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Aviation industry is dealing with construction, operation and
use of aircraft heavier than air. All the "aviation" means all
aircrafts and personnel available in a country.
By purpose and destination, aviation is divided into:
Civil aviation, with its branches:
•Transport aircraft, serving for transporting passenger and
•Sport aviation, whose goal is to recruit young people to
become pilots and paratroopers. Also in sport aviation flight
activities are organized with aircrafts with motor or without
(gliding) for sport pilots and parachuting activities for the
model plane enthusiasts.
•Utilitarian aviation that provides various
healthcare transport services (health aviation),
tourism services (recreational aviation) and
provides chemical treatments working in
agriculture and forestry (Agricultural Aviation).
Military aviation consists of Air Force, which is a
category of armed forces waging warfare
designed in cooperation with the Army, Navy,
and other military forces and independent
mission. Military aviation and air transport
activities are carried out (troops technical) for it
Traian Vuia (born on August 17, 1872, in Bujoru, Caras-Severin County, Austro-
Hungarian Empire – died on September 3, 1950, Bucharest, Romania) was a
Romanian inventor, pioneer of global aviation. On 18 March 1906 he made the first
self-propelled flight (no catapults or other external means) with a heavier than air
On July 1, 1902, he arrived in Paris, bringing in his luggage an original project
"airplane-car", designed while he was a college student, and corresponding model,
which had been made during the last twelve months. In the winter of 1902/1903,
Vuia started construction of the machine, improving it adding minimum details to
the original plans that had been designed the year before at Lugoj. He faced again
financial problems, but managed to overcome them, helped by his mentor
Brediceanu Coriolan. In the fall of 1904 he began to build an engine, all his own
personal invention. In 1904 he obtained a patent for his invention in Britain. The
whole mechanical part was completed in February 1905. The device was ready in
December, after being mounted the engine, and the aircraft was called Vuia I, its
nickname being the Bat because of its shape. It had a total weight of 250 kg, a
supporting surface of 14 m² and a 20 hp engine. The first experiments began in 1905
with its wings removed for Vuia to gain experience in handling it as a car.
On March 18, 1906 at Montesson, near Paris, the device Vuia I flew for
the first time. After an acceleration over a distance of 50 meters, the
machine rose to a height of about one meter at a distance of 12 m,
after which the propeller blades stopped and the plane landed.
Many newspapers from France, the United States and Britain have
written about the first man to fly a heavier than air machine, equipped
with its own system of takeoff and landing propulsion. Since then it
has been emphasized and propagated the idea that Vuia managed to
take off his device on a flat surface using only its own power, "the
board" without "outside help" (slope, rail, catapult, etc.. ). However,
there were also many contradictions and debates over the definition
of the first airplane.
Next he will build different patents and inventions, such as a steam
generator in 1925, and two helicopters between 1918 and 1922. On
September 3, 1950 he died in Bucharest.
He was elected honorary member of the Romanian Academy on May
27, 1946. He is buried at the Bellu cemetery in Bucharest.
Henri Marie Coanda (June 7, 1886 - November 25, 1972) was a
Romanian engineer, academician and pioneer of aviation, physicist,
inventor, inventor of the jet engine and discoverer of the effect which
bears his name. He was the son of General Constantin Coandă, Prime
Minister of Romania in 1918.
He invented a device for measuring the lift, resistant to movement of
various types of air on bearing surfaces (wing profile) with the possibility
of recording values and of comparing charts in order to establish the ideal
profile. The device was mounted on a wagon in front of a locomotive, and
experiments were conducted in motion at a speed of 90 km/h on the
Paris-Saint Quentin route. He could subsequently make these
determinations by using a wind tunnel with smoke and a special
photographic camera of his own design. These experiments established a
functional wing profile for future aircraft.
1911: In Reims, Henri Coanda presented a two-engine aircraft which
operated a single coupled propeller.
1911-1914: As Technical Director of Factories from Bristol, Henri Coanda
designed aircrafts with a more "classic" propeller known as Bristol-
Coanda. In 1912 one of them won the first prize at the International
Competition of military aviation in England.
1914-1918: Henri Coanda worked on "Saint-Chamond" and "AIS-Delaunay-Belleville"
from Saint Denis. During this period he designed three types of aircrafts, of which
the best known is Coandă-1916, with two propellers near the tail unit. Coanda-1916
is similar to Caravelle transport airplane, at whose design he has in fact participated.
It’s worth mentioning the invention of a new building material used for decorations
(eg the Palace of Culture, built in 1926, was decorated entirely with material of H.
Coanda) called concrete.
1926: In Romania, Henri Coanda set up a liquid detection device in the soil. It's still
used in exploration of oil deposits.
In the Persian Gulf, the Romanian inventor built a concrete underwater oil storage
Coanda effect. His was the first observation to be made on the study of the jet in the
world in 1910. After the plane took off, Henri Coanda noticed that the flames and
incandescent gas output from reactors tend to remain attached to the fuselage.
Only after more than 20 years of studies of other scholars, Romanian engineer
formulated the principle behind the so-called Coanda effect, named by Professor
Aurel Vlaicu (November 19, 1882, Binţinţi near Orastie, Hunedoara county –
September 13, 1913,Banesti, near Campina) was a Romanian engineer, inventor and
pioneer of Romanian and world aviation. In his honor, his native village is now
called Aurel Vlaicu.
In the fall of 1909 he moved to Bucharest and started building his first airplane,
Vlaicu I, at the Army arsenal. Plane flew without any modification (which is unique
to early world aviation) in June 1910. In 1911 he built a second airplane, Vlaicu II,
who in 1912 won five memorable awards (1 prize I and 4 prizes II) in air rally at
Aspern, Austria. The competition brought together from 23 to 30 June 1912 42
riders from 7 countries, 17 from Austria-Hungary, 7 German, 12 French among them
Roland Garros (the most famous pilot of the time), a Russian, a Belgian, a Persian
and a Romanian - Vlaicu.
In the most famous Viennese newspaper Neue Freie Presse, there were the
following lines about Vlaicu’s flights:
"The Romanian inventor Aurel Vlaicu executed beautiful and courageous flights on
an original airplane, built just for flying, with two propellers, including the pilot sits.
… The world rewarded the Romanian inventor enthusiastically with thunderous
applauses and unimaginable shouts of joy. "
On 13 September 1913, during an attempt to cross the Carpathian Mountains with
his Vlaicu II airplane, he crashed near Campina, apparently due to a heart attack.
The following year, his friends Magnani Silisteanu completed the construction of
Vlaicu III aircraft and pilot Peter Macavei made several short flights with it.
Authorities prohibited further attempts to fly due to weather conditions and in
autumn 1916, during the German occupation, the plane was dispatched to Berlin. He
was last seen in 1940.
This project was made by:
Student Nicoleta-Elena Nedelcu
Class: XIII B
Teacher: Andrei Monica