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Project report on injection molding machine

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This ppt contains, the working of injection molding machine, type of plastic granules used, reshaping the old plastic products into a new shape and design, the clamping mechanism used and lots more..

Publicado en: Ingeniería
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Project report on injection molding machine

  1. 1. Project report on injection moldingProject report on injection molding machinemachine By Amol Jalinder Torane,By Amol Jalinder Torane, Diploma in Mechanical Engineering,Diploma in Mechanical Engineering, 33rdrd year,year, From A.I.S.S.M.S PolytechnicFrom A.I.S.S.M.S Polytechnic college, near Kennedy road.college, near Kennedy road.
  2. 2. Injection MoldingInjection Molding  Injection molding is a process in which rawInjection molding is a process in which raw material in the form of granules is feededmaterial in the form of granules is feeded in to the hopper and plasticized by ain to the hopper and plasticized by a reciprocating screw with heat and injectedreciprocating screw with heat and injected into the close mold to get the optimuminto the close mold to get the optimum shape of the required partshape of the required part  Materials such as polystyrene, nylon,Materials such as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene and polythene can be usedpolypropylene and polythene can be used in a process called injection molding.in a process called injection molding.
  3. 3. Process of injection moldingProcess of injection molding
  4. 4. Injection molding machine isInjection molding machine is separated in two units namely..separated in two units namely..  Injection unit :-Injection unit :-  Injection unit can be described in four general stepsInjection unit can be described in four general steps regardless of the type of machine used..,regardless of the type of machine used..,  1. Powder or pelletized polymer is loaded and heated to1. Powder or pelletized polymer is loaded and heated to the molten statethe molten state  2. Under pressure, the molten polymer is forced into a2. Under pressure, the molten polymer is forced into a mold through an opening called a spruemold through an opening called a sprue  3. The pressurized material is held in the mold until it3. The pressurized material is held in the mold until it solidifies.solidifies.  4. The mold is opened and the part removed by ejector4. The mold is opened and the part removed by ejector pins.pins.
  5. 5.  Clamping unit:-Clamping unit:-  The clamping unit must be able to keep the mold halvesThe clamping unit must be able to keep the mold halves closed during the pressurized injection of plastic and notclosed during the pressurized injection of plastic and not allow flashing.allow flashing.  Common clamping mechanisms are direct hydraulicCommon clamping mechanisms are direct hydraulic clamping and mechanical toggle clamps, actuated byclamping and mechanical toggle clamps, actuated by hydraulic cylindershydraulic cylinders  Toggle clamps make use of mechanical advantage butToggle clamps make use of mechanical advantage but are opened and locked by use of a hydraulic cylinderare opened and locked by use of a hydraulic cylinder  Today, many injection molding machines use directToday, many injection molding machines use direct hydraulic clamping since it uses fewer moving parts andhydraulic clamping since it uses fewer moving parts and is reliable and highly controllableis reliable and highly controllable  The methods by which molds are attached to clampingThe methods by which molds are attached to clamping unit include screw and bolt fixtures, key rods andunit include screw and bolt fixtures, key rods and vacuum to hold the mold, magnetic force and friction or avacuum to hold the mold, magnetic force and friction or a combination of these.combination of these.
  6. 6. Toggle and direct hydraulicToggle and direct hydraulic clampsclamps
  7. 7. Plastic and its types used in moldingPlastic and its types used in molding operationoperation A plastic material is any of a wideA plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-syntheticrange of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are moldable.organic solids that are moldable. Plastics are typically organicPlastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, butpolymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substance.they often contain other substance.
  8. 8. PlasticsPlastics Formed by heat Thermoplastic plastics: Soften when heated Can be reheated and reshaped Mostly recyclable Made of long polymer chains with few cross links There are two main groups of plastics: thermosetting plastics thermoplastic plastics. What does the word ‘plastic’ mean? The word ‘plastic’ means ‘easily shaped or moulded’.
  9. 9. Initially set by heat Thermosetting plastics: Cannot be reshaped once set Strong and durable Common in powder or resin forms Consist of polymer chains with strong bonds between each chain What items do you have in your possession that are made of plastic? Are they made from thermoplastic or thermosetting plastics? PlasticsPlastics
  10. 10. individual monomer molecule individual monomer molecule Thermoplastic plastics are made of long chains of polymers which don’t cross over very often. When heated, the molecules slip easily over one another. Thermosetting plastics also have lots of long chain molecules, but there are links between them. These cross links prevent the molecules from moving over one another. PlasticsPlastics
  11. 11. The majority of common plastics are thermoplastics. Thermoplastics can be heated and reshaped because of the ways in which the molecules are joined together. This can be repeated many times (as long as no damage is caused by overheating). Heat Cool Harden Soften Thermoplastic plasticsThermoplastic plastics
  12. 12. Thermoplastic plasticsThermoplastic plastics
  13. 13. They are heated and moulded during manufacture. Once cooled, they will not soften again when heated. This breaks the potentially unending cycle that thermoplastic plastics are capable of. If heated too much, they burn. Thermosetting plastics are those which are set with heat and have little elasticity. Once set, they cannot be reheated and reformed. Heat Cool Harden Soften Burn Thermosetting plasticsThermosetting plastics
  14. 14. Thermosetting plasticsThermosetting plastics
  15. 15. Here are some common products made from thermoplastics. Can you say which type of thermoplastic each one is made of? Acrylic High density polythene ABS Low density polythenePolypropylene Uses of plasticsUses of plastics (thermoplastics)(thermoplastics) Polystyrene
  16. 16. Thermosets have different qualities to thermoplastics. Can you say which thermoset each of these products is made from? Melamine formaldehyde Urea formaldehyde GRP Phenol formaldehyde Epoxy resin Uses of plastics (thermosets)Uses of plastics (thermosets)
  17. 17. Injection MoldingInjection Molding  Materials such as polystyrene, nylon,Materials such as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene and polythene can be usedpolypropylene and polythene can be used in a process called injection molding.in a process called injection molding. These are thermoplastics - this meansThese are thermoplastics - this means when they are heated and then pressuredwhen they are heated and then pressured in a mould they can be formed intoin a mould they can be formed into different shapes. A simple diagram of andifferent shapes. A simple diagram of an injection molding machine is shown below.injection molding machine is shown below.
  18. 18. Injection MoldingInjection Molding   
  19. 19. Operating principle of injectionOperating principle of injection molding machinemolding machine  A similar desk organizer can be manufacturedA similar desk organizer can be manufactured through injection molding. With this processthrough injection molding. With this process molten plastic is injected into a steel mould. Themolten plastic is injected into a steel mould. The steel mould made to great accuracy and it cansteel mould made to great accuracy and it can be reused thousands of times. It is made in twobe reused thousands of times. It is made in two halves so that when the molten plastic hashalves so that when the molten plastic has cooled, the two parts can be separated and thecooled, the two parts can be separated and the plastic desk organizer removed. Thermoplasticsplastic desk organizer removed. Thermoplastics such as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene andsuch as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene and polythene are ideal plastics for this type ofpolythene are ideal plastics for this type of manufacturing process.manufacturing process.
  20. 20.  Although the desk organizer is manufactured inAlthough the desk organizer is manufactured in one piece, the tubes look as if they are separate.one piece, the tubes look as if they are separate. However, if you look closely they are joined byHowever, if you look closely they are joined by small ‘fillets’ of plastic. These can be cut, if eachsmall ‘fillets’ of plastic. These can be cut, if each part of the desk organizer is to be usedpart of the desk organizer is to be used separately, or the client wants to split the largeseparately, or the client wants to split the large desk organizer into a number of smaller piecesdesk organizer into a number of smaller pieces (by cutting with a scissors or craft knife).(by cutting with a scissors or craft knife).
  21. 21. Injection MoldingInjection Molding
  22. 22. Injection MoldingInjection Molding
  23. 23. Stages of Injection moldingStages of Injection molding     StageStage 11 Granulated or powdered thermoplastic plastic is fed from aGranulated or powdered thermoplastic plastic is fed from a hopperhopper into theinto the Injection Molding machine.Injection Molding machine.  Stage 2Stage 2 The Injection Molding machine consists of a hollow steel barrel, containing aThe Injection Molding machine consists of a hollow steel barrel, containing a rotating screw (rotating screw (Archemidial ScrewArchemidial Screw ). The screw carries the plastic along). The screw carries the plastic along the barrel to the mould.the barrel to the mould. HeatersHeaters surround the barrel melt the plastic as it travels along the barrel.surround the barrel melt the plastic as it travels along the barrel.  Stage 3Stage 3 The screw is forced back as the melted plastic collects at the end of theThe screw is forced back as the melted plastic collects at the end of the barrel.barrel. Once enough plastic has collected aOnce enough plastic has collected a hydraulic ramhydraulic ram pushes the screwpushes the screw forward injecting the plastic through aforward injecting the plastic through a spurespure into a mould cavity.into a mould cavity. The mould is warmed before injecting and the plastic is injected quickly toThe mould is warmed before injecting and the plastic is injected quickly to prevent it from hardening before the mould is fullprevent it from hardening before the mould is full
  24. 24. Stages of Injection mouldingStages of Injection moulding     Stage 4Stage 4 Pressure is maintained for a short time (Pressure is maintained for a short time (dwell timedwell time) to) to prevent the material creeping back duringprevent the material creeping back during settingsetting (hardening). This prevents shrinkage and hollows,(hardening). This prevents shrinkage and hollows, therefore giving a better quality product.therefore giving a better quality product. The moulding is left to cool before removing (The moulding is left to cool before removing (ejectedejected)) from the mould. Thefrom the mould. The mouldingmoulding takes on the shape oftakes on the shape of the mould cavity.The image below shows an anthe mould cavity.The image below shows an an Injection Moulding machine.Injection Moulding machine.
  25. 25. Process illustrationProcess illustration  11. The plastic is fed in granular form into a 'hopper' that. The plastic is fed in granular form into a 'hopper' that stores it.stores it.  22. A large thread is turned by a motor which feeds the. A large thread is turned by a motor which feeds the granules through a heated section.granules through a heated section.  33. In this heated section the granules melt and become a. In this heated section the granules melt and become a liquid and the liquid is fed into a mould.liquid and the liquid is fed into a mould.  44. Air is forced into the mould which forces the plastic to. Air is forced into the mould which forces the plastic to the sides, giving the shape of the bottle.the sides, giving the shape of the bottle.  55.  The mould is then cooled and is remove.  The mould is then cooled and is remove
  26. 26. Injection Molding MachineInjection Molding Machine
  27. 27. Mounting the mould and setting the clamping unit  set mould height on the machine with the clamping unit closed  check clamping devices  fix mould securely to the lifting tackle, ensuring that the two mould halves remain together, if necessary by bolting  lock mould and thoroughly tighten up clamping bolts  set clamping force at desired level  set mould safety device: low pressure and high pressure  set mould opening stroke, with damping.  set ejectors
  28. 28. Molding TerminologiesMolding Terminologies  Pattern: A sample or prototype to make somePattern: A sample or prototype to make some design as is made by a dye.design as is made by a dye.  Mold: AMold: A moldmold oror mouldmould is a hollowed-out blockis a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal,that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw materials.or ceramic raw materials.  Moldmaker: The manufacturer who makes theMoldmaker: The manufacturer who makes the molds is called moldmaker .molds is called moldmaker .  Release Agent:A release agent is typically usedRelease Agent:A release agent is typically used to make removal of the hardened/set substanceto make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mold easier.from the mold easier.
  29. 29. Setting the injection unit  after having heated up the cylinder, set nozzle contact force  make sure the mould is closed  initially set material feed somewhat lower than the required shot weight  set the position for change-over to hold-on pressure based on safety side  plasticize stepwise under manual control, while observing how the material feeds: this should be consistent and  not jerky movements  after a short pause, purge out manually and check the melt temperature  set injection speed and injection pressure to average values
  30. 30. Setting the machine controls  set the operational selector switch to manual  set injection time, after-pressure time and pause time initially somewhat longer than necessary, then optimize  them after a few shot
  31. 31. Starting the injection process When all settings have been checked, switch over from ‘manual’ to ‘semi-automatic’ mode. In general the settings must be optimized after several shots. Take following steps:  increase or reduce metering  optimize injection speed  observe the material cushion in front of the screw  check pressure build-up during injection  check cooling time and if possible shorten it  set screw r.p.m. to a low value: plastification time should be slightly shorter than cooling time
  32. 32. Starting the injection process  check mould locking force  harmonize machine movements to obtain a better balance of speeds, sequence and damping  if visually acceptable moldings are being produced, check quality  where necessary, optimize and store the various functions  record machine setting data  ensure that moldings are correctly taken out and transported away  ensure quality control  aim for a ‘fully-automatic’ machine cycle to ensure uniform molding quality
  33. 33. The Injection Moulding-MouldThe Injection Moulding-Mould    A mould used for Injection Moulding may cost thousands of pounds toA mould used for Injection Moulding may cost thousands of pounds to produce however it does turn out to be economical as many thousands ofproduce however it does turn out to be economical as many thousands of mouldings can be produced from a single mould. This results in the low costmouldings can be produced from a single mould. This results in the low cost of each moulding.of each moulding. It used to be the case that when a new type of casting was needed a brandIt used to be the case that when a new type of casting was needed a brand newnew diedie had to be made. Modern dies and moulds are made from a numberhad to be made. Modern dies and moulds are made from a number ofof interchangeable partsinterchangeable parts . This allows the shape of the mould to be. This allows the shape of the mould to be altered.altered. The dies or moulds used in this process are made fromThe dies or moulds used in this process are made from alloy stainlessalloy stainless steelsteel. These special alloy steel moulds are made in a number of parts to. These special alloy steel moulds are made in a number of parts to allow the mouldings to be easily removed.allow the mouldings to be easily removed. These steel moulds are initially very expensive to make and are suited toThese steel moulds are initially very expensive to make and are suited to production in quantity where accuracy of size, shape and surface finish isproduction in quantity where accuracy of size, shape and surface finish is essential.essential.
  34. 34. Injection Molding ApplicationsInjection Molding Applications  Injection molding is a manufacturing technique forInjection molding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from plastic material.making parts from plastic material.  Heated, fluid plastic is injected at high pressure into aHeated, fluid plastic is injected at high pressure into a mold, which is the inverse of the desired shape.mold, which is the inverse of the desired shape.  The steel or aluminum mold is machined with theThe steel or aluminum mold is machined with the contours of the final product.contours of the final product.  Injection molding is used for create a variety of parts, likeInjection molding is used for create a variety of parts, like plastic milk cartons, containers, bottle caps, automotiveplastic milk cartons, containers, bottle caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs, and most other plasticdashboards, pocket combs, and most other plastic products available today.products available today.
  35. 35. Injection Molding ApplicationsInjection Molding Applications  Injection molding is the most common method of partInjection molding is the most common method of part manufacturing.manufacturing.  AC drives will commonly be used to power the hydraulicAC drives will commonly be used to power the hydraulic oil pressure pump for operating the mold works of anoil pressure pump for operating the mold works of an injection-molding machine.injection-molding machine.  Servo drives can be used to operate the injection screw,Servo drives can be used to operate the injection screw, as precision control is often required for the injectionas precision control is often required for the injection step.step.  Significant energy savings are often realized by replacingSignificant energy savings are often realized by replacing hydraulics with electric drive systems on injectionhydraulics with electric drive systems on injection molding machines.molding machines.
  36. 36. Thank you…Thank you…

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