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  1. 1. MORFOLOGI BUNGA 2
  2. 2. 11/30/2022 2 Bagian Bagian Bunga • Pedicellus • Receptaculum • Periantium / Perigonium • Androecium – Stamen • Gynaecium – Pistillum
  3. 3. 11/30/2022 3 Bagian-Bagian Bunga
  4. 4. 11/30/2022 4 epicalyx calyx Staminal colum petal pedicellus stigma stamen
  5. 5. 11/30/2022 5
  6. 6. 11/30/2022 6 The Main Part of a Flower Typically has Four Parts
  7. 7. 11/30/2022 7 Kelopak Bunga • First series; the outermost whorl or spiral of a typical flower (asexual/sterile) • Biasanya gugur pada saat bunga berkembang menjadi buah
  8. 8. 11/30/2022 8 • Ada yang persisten seperti pada jambu, terong • Lobus calyx (sepal) dapat membesar seperti pada Mussaenda frondosa • Pada Malvaceae (Hibiscus) terdapat epicalyx
  9. 9. 11/30/2022 9
  10. 10. 11/30/2022 10 epicalyx calyx ovarium ovulum stylus Staminal colum petal reseptculu m pedicellus
  11. 11. 11/30/2022 11 Tipe Kelopak • Berlekatan (gamosepalus) – Berbagi, bercangap, berlekuk • Lepas (polysepalus)
  12. 12. 11/30/2022 12 Corolla • Petals (corolla) – Second series; the second whorl or spiral of a typical flower (asexual/sterile); petals alternate with sepals • Perianth – collective term for calyx + corolla
  13. 13. 11/30/2022 13 Corolla • Terdiri atas petal yang: – Berlekatan (Sympetalus, gamopetalus, monopetalus) • Limbus • Faux • tubus – Lepas (Choripetalus, dialypetalus,polypetalus) – Tidak berpetal (Apetalus)
  14. 14. 11/30/2022 14 Tipe corola • Simetri Radial (Actinomorphus) – Bintang (rotatus/stellatus) – Tabung (tubulosus) – Terompet (hypocrateriformis) – Mangkuk (urceolatus) – Corong (infundibuliformis) – Lonceng (campanulatus) • Simetri Bilateral (Zygomorphus) – Bertaji (calcaratus) – Berbibir (Labiatus) – Bentuk kupu-kupu (pappilionaceus) – Bertopeng (personatus) – Bentuk pita (ligulatus)
  15. 15. 11/30/2022 15
  16. 16. 11/30/2022 16 Perhiasan bunga (periantium) • Bunga Lengkap : Perhiasan bunga lengkap • Bunga tidak lengkap: salah satu perhiasan bunga tidak ada • Bunga sempurna : Hermaphrodit • Bunga tidak sempurna : Uniseksualis • Bunga Telanjang : tanpa perhiasan bunga  Euphorbia pulcherrima
  17. 17. 11/30/2022 17 Tenda bunga (perigonium) • Tidak bisa dibedakan antara sepal dan petal tepal • Contoh : – Michelia champaca (cempaka) – Gloriosa superba (Kembang sungsang)
  18. 18. 11/30/2022 18 Kelamin Bunga • Hermaphrodit ♀♂ • Uniseksualis ♀ atau ♂ • Mandul (Steril) jika pada bunga tidak terdapat alat kelamin – Bunga tepi pada bunga matahari Mahkota bunga tepi Ovarium bunga tepi Mahkota bunga tabung Ovariu m bunga tabung braktea
  19. 19. 11/30/2022 19 Tipe Tumbuhan Berdasarkan Kelamin Bunga • Monoecious: Berumah satu (bunga jantan dan betina ada pada satu tumbuhan) – Jagung (Zea mays) • Dioecious: Berumah dua (bunga jantan dan betina terpisah pada dua individu tumbuhan – Salak (Zalacca edulis) • Polygamus: Jika pada satu tumbuhan terdapat bunga jantan, bunga betina dan bunga banci sekaligus – Pepaya (Carica papaya)
  20. 20. 11/30/2022 20 Simetri Bunga • Asimetris : – Canna, – Delonix regia • Zygomorphus / Simetri bilateral ( ↑ ) – Clitoria ternatea – Datura metel • Actinomorphus / Simetri radial ( ☼ ) – Solanum torvum
  21. 21. 11/30/2022 21 Receptaculum • Sering termodifikasi menjadi – Antofor (Anyelir / Dianthus caryophyllus) – Androfor (Gynandropsis pentaphylla) – Ginofor (Nelumbium nelumbo) – Adroginofor (Passiflora quadrangularis) – Diskus (Citrus)
  22. 22. 11/30/2022 22 • Corona • Anther • Style • Sepal • Petal
  23. 23. 11/30/2022 23
  24. 24. 11/30/2022 24 Tipe bunga berdasarkan reseptakulum dan perhiasan bunga • Hipogynus – Casia siamea • Perigynus – Lagerstroemia sp • Epigynus – Centela asiatica
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  28. 28. 11/30/2022 28 Stamen • Stamen(s) (androecium) – – Third series; the third whorl or spiral; the male reproductive unit; stamens alternate with petals and are opposite the sepals
  29. 29. 11/30/2022 29 Ada tiga bagian • Tangkai sari (filamentum) • Kepala Sari (anthera) – Ruang /Kotak sari (theca) – Serbuk sari (pollen) • Penghubung kotak sari (Connectivum)
  30. 30. 11/30/2022 30 Letak Stamen pd Bunga • Pada reseptaculum (jeruk) • Diatas kelopak (mawar) • Diatas corolla (heliotropium indicum)
  31. 31. 11/30/2022 31 Jumlah Benang Sari • Banyak (Myrtaceae) • Dlm Dua lingkaran (2x jumlah petal) • Sama banyak dengan petal – Epipetal – Episepal • Didynamus (Labiatae) • Tetradynamus (Crucyferae)
  32. 32. 11/30/2022 32 Tangkai Sari / Filamentum • Monadelphus (satu berkas) – Hibiscus rosasinensis • Diadelphus (dua berkas) – papilionaceae / fabaceae
  33. 33. 11/30/2022 33 Kepala Sari • Duduk pada tangkai – Basifixus – Adnatus – Versatilis  Graminae
  34. 34. 11/30/2022 34 Membukanya kepala sari • Celah membujur (longitudinal dehiscent) • Celah melintang (transversal dehiscent) • Lobang pada pangkal (poro dehiscent) • Katup (valvi dehiscent)
  35. 35. 11/30/2022 35 istilah • Staminodium (benang sari yang steril) • Staminodium petaloid (benang sari yang termodifikasi menjadi petal) • Staminal colum (tangkaisari bersatu berbentuk tabung) • Staminodes – sterile stamens (they do not produce pollen); variable in form and size, may be petaloid or secrete nectar • Epipetalous – stamens adnate to corolla
  36. 36. 11/30/2022 36
  37. 37. 11/30/2022 37 • Hypanthium (floral cup) – a structure derived by the adnation of the perianth bases and stamens. It is variously shaped.
  38. 38. 11/30/2022 38 Putik • Carpel(s) (gynoecium) – Fourth series; the terminal or centermost component; the female reproductive unit; 1 to many separate or fused carpels comprise a gynoecium • Kepala Putik (stigma) • Tangkai Putik (stilus) • Bakal Buah (ovarium) – Bakal Biji – Plasenta
  39. 39. 11/30/2022 39
  40. 40. 11/30/2022 40 • Carpels 1 per flower • Carpels more than 1 per flower: – carpels distinct (apocarpous gynoecium) – carpels connate (syncarpous gynoecium) • Pistil – equivalent to gynoecium; formed from one or more carpels • Simple pistil – a gynoecium with one carpel • Compound pistil – a gyneocium with two to many separate or fused carpels (it combines both apocarpous and syncarpous gynoecia)
  41. 41. 11/30/2022 41 Kepala Putik • Berbagai bentuk: – Benang : jagung – Bulu ayam : padi – Bulat : jeruk • Gynostegium: Kepala Putik bersatu dengan stamen  Callotrophis gigantea
  42. 42. 11/30/2022 42 Bakal Buah • Berdasarkan letak bakal buah terhadap dasar bunga – Superus – Semiinferus – Inferus • Berdasarkan jumlah ruang – Beruang satu : pepaya – Beruang dua : kubis – Beruang tiga : karet – Beruang banyak: duren
  43. 43. 11/30/2022 43 Plasenta • Placentation – the arrangement of ovules within the ovary  plasenta (tembuni) • PLACENTATION TYPES: • Marginal • Axile – only found in a syncarpous gynoecium; the placental area of the ovary is attached to an axis derived from the connate margins of the component carpels – such an ovary is divided into two or more locules by septa. The ovules are borne along the central axis. • Parietal – only found in a syncarpous gynoecium; the placental areas are attached to the side walls of the ovary (or extrusions of the wall) – such an ovary usually has one locule (therefore no septa). NOTE: Your textbook considers marginal placentation a type of parietal placentation; we won't in this course. – Sentrales – Aksilaris
  44. 44. 11/30/2022 44 PLACENTATION TYPES • Marginal – only found in an apocarpous gynoecium; the ovules are attached to the folded margins of the carpel.
  45. 45. 11/30/2022 45 PLACENTATION TYPES • Axile – only found in a syncarpous gynoecium; the placental area of the ovary is attached to an axis derived from the connate margins of the component carpels – such an ovary is divided into two or more locules by septa. The ovules are borne along the central axis.
  46. 46. 11/30/2022 46 PLACENTATION TYPES • Parietal – only found in a syncarpous gynoecium; the placental areas are attached to the side walls of the ovary (or extrusions of the wall) – such an ovary usually has one locule (therefore no septa). NOTE: Your textbook considers marginal placentation a type of parietal placentation; we won't in this course.
  47. 47. 11/30/2022 47 PLACENTATION TYPES • Apical – attachment of ovules to the top of the ovary (one locule, no septa) • Basal – attachment of ovules to the botton of the ovary (one locule, no septa)
  48. 48. 11/30/2022 48 • Free-central – attachment of ovules to a free- standing central column in a syncarpous unilocular ovary (one locule, no septa)
  49. 49. 11/30/2022 49 Insertion • Insertion (the method of attachment of one structure to another)
  50. 50. 11/30/2022 50 Insertion • SUPERIOR OVARY – Ovary situated ABOVE the point of attachment of the perianth and androecium and wholly free from them (stamens may be adnate to corolla) – Hypogynous flower – a flower with perianth and androecium arising from below the ovary (gynoecium). – Perigynous flower (if hypanthium not adnate to ovary) – a flower with perianth and androecium arising from a floral cup that is NOT adnate to the ovary. Remember – the ovary is still superior!
  51. 51. 11/30/2022 51 Insertion • INFERIOR OVARY – Ovary is BELOW the point of attachment of the outer flower parts (perianth and androecium). In other words, the outer floral whorls are adnate to the ovary. A hypanthium (floral cup) may or may not be present. – Epigynous flower (if hypanthium adnate to ovary) – a flower with perianth and androecium apparently arising upon the ovary (rather than the receptacle).
  52. 52. 11/30/2022 52 Evolutionary Development of the Carpel • What is a carpel? – Basic unit of gynoecium – The foliar, ovule – bearing unit of a flower that forms either all (apocarpous) or part (syncarpous) of the gynoecium. – Leaflike megasporophyll with infolded or inrolled connate margins bearing one or more ovules on the inside.
  53. 53. 11/30/2022 53 • How can the number of carpels comprising a gynoecium be determined? – Count the stigmas – Count the styles – Count the lobes of the ovary – Count the locules in the ovary – Count rows of placentae • Variation in fusion and closure of carpels from Walters and Keil, 1988, Vascular Plant Taxonomy, 3rd ed. • Placentation types from Walters and Keil, 1988, Vascular Plant Taxonomy, 3rd ed.
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  75. 75. 11/30/2022 75 Correspondence between flower and fruit http://w3.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/35/images/ch35summary.gif

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