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Lean Tools

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Select the right “Lean” tool to manage outcomes and expectations

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Lean Tools

  1. 1. Lean Tools<br />Select the right “Lean” tool to manage outcomes and expectations<br />Anand Subramaniam<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />“The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.” <br />- Albert Einstein <br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Highlights<br />Lean Tools<br />Lean Tools - Others<br />
  4. 4. Lean Tools<br />
  5. 5. What is Lean?<br />Elimination of waste<br />Toyota Production System (TPS)<br />Philosophy<br />Produce only what is needed, when it is needed, with no waste<br />Methodology<br />Determination of value added in the process<br />Tools<br />Five Ss, Kaizen event, standardised work, etc<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Problem Solving<br />6<br /><ul><li>Benchmarking
  7. 7. Process walks
  8. 8. Pareto Charts
  9. 9. Cause & Effect
  10. 10. PDCA
  11. 11. Brainstorming
  12. 12. Process Mapping
  13. 13. Spaghetti Diagrams
  14. 14. Histograms
  15. 15. Check sheets
  16. 16. Flowcharts
  17. 17. 5 W -5S-7W-VSM
  18. 18. Takt time
  19. 19. Poka-Yoka</li></ul>% of Problems<br />6 Sigma<br />DOE<br />Taguchi<br />Plan – Do - Check – Act 7 QC Tools <br />Check Sheet<br />Cause & Effect Diagram<br />Graphs & Charts<br />Pareto<br />Control Chart<br />Histogram<br />Scatter Diagram<br />Easy Medium Difficult<br />20%<br />20%<br />60%<br />Degree of Difficulty<br />
  20. 20. 7<br />Lean - Tools<br />5S<br />8 W (Waste)<br />Jidoka / Andon / PokaYoke / Mistake Proofing<br />Single minute exchange of die (SMED)<br />Standard Operating Proced-ures<br />Kaizen Tools<br />Kanban<br />Total Preventa-tiveMainten-ance<br />Takt time<br />Through-put time<br />Spaghetti diagram<br />Value Stream Mapping<br />Kaizen blitz or event<br />
  21. 21. 5 S<br />Seiri (Sort)—Separate necessary from unnecessary items, including tools, parts, materials, and paperwork, and remove the unnecessary items<br />Seiton (Straighten)—Arrange the necessary items neatly, providing visual cues to where items should be placed<br />Seiso (Sweep)—Clean the work area<br />Seiketsu (Standardise)—Standardise the first three Ss so that cleanliness is maintained<br />Shitsuke (Sustain)—Ensure that the first four Ss continue to be performed on a regular basis<br />8<br />
  22. 22. 8W - Waste (Muda) Types<br />Transportation<br />Inventory<br />Motion<br />Waiting<br />Over-production<br />Over-processing<br />Defects<br />Standards lacking<br />9<br />Tim Woods<br />
  23. 23. Common Causes of Waste <br />Long setup time<br />Lack of training<br />Layout (distance)<br />Poor maintenance<br />Poor work methods<br />Incapable processes<br />Inconsistent performance measures<br />Ineffective production planning <br />Lack of workplace organisation<br />Poor supply quality / reliability <br />10<br />
  24. 24. Jidoka and Andon<br />Jidoka is the ability for machines to be self-dependent and error proof without any human interaction<br />Prevents defects from passing from one step in the system to the next<br />Enables swift detection and correction of errors<br />Andon is a visual or audible signaling device used to indicate there is a problem in the process<br />11<br />
  25. 25. Poka-Yoke (Mistake-Proofing<br />An approach for mistake-proofing processes using automatic devices or methods to avoid simple human or machine error, such as forgetfulness, misunderstanding, errors in identification, lack of experience, absentmindedness, delays, or malfunctions<br />12<br />
  26. 26. Single Minute Exchange of Die(SMED)<br />Used to reduce changeover or setup time, which is the time needed between the completion of one procedure and the start of the next procedure<br />Steps<br />Separate internal activities from external activities<br />Convert internal setup activities to external activities<br />Streamline all setup activities<br />13<br />
  27. 27. Standardised Work<br />Written documentation of the way in which each step in a process should be performed<br />Not a rigid system of compliance, but a means of communicating and codifying current best practices<br />14<br />
  28. 28. Takt Time<br />The speed with which customers must be served to satisfy demand for the service<br />Cycle time is the time to accomplish a task in the system<br />System cycle time is equal to the longest task cycle time in the system—the rate at which customers or products exit the system, or “drip time”<br />15<br />
  29. 29. Takt Time - Calculation<br />TAKT time is how many minutes or seconds are needed to make one part when considering the daily volumes, to be produced in that work-cell and the total time available to perform the job<br />TAKT time is NOT the time it takes to manufacture the product. It is based on customer demand<br />Who is the customer<br />The next operation<br />Customer orders<br />16<br />
  30. 30. TAKT Time<br />Net Available Operating Time (NAOT)<br /> • Time per shift - 480 minutes<br /> • Breaks (2 @ 10´) - 20 minutes<br /> • Clean-up - 20 minutes<br /> • Lunch - 30 minutes <br /> • NAOT per shift - 410 minutes <br />Customer Requirements<br /> • Monthly - 26,000 units/month<br /> • No. Working Days - 20 days/month <br />• CR/Day - 1,300 units/day<br />TAKT Time<br /> • 410 x 60 x 3 shifts (73,800) divided by 1,300 <br /> • 57.769 seconds per part or 57 seconds<br />17<br />
  31. 31. Throughput Time<br />Time for an item to complete the entire process, which includes:<br />Queue time<br />Waiting time<br />Transport time<br />Actual processing time<br />18<br />
  32. 32. Spaghetti Diagram<br />19<br />
  33. 33. Value Stream Mapping<br />Process map of the value stream<br />Includes information & transformational processing<br />Value-added steps: “Would the customer be willing to pay for this activity?” <br />Non-value-added steps<br />Necessary (required for business operation)<br />Unnecessary<br />20<br />
  34. 34. 21<br />Kaizen Blitz<br />Determine and define the objectives<br />Determine the current state of the process<br />Determine the requirements of the process<br />Create an implementation plan<br />Continue the cycle<br />Implement the improvements<br />Check the effectiveness of the improvements<br />Document and standardise the improved process<br />
  35. 35. 22<br />Kanban<br />Withdrawal kanban<br />Machine Centre<br />Assembly Line<br />Bin Part A<br />Bin Part A<br />Material Flow<br />Card (signal) Flow<br />Production kanban<br />
  36. 36. Total Preventative Maintenance<br />Idle workers use their time more effectively and maintain workstations to help in the prevention of various problems that would halt production<br />Advantages of flexible workers:<br /> - Quality inspections<br /> - Operation of several machines<br />
  37. 37. Cellular Manufacturing<br />Work cells are central to the idea of one piece flow<br />Ideally these work cells focus on a low range of similar products<br />Product continually moves around the cell to each operation until complete at the end of the “U” – this optimises flow from one station to the next<br />
  38. 38. Heijunka<br />Heijunka —“make flat and level”; eliminate variation in volume and variety of “production” <br />Level customer demand<br />25<br />
  39. 39. Lean Tools - Others<br />
  40. 40. Voice of Customer (VOC) - Key Factors<br />Customer Feedback<br />Kaizen Process<br />Understand Customer Experience<br />Customer Data Analysis<br />Customer Data Collection<br />
  41. 41. 28<br />Brainstorming – Ideas for Improvement <br />Too many emergencies (“rush” projects)<br />Lack of Communication<br />Timeliness (Process takes too long)<br />Lack of Streamlined process<br />Unrealistic job expectations<br />Brainstorm<br />Process not followed or forms incomplete / inadequate / incorrect<br />Mentoring / coaching / training needed<br />Too Many Steps in Process<br />One size does not fit all<br />Need to educate the customer<br />Lack of prioritisation<br />
  42. 42. Cause & Effect<br />29<br />
  43. 43. 30<br />Value Stream Map <br />
  44. 44. 31<br />“Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.“<br />- Antoine de Saint Exupery<br />
  45. 45. 32<br />Good Luck<br /><br />