the exploitation of biological processes forindustrial and other purposes, especially
the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics,
hormones, proteins , Pesticides, enzymes etc is called Biotechnology
It also refers to genetic engineering and genetic modification, or more generally to
moving or transferring genetic material between sources. The
broadestdefinition of biotechnologyis the use of living organisms to make a
product(antibiotics, hormones, Pesticides, proteins) or run a process.
Branches of Biotechnology
Industrial biotechnology applies the techniques of modern molecular biology to
improve the efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts of industrial
processes like textile, paper and pulp, and chemical manufacturing. For example,
industrial biotechnology companies develop biocatalysts, suchas enzymes, to
synthesize chemicals. Enzymes are proteins produced byall organisms. Using
biotechnology, the desired enzyme can be manufactured in commercial quantities.
Environmental biotechnology is the used in waste treatment and pollution
prevention. Environmental biotechnology can more efficiently clean up many
wastes than conventional methods and greatly reduce our dependenceon methods
for land-based disposal.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of
an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to
change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and
across species boundaries to produceimproved or novel organisms.
The technique of removing, modifying or adding genes to a DNA molecule to
change the information it contains. More specifically is known as recombinant
DNA (rDNA) technology. The productof rDNA technology is known as a
genetically modified organism, or GMO.
Example: Gene for human insulin inserted into E.coli → bacteria that make human
insulin (a biopharmaceutical).
In its broadestsense, molecular biotechnology is the use of laboratory techniques
to study and modify nucleic acids and proteins for applications in areas such as
human and animal health, agriculture, and the environment. Molecular
biotechnology results from the convergence of many areas of research, such as
molecular biology, microbiology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, and cell
biology. It is an exciting field fueled by the ability to transfer genetic information
between organisms with the goal of understanding important biological processes
or creating a useful product.
Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques used to improve
plants, animals and microorganisms. Based on an understanding of DNA, scientists
have developed solutions to increase agricultural productivity. Starting from the
ability to identify genes that may confer advantages on certain crops, and the
ability to work with suchcharacteristics very precisely, biotechnology enhances
breeders’ ability to make improvements in crops and livestock. Biotechnology
enables improvements that are not possible with traditional crossing of related
Medical biotechnology is the use of living cells and cell materials to research and
producepharmaceutical and diagnostic products that help treat and prevent human
Recombinant DNA technology
A series of procedures that are used to join together (recombine) DNA segments.
A recombinant DNA molecule is constructed from segments of two or more
different DNA molecules. Under certain conditions, a recombinant DNA molecule
can enter a cell and replicate there, either on its own or after it has been integrated
into a chromosome.
APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
1. Production of medicines and vaccines
2. Production of hormones , proteins and enzymes
3. Production of antibiotics and insulin
4. Treatment of some genetic disease
5. Enhance biocontrolagents in agriculture
6. Increase agricultural yields and decreaseproduction costs.
7. Decrease allergy producing characteristics of some foods
8. Improve foods nutritional value
9. Develop biodegradable plastics
10.We can also increased the productionof crops and can adopted verities of
11.Decrease water and air pollutions
12.Through the biotechnology we can produced different types of pesticides
13.Slow food spoilage
14.Control viral , fungal and bacterial diseases
15.Cloning: cloning technique we use to generated a population of genetically
identical cells, organs, plants or animals. We can treat cancer cell by this
16.With the help of biotechnology we can remove pollution and wests from the
environment to clean the atmosphere
17.With the help of biotechnology we can produced Bt.cotton
18.With the help of biotechnology We can also produceour desire plants .
19.We can also producetolerant plants
20.With the help of biotechnology We can increased the population of any
unique animals or plants.
21.With the help of biotechnology We can increase the production of eatable
animals and plants
22.With the help of biotechnology We can also produced GMO.
23.With the help of Gene therapy, we can to correctcertain hereditary diseases.
24.With the help of biotechnology we can Diagnosis different types of tests.
we can identify and absorb the level of different types of proteins ,
hormones. Insulin , antibiotic, drugs and other bodyfluid level in the body
25.Biotechnology also play a very important role in textile Industry which
producing different types of yield and other materials .
26.Biotechnology also use in food microbiology to protectand saved foods
27.Biotechnology also helpful in Aquaculture, Transgenics, Fish production,
Bioremedation, conservation, sea weeds culture etc.
28.With the help of Environmental Biotechnology we can Biodegradation of
xenobiotic compounds,Bio-mining, Restoration of denuded areas, Bio-
sensors, processing of wastes, Composting, Anaerobic processing, etc.
Industrial application of Biotechnology
Industrial use of biological systems (whole cells or enzymes)
We producedifferent types of important bodyrequirements:
We can also produced medicine, vaccines , antibiotics
Also produced surgical instruments in the industries with the help of
We also produceacids and other drinks through fermentation.
We can increased seed verities in the industries through biotechnology
We produced different types of pesticides for the production a good crops
we produced organic fertilizer for the best growth of crops
We can produced different types of papers, color, textile, fibers etc by
We produced different types of chemical with the help of biotechnology.