However, even when everything is destroyed they
have the capacity to cope up with it.
16. What is risk ?
Risk is a “measure of the expected losses due to a hazard event occurring
in a given area over a specific time period. Risk is a function of the
probability of particular hazardous event and the losses each would
cause.” The level of risk depends upon:
Nature of the hazard
Vulnerability of the elements which are affected
Economic value of those elements
17. Disaster risk management
A community/locality is said to be at ‘risk’ when it is exposed to hazards
and is likely to be adversely affected by its impact.
Disaster Risk management includes all measures which reduce disaster
related losses of life , property or assets by either reducing the hazard or
vulnerability of the elements at risk
Disaster Risk Reduction can take place in the following ways:
This protective process includes measures which enable governments,
communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to
cope with them effectively. Preparedness includes the formulation of
workable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the
maintenance of records and the training of personnel. It may also
embrace search and rescue measures as well as evacuation plans for areas
that may be at risk from a frequent disaster.
Preparedness therefore encompasses those measures taken before a disaster
event which are aimed at minimizing loss of life, disruption of critical
services, and damage when the disaster occurs.
Mitigation holds measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard and the
vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster.
Therefore mitigation activities can be focused on the hazard itself or the elements
exposed to the threat.
Examples of mitigation measures which are hazard specific include water
management in drought prone areas, relocating people away from the hazard prone
areas and by strengthening structures to reduce damage when a hazard occurs.
In addition to these physical measures, mitigation should also aim at reducing the
economic and social vulnerabilities of potential disasters.
21. The three key stages of activities that are taken up within disaster risk
1. Before a disaster (pre-disaster): Pre-disaster activities those which are
taken to reduce human and property losses caused by a potential hazard.
For example, carrying out awareness campaigns, strengthening the existing
weak structures, preparation of the disaster management plans at
household and community level, etc. Such risk reduction measures taken
under this stage are termed as mitigation and preparedness activities
22. 2. During a disaster (disaster occurrence): These include initiatives
taken to ensure that the needs and provisions of victims are met and
suffering is minimized. Activities taken under this stage are called
emergency response activities.
3. After a disaster (post-disaster). There are initiatives taken in response to
a disaster with a purpose to achieve early recovery and rehabilitation of
affected communities, immediately after a disaster strikes. These are called
as response and recovery activities.
23. Phase 1: Preparedness
Meaning: To take actions ahead of time to be ready for an emergency
The “preparedness” phase occurs before a disaster takes place. Here, an
organization attempts to understand how a disaster might affect overall
productivity and the bottom line. The organization will also provide
appropriate education while putting preparedness measures into place.
Examples of “preparedness” may include hosting training, education,
drills, tabletop exercises and full-scale exercises on disaster preparedness.
24. Phase 2: Mitigation
Meaning: To prevent future emergencies and take steps to minimize their
The “mitigation” phase occurs before a disaster takes place. Here, an
organization will take steps to protect people and property, while also
decreasing risks and consequences from a given disaster situation. The
organization’s main goal is to reduce vulnerability to disaster impacts (such as
property damage, injuries and loss of life).
Examples of “mitigation” may include conducting a property inspection to
discover ways to reinforce the building against damage. The organization may
also revise zoning and land-use management to further prevent or reduce the
impact of a disaster.
25. Phase 3: Response
Meaning: To protect people and property in the wake of an emergency, disaster or
The “response” phase occurs in the immediate aftermath of a disaster.
Organizations must focus their attention on addressing immediate threats to people,
property and business. Occupant safety and security largely depends on its
preparedness levels before disaster strikes.
The most notable example of the “response” phase is to ensure that people are
out of harm’s way. The organization will then move on to assess damage,
implement disaster response plans and start resource distribution as necessary..
26. Phase 4: Recovery
Meaning: To rebuild after a disaster in an effort to return operations back
The “recovery” phase takes place after a disaster. This phase is the
restoration of an organization following any impacts from a disaster. By
this time, the organization has achieved at least some degree of physical,
environmental, economic and social stability.
The recovery phase of a disaster can last anywhere from six months to a
year (or even longer depending on the severity of the incident).