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Retail management

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Retail management

  1. 1. RetailManagement
  2. 2. What is Retail Management? Retailing encompasses the business activities involved in selling goods & services to consumers for their personal, family, or household use. It includes every sale to the final consumer – ranging from cars to apparel to meals at restaurants to movie tickets. Key issues that retailer must resolve: How can we best serve our customer while earning a fair profit? How can we stand out in a highly competitive environment where customers have so many choices? How can we grow our business while retailing a core of loyal customers? ISB&M Retail Management
  3. 3. Retail Functions in Distribution Final Manufacturer Wholesaler consumer Retailer A Typical Channel of Distribution Manufacturer Brand A Brand A Wholesaler customers Manufacturer Brand B Brand B Retailer customers Manufacturer Brand C Brand C customers Wholesaler Brand D Manufacturer customers Brand D Retailers role in sorting process ISB&M Retail Management
  4. 4. Retail Functions in Distributioncontd.. Retailers often act as the contact between manufacturers, wholesalers, & customers. Retailers collect an assortment (variety) from various sources, buy in large quantity, & sell in small amount. This is sorting process. Retailers communicate with customers, wholesalers & manufacturers. Shoppers learn about the availability & characteristics of goods & services, store hours, sales etc., from retailers advt., sales people & displays. Manufacturers & wholesalers are informed by their retailers with regard to sales forecast, delivery delays, customer complaints, defective items, inventory turnover and so on.. Many goods & services have been modified due to retailer feedback. For small suppliers, retailers provide assistance by transporting, sorting, marketing, advertising, & pre-paying for the products. Retailers also complete transactions with customers i.e., having convenient locations, filling order promptly & accurately, & processing credit purchase. Some retailers also provide customer services such as gifts wrapping, delivery, & installation. To be more appealing, many firms engage in multi-channel retailing i.e., multiple point of contact like physical stores, websites, mail-order catalogs etc. ISB&M Retail Management
  5. 5. Retail Functions in Distributioncontd.. Benefits Reach more customers Reduce costs Improve cash flow Increase sales more rapidly Focus on area of expertise Manufacturers also do operate retail facilities (besides selling at conventional retailers). In running their stores, these firms compete the full range of retailing functions & compete with conventional retailers. ISB&M Retail Management
  6. 6. Retailer-Supplier Relationship Retailers are part of distribution channel, so manufacturers (wholesalers) are concerned about: Caliber of displays Customer service Store hours Retailer‘s reliability as business partners Retailers are also major customers of goods & services for resale, store fixtures, computers, management consulting ,& insurance. Retailers and supplier have different priorities on: Control over distribution channel Profit allocation No. of competing retailers handling supplier‘s products Product display Promotion support Payment terms Operating flexibility ISB&M Retail Management
  7. 7. Retailer-Supplier Relationshipcontd.. Channel Relations Exclusive Distribution Suppliers make agreements with one or a few retailers that designates them the only one to carry certain brands/products in a specific geographic region. Both parties work together to maintain an image, assign self space, allot profits & costs, & advertise. This is the smoothest channel relationship. Intensive Distribution Suppliers sell through as many retailers as possible. This maximizes suppliers‘ sales & lets retailers offer many brands & product versions. Retailers may assign little self space to specific brands, set high price on them, & not advertise them. This is most volatile channel relationship. Selective Distribution Suppliers sell through a moderate no. of retailers carrying some competing brands. This combines aspects of Exclusive & Intensive Distribution ISB&M Retail Management
  8. 8. The Special Characteristics ofRetailing The average amount of a sales transaction for retailers is much less than manufacturers. This low amount creates the need to tightly control the cost associated with each transaction like sales personnel, credit verification, & bagging. To maximize the no. of customer the retailer has to emphasize more on ads & special promotions. Increase impulse sales by more aggressive selling. Final consumers make many unplanned or impulse purchases. Large %age of consumers do not look at ads before shopping. They do not prepare shopping list. Make fully unplanned purchases. This indicates the value of in-store displays, attractive store layouts, & well organized stores, catalogs, & website. Retailer‘s ability to forecast, budget, order merchandise, & sufficient personnel on the selling floor becomes difficult. ISB&M Retail Management
  9. 9. The Special Characteristics ofRetailing Retail customers usually visit a store, even though mail, phone, & web sales has increased. Most retail transactions happen in stores & will continue in future. Many people like to shop in person, want to touch, smell, and/or try on products. Many people to browse for unplanned purchases. They feel more comfortable talking a purchase home with them than waiting for a delivery. Desire privacy while at home. Retailers must work to attract shoppers to stores & consider such factors such as store location, transportation, store hours, proximity (nearness) of competitors, product selection, parking & ads. ISB&M Retail Management
  10. 10. Importance of Retail Strategy Retail strategy is the overall plan guiding a retail firm. It influences the firm’s business activities & its response to market forces, such as competition & economy. Six steps in strategic planning Define the type of business in terms of the goods or services & company‘s specific orientation. Set long-run & short-run objectives for sales & profit, market share, image etc. Determine the customer market to target on the basis of its characteristics (like gender & income level) & needs (like product & brand preferences). Devise an overall, long-run plan that gives general direction to the firms & its employees. Implement an integrated strategy that combines factors like store location, transportation, product variety, pricing, and advertising & display to achieve objectives. Regularly evaluate performance & correct weaknesses or problems when observed. ISB&M Retail Management
  11. 11. Key to success Growth-oriented objectives Appeal to prime market Distinctive company image Focus Strong customer service for its retail category Multiple points of contact Employee relations Innovation Commitment to technology Community involvement Constantly monitoring performance ISB&M Retail Management
  12. 12. The Retailing Concept Customer orientation Coordinated effort Retailing concept Retail Strategy Value- driven Goal orientation Customer orientation - The retailer determines the attributes & needs of its customers & endeavors (take action) to satisfy these needs. Coordinated effort - The retailers integrates all plans & activities to maximize efficiency. Value-driven - The retailer offers good value to the customers, whether it be upscale (expensive) or discount i.e., ―appropriate pricing‖ for goods & customer service. Goal oriented - The retailer sets goal & uses its strategy to attain them. ISB&M Retail Management
  13. 13. Classification of Retail Institutions Nonstore-based Store-based retail retail strategy mix Ownership & nontraditional strategy mix retailing • Independent • Convenience store • Direct marketing • Chain • Conventional supermarket • Direct selling • Franchise • Food-based supermarket • Vending machine • Leased department • Combination store • World wide web (WWW) • Vertical marketing system • Box (limited line) store • Consumer cooperative • Warehouse store • Specialty store • Variety store • Traditional department store • Full-line department store • Off-price chain • Factory outlet • Membership club • Flea (louse) market ISB&M Retail Management
  14. 14. Retail Institution by Ownership Ownership format serves a marketplace niche. Independent retailers capitalize on a very small targeted customer base & please shoppers in a friendly, folksy (simple) way. Word-of mouth communication is important. These retailers should not try to serve too many customer & enter into price wars. Chain retailers benefit from widely known image, economies of scales (i.e. cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion), & mass promotion possibilities. They should maintain their image chain wide & not be inflexible in adapting changes in the marketplace. Franchisors have strong geographic coverage & motivation of the franchisees as owner- operators. They should not get bogged down in policy disputes with franchisees or charge excessive royalty fees. Leased departments enable store operators & outside parties to join forces & enhance the shopping experience, while sharing expertise & expenses. They should not hurt the image of the store or place too much pressure on the lessee to bring in store traffic. A vertically integrated channel gives a firm greater control over sources of supply, but it should not provide consumers with too little choice of products or too few outlets. Cooperatives provide members with price savings. They should not expect too much involvement by members or add facilities that raise costs too much. ISB&M Retail Management
  15. 15. Independent Retailer An independent retailer owns one retail unit. Advantages There is flexibility in choosing retail formats, location, assortment (variety), prices, hours etc., & devising strategy based on the target customers. Investment costs for leases, fixtures, workers, & merchandise can be brought down. There is no duplication of stock or personnel function. Responsibilities are clearly delineated (defined) within the store. Independents frequently act as specialist in a niche of the particular goods/services category. They are then more efficient & can lure (attract) shoppers interested in specialized retailers. Independents exert strong control over their strategies, & the owner-operator is typically on the premises. Decision making is centralized & layers of management personnel are minimized. There are certain image attached to independents, particularly small ones, that chains cannot readily capture. Independents can easily sustain consistency in their efforts because only one store is operated. Independents have ―Independence‖. No meetings, union, stockholders & labor unrest etc. Entrepreneurial drive. ISB&M Retail Management
  16. 16. Independent Retailer Disadvantages Less bargaining power with the suppliers as they buy less quantity. Cannot gain economies of scale (i.e. cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion) in buying & maintaining inventory. Transportation, ordering, & handling costs are high. Operations are labor intensive. They are limited to certain media for advt. because of financial constraints. Family-run independents is overdependence on the owner. It is difficult to keep it up & running. Limited time allotted to long-run planning, since owner is intimately involved in day-to day operations. ISB&M Retail Management
  17. 17. Chain Retailer Chain retailer operates multiple outlets (store units) under common ownership. It usually involves in some level of centralized purchasing & decision making. Advantages Many chains have bargaining power due to their purchase volume. They receive new items when introduced, have orders promptly filled, get sales support, & obtain volume discounts. Chains achieve cost efficiencies when they buy directly from the manufacturers & in large volumes, ship and store goods, & attend trade shows sponsored by the suppliers to learn about new offerings. They can sometimes bypass wholesalers. Efficiency is gained by sharing warehouse facilities; purchasing standardized store fixtures; centralized buying & decision making etc. Headquarters have broad authority for personnel policies & for buying, pricing, & advt. decisions. Computerized ordering merchandise, inventory, forecasting, sales, & bookkeeping. This reduces overall costs. Take advantage of variety of media from print to electronic. Detailed & clear responsibility for employees with available substitute incase any employee is retiring or quitting. Spend considerable time in strategic planning. Opportunity & threat are closely monitored. ISB&M Retail Management
  18. 18. Chain Retailer Disadvantages Flexibility may be limited. Consistent strategies on pricing, promotions, & product variety must be followed throughout all units which may be difficult to adapt to local diverse market. Investment is high due to infrastructure & store as multiple store has to be stocked. Managerial control is complex due to geographically dispersed branches. Limited independence to the personnel. ISB&M Retail Management
  19. 19. Franchising Franchising involves a contractual arrangement between a franchisor (a manufacturer, wholesaler, or service sponsor) & a retail franchisee, which allows the franchisee to conduct business under a established name & according to a given pattern of business. The franchisee pays an initial fees & a monthly %age of the gross sales in exchange for the rights to sell goods & services in an area. A franchisee operates autonomously in setting store hours, chooses a location, & determines facilities & displays. Three structural arrangements dominate retail franchising Manufacturer-retailer – A manufacturer gives independent franchisees the right to sell goods & related services through licensing agreement. (Eg., Auto/truck dealers like GM, Petroleum products dealers like IOC). Wholesaler-retailer Voluntary - A wholesaler sets up a franchise system & grants franchises to individual retailer. (Eg., Auto accessories stores, Consumer electronics stores). Cooperative – A group of retailers sets up a franchise system & shares the ownership & operations of a wholesaling organization. (Eg., Food stores). Service sponsor-retailer – A service firm licenses individual retailers so they can offer specific service packages to customers. (Eg., McDoland‘s). ISB&M Retail Management
  20. 20. Franchising contd..Advantages of Franchisees They own a retail enterprise with a relatively small capital. They acquire well-known names & goods/services lines. Standard operating procedures & management skills may be taught to them. Cooperative marketing efforts (like national advt.) are facilitated. They obtain exclusive selling rights for specified geographical territories. Their purchases may be less costly per unit due to the volume of the overall franchise.Disadvantages of Franchisees Oversaturation could occur if too many franchisees are there in one geographical area. Due to overzealous selling by some franchisors, franchisees‘ income potential, required managerial ability, & investment may be incorrectly stated. They may be locked into contracts requiring purchases from franchisors or certain vendors. Cancellation clauses may give franchisors the right to void agreement if provisions are not satisfied. In some industries, franchise agreements are of short duration. Royalties are often a %age of gross sales, regardless of franchisee profits. ISB&M Retail Management
  21. 21. Franchising contd..Advantages of Franchisors A national & global presence is developed more quickly & with less franchisor investment. Franchisee qualification for ownership are set & enforced. Agreement require franchisees to abide by stringent operating rules set by franchisors. Money is obtained when goods are delivered rather than when goods are sold. Because franchisees are owners & not employees, they have greater initiative to work hard. Even after franchisees have paid for their outlets, franchisors receive royalties & may sell products to the individual proprietors.Disadvantages of Franchisors Franchisees harm the overall reputation if they do not adhere to company standards. Lack of uniformity among outlets adversely affects customer loyalty. Intra-franchise competition is not desirable. The resale value of individual units is injured if franchisees perform poorly. Ineffective franchised units directly injure franchisors‘ profitability. Franchisees, in greater number, are seeking to limit franchisors‘ rules & regulations. ISB&M Retail Management
  22. 22. Leased Department A leased department is a department in a retail store – usually a department, discount, or specialty store – that is rented to outside party. The leased department proprietor is responsible for all aspects of its business & normally pays a %age of sales as rent. The store sets operating restrictions for the leased department to ensure overall consistency & coordination. Advantages (from the stores’ prespective) The market is enlarged by providing one-stop customer shopping. Personnel management, merchandise displays, & reordering items are undertaken by lessees. Regular store personnel do not have to be involved. Leased department operators pay for some expenses, thus reducing store costs. A %age of revenue is received regularly. Disadvantages (from the stores’ prespective) Leased department operating procedures may conflict with store procedures. Lessees may adversely affect the stores‘ image. Customers may blame problems on the store rather than on the lessees. ISB&M Retail Management
  23. 23. Leased Department Advantages for Leased department operators Stores are known, have steady customers, & generate immediate sales for leased departments. Some costs are reduced through shared facilities like security equipment & display windows. Their image is enhanced by the relationships with popular stores. Disadvantages for Leased department operators There may be inflexibility as to the store hours they must be open & the operating style. The goods / services lines are usually restricted. If they are successful, the store may raise rent or not renew leases when they expire. In-store locations may not generate the sales expected. ISB&M Retail Management
  24. 24. Vertical Marketing System A vertical marketing system consists of all the levels of independently owned businesses along a channel of distribution. Type of channel Channel Functions Ownership Independent system Manufacturing Independent manufacturer • Manufacturers or retailers are small • Intensive distribution is sought • Customers are widely dispersed Wholesaling Independent wholesaler • Unit sales are high • Company resources are low Retailing Independent retailer • Channel members share costs & risk • Task specialization is desirable Partially integrated system Manufacturing Two channel members own all • Manufacturers & retailers are large facilities & perform all functions. • Selective or exclusive distribution • Unit sales are moderate Wholesaling • Company resources are high • Greater channel control is desired Retailing • Existing wholesalers are too expensive or unavailable Fully integrated system Manufacturing All production & distribution • Firm has total control over its strategy functions are performed by one • Direct customer contact • Exclusive offerings Wholesaling channel member. • System is costly & requires lot of expertise Retailing ISB&M Retail Management
  25. 25. Consumer Cooperative A consumer cooperative is a retail firm owned by its customer members. A group of customers invests, elects officers, manages operations & share profits. They account for tiny piece of retail sales. Cooperatives are formed because they think they can do retailing function, traditional retailers are inadequate & prices are high. They have not grown because consumer initiative is required, expertise may be lacking, expectations have frequently not been met, & boredom occurs. ISB&M Retail Management
  26. 26. Retail Location Strategies & DecisionsISB&M Retail Management
  27. 27. Why Location is Important? There are three most important aspects in Retailing – location, location & location. Locating the retail store in the right place was considered to be adequate for success. It is a important part of the retail strategy as it conveys a fair amount of image. It influences the merchandise mix & interior layout of the store. It is difficult to change the location once the store comes into existence. Change of location may result in loss of customer & employees. ISB&M Retail Management
  28. 28. Types of Retail Location The choice of the location of the store depends on the target audience & kind of merchandise to be sold. Types: Freestanding/Isolated store Store located along major traffic artery No competitive retailers around Rents are usually low Advertising cost are high Customers may not prefer to travel long distance to visit only one store Part of a business district A business district (primary, secondary or neighborhood) is a place of commerce in the city Rent is high; parking is cumbersome It has good accessibility in terms of transport Customers are more ISB&M Retail Management
  29. 29. Types of Retail Location contd.. Types: Part of a shopping centre Shopping centre - A group of retail & other commercial establishments that is planned, developed, owned & managed as single property Parking is available Basic configuration – mall or strip centre with walkway Ideally enclosed & climate control ISB&M Retail Management
  30. 30. Steps involved in choosing a retaillocation 1. Identify the market in which to locate the store 2. Evaluate the demand & supply within that market i.e., determine the market potential 1. Demographic features of the population 2. The characteristics of the households in the area 3. Competition & compatibility 4. Laws & regulations 5. Trade area analysis 3. Identify the most attractive sites 1. Traffic 2. Accessibility of the market 3. The no. & types of stores in the area 4. Amenities available 5. To buy or to lease 6. The product mix offered 4. Select the best site available ISB&M Retail Management
  31. 31. The Spread of Organized Retail inIndia Jaipur Pune Bhopal Mumbai Chandigarh Bhubaneshwar Bangalore Hyderabad Delhi Chennai Indore Nagpur Kolkata Gurgaon Udaipur Noida ISB&M Retail Management
  32. 32. Retail MerchandisingISB&M Retail Management
  33. 33. What is Merchandising? Merchandising is planning, buying & selling of merchandise (product). The American Marketing Association defined merchandising as ―the planning involved in marketing the right merchandise at the right place at the right time in the right quantity at the right price‖. Merchandising can be termed as the analysis, planning, acquisition, handling & control of the merchandise investments of a retail operation.Factors affecting the merchandising function Size of organization Merchandising Organization to be carried structure Merchandising function Types of stores ISB&M Retail Management
  34. 34. Merchandise Planning Merchandise planning can be defined as the planning & control of the merchandise inventory of the retail firm, in a manner which balances between the expectations of the target customers & the strategy of the firm.Implication of Merchandise Planning Finance Payments to suppliers Profitability measurements Developing advertisements New product introductions Details of Purchase Order Warehouse & Logistics Details of allocations Marketing Merchandise Planning Store Operations Space planning Communication about new products & their features ISB&M Retail Management
  35. 35. Merchandise Planning ProcessStage I: Developing the Sales Forecast 1. Reviewing past sales 2. Analyzing the changes in the economic conditions 3. Analyzing the changes in the sales potential 4. Analyzing the changes in the marketing strategies & the competition 5. Create the sales forecastStage II: Determining the Merchandise Requirements Planning in merchandising is at two levels: 1. The creation of the Merchandise Budget (5 parts) 2. The Assortment Plan Merchandise Budget Stock Planned Planned Gross Sales Plan support plan reduction Purchase Margins ISB&M Retail Management
  36. 36. Merchandise Planning ProcessStage II: Determining the Merchandise Requirements Planning in merchandising is at two levels: 1. The creation of the Merchandise Budget (5 parts) 2. The Assortment Plan The Merchandise Hierarchy Merchandise Merchandise Merchandise Style Price SKU (Stock Company Department Classification Category Sub Category point Keeping Unit) ISB&M Retail Management
  37. 37. Merchandise Planning ProcessSome key merchandising termsStaple/basic merchandising – products always in demand (basic necessities)Fashion merchandising – products has high demand for a relatively short period of timeSeasonal merchandising – seasonal productsFad merchandising – enjoy popularity for a limited period of time; generated high sales for a short timeStyle – unique shape or form of any product (taste in music)Assortment – variety of merchandise mix The width/breadth of assortment – refers to the number of brands The depth of assortment – variety in one goods/services categoryPoints to be kept in mind while creating a plan - The merchandise budget should be prepared in advance of selling season. The language of the budget should be easy to understand. Merchandise budget must be planned for a short period – 6 months is the normal norm. Budget should be flexible. ISB&M Retail Management
  38. 38. Key Components of MerchandisePlanningPlanned sales – Planned sales are projected sales for a period that is planned. Example: Last year’s sale for the same period = 35,000 Month %age increase Planned sales (Rs) Feb 12% 35,000 X 12% + 35,000 = 39,200 April 25% 43,750 June 21% 42,350Planned purchase – Planned purchases represent the merchandise that is to be purchased during any given period. Planned Purchase = Planned Sales + Planned Reductions + Planned EOM – Planned BOM ISB&M Retail Management
  39. 39. Key Components of MerchandisePlanningPlanned reduction – Markdowns (deductions in prices), employee discounts & inventory shrinkage due to theft or pilferage come under planned reduction.Planned markup – After calculating the level of inventory that needs to be purchased, the retailer needs to determine the initial markup for the products. Markup in Rs. = Selling Price – Cost Price Markup % = Markup in Rs. Retail PriceGross Margin – Gross margin is the difference between the selling price & the cost of the product, less reductions from markdowns, shrinkage & employee discounts. Profit = Gross margin – operating expensesB.O.M (Beginning-of-month) & E.O.M (End-of-month) planned inventory levels –Four Methods of Inventory Planning:a. Stock-to-Sales Method S/S Ratio = Stock in hand E.O.M (at retail value) = Value of inventory Sales for the same month Actual sales Planned BOM Inventory = Stock-sales ratio x Planned sales ISB&M Retail Management
  40. 40. Key Components of MerchandisePlanning The Basic Stock Method – In this method, the buyer believes that he needs to carry a certain amount of inventory in the store at all times. Basic Stock = Average stock for the season – Average monthly sales for the season Average monthly sales for the season = Total planned sales for the season No. of months in the season Average stock for the season = Total planned sales for the season Estimated inventory turnover rate for the season Beginning of the month (BOM) stock = Planned monthly sales + Basic Stock The Percentage Variation Method – This method of inventory calculation is used in case the stock turnover typically exceeds six times a year. BOM Stock = Avg. stock for season * 1/2 * [1 + (Planned sales for the month / Avg. monthly sales)] The Week’s Supply Method – Retailers who need to maintain a control over the inventories on a weekly basis, may use this method. BOM Stock = Average weekly sales x No. of weeks to be stocked ISB&M Retail Management
  41. 41. Merchandise Planning ProcessStage III: Merchandise Control – The Open to Buy The concept of Open to buy has two folds: 1. depending on sales of the month & the reduction, the merchandise buying can be adjusted. 2. the planned relation between the stock & sales can be maintained. Open to buy ensures that the buyer – Limits overbuying & under buying Prevents loss of sales due to unavailability of the required stock Maintain purchases within the budgeted limits Reduce markdowns i.e., reduction in price which may arise due to excess buying Open-to-Buy = Planned EOM Stock – Projected EOM Stock Projected EOM Stock = Actual BOM Stock + Actual Additions to stock + Actual on order – Planned monthly sale – Planned reductions for the month ISB&M Retail Management
  42. 42. Merchandise Planning ProcessStage IV: Assortment Planning Assortment Planning involves determining the quantities of each product that will be purchased to fit into the overall merchandise plan. Details of color, size, brand, materials etc. have to be specified. To create a balanced assortment merchandise for the customer. Department Menswear Product Line Shirts Trousers Accessories Louis Breadth Zodiac Van Heusen Philippe Arrow Depth Styles Color …… ISB&M Retail Management
  43. 43. Merchandise Planning ProcessStage IV: Assortment PlanningThe Range Plan:The aim of the range plan is to create a balanced range for each category of products thatthe retailer choose to offer.Range planning should take care of - The no. of items/options available to the customer should be sufficient at all times & should be such that it helps the customer make a choice. The overbuying & under buying is limited. Sufficient quantities of the product are available, so that all the stores can be serviced & the product is available at all the stores across various locations. The lower limit of the range width is often called aesthetic minimum ISB&M Retail Management
  44. 44. Merchandise Planning ProcessStage IV: Assortment PlanningThe Model Stock Plan:After determining the money available for buying, a decision needs to be taken on what tobuy? & in what quantity?Steps - 1. Identify the attributes that the customer would consider while buying the product. 2. Identify the number of levels under each attribute. 3. Allocate the total units to the respective item category. The process of merchandise planning may be top down or bottom up. Top down planning occurs when the corporate objectives dictate the company’s financial objectives in terms of sales, profit & working capital. In Bottom up planning, individual department managers work on the estimated sales projections ISB&M Retail Management
  45. 45. The Model Stock Plan Men’s shirt 100% (1000) Casual Dress Formal Sport 40% (400) 10% (100) 20% (200) 30% (300) Small Medium Large Extra large 25% (100) 40% (160) 25% (100) 10% (100) Full Sleeve Half Sleeve 30% (48) 70% (112) Button Other Down 60% (67) 40% (45) White Blue Cream Grey 40% (18) 30% (14) 20% (9) 10% (4) Cotton Cotton Blend 25% (4) 75% (14) ISB&M Retail Management
  46. 46. Branding & Private LabelsISB&M Retail Management
  47. 47. Branding BrandThe American Marketing Association defined a brand as “a name, term, design,symbol or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services ofone seller or group of sellers & to differentiate them from those of thecompetitors”. Branding existed from the time man felt the need to differentiate his products from that being offered by others. Branding gradually became a guarantee of the source of the product & ultimately its use as a form of legal protection against copying grew. With the development of shops, shopkeepers hung pictures above their shops indicating the types of goods they sold. With industrial revolution mass production came into existence but the distance between the manufacturers & customers increased. This eventually led to the evolution of the role of the brands as tools by which consumers identified the products. ISB&M Retail Management
  48. 48. Building a Retail BrandKey questions for retail brands – Can the brand be identified with the lifestyles of its target customers? Is there a perceptible difference between the brand & the products offering by the retailer & other retailers? Can a story be woven around the brand? A retail brand is a combination of the company‘s heritage, the merchandise mix, the store environment, the service strategy, the advertising & promotion. Successful retail branding starts with a clear definition of what retailers stand for – an identification of what the customers associate it with, leading customers to think: “This brand is a reflection of me.. This brand is meaningful to me..” The retailer needs to determine the specific value proposition for the end customers. Playing on emotional benefits can also be a branding exercise of the retailer. Retail branding does not sell a specific product. It is about customer service. ISB&M Retail Management
  49. 49. The Retail Value Chain Support Functions Third Party Retail Customer Customers Suppliers Logistics Operations Mgmt. Systems ISB&M Retail Management
  50. 50. Private LabelWhen the retailer decides to sell products or a line of merchandise which is owned,controlled, merchandised & sold by the retailer in his own store/chain of stores, he is saidto be Selling Own Label / Brand or Private Label merchandise.The Private Label Marketing Association defines store products as “all merchandise soldunder a retail store’s private label. That label can be stores name or a name createdexclusively by that store. In some cases, a store may belong to a wholesale buying groupthat owns labels, which are available to the members of the group. These whole-saleowned labels are referred to as controlled labels”A private label can be classified as: Store Brand – which carries the retailer‘s name, such as Westside, Food World, Big Bazaar etc. An Umbrella Brand – where a common brand name is used across multiple categories – example Splash (Lifestyle), Bare (Pantaloon) etc. Individual Brands – where specific brand names are created for specific market segments and/or categories. ISB&M Retail Management
  51. 51. Private Label - Evolution Private labels were traditionally defined as generic product offerings that competed with national brands on the basis of value proposition. They were often seen as the lower priced alternative to the ―real‖ thing. Private label carried the stigma of inferior quality & therefore inspired less confidence. Generics, which were products distinguishable by their plain & basic packaging were the first type of private labels. With the increase in retail stores, the need to earn higher profit & the desire to service the gaps in consumer requirements gave rise to private labels, both in apparel & the food & grocery sector. Today, most of the large department stores have their own private labels which cater to a specific audience. Private labels rely on in-store advertisements. In order to compete with national brands, private labels need to focus on quality. The average quality of one product compared to other Consistency in quality over a period of time Private label goods become more successful where the no. of competing products is lower. ISB&M Retail Management
  52. 52. Why Private Label? Retailer can fill in the need gaps that may exist in the market place. Private label gives the retailer an advantage of offering the customer another option. A private label allows the retailer to offer a unique product in the marketplace. Private label allows a retailer to earn a higher margin than other brands he chooses to retail because designing, merchandising, sourcing & distribution is done by the retailer. Also, advertisement is in-store.Private Label Creation Process Placing the orderIdentification of Make or Performance & Marketing Measurement the need Buy Allocating the goods ISB&M Retail Management
  53. 53. Merchandise Procurement / SourcingThe term sourcing means finding or seeking out products from different places,manufacturers or suppliers.Method of Procuring Merchandise 1. Identifying the sources of supply Costs associated with global sourcing: Country of origin effects – Many a times, where the merchandise has been manufactured makes a difference in the final sale of the product. Foreign currency fluctuations – Effects the buying price of the products. Tariffs – Taxes placed by the govt. on imports. Foreign trade zones – These are special areas within the country that can be used for warehousing, packaging, inspection, labeling, exhibition, assembly, fabrication etc., of imports, without becoming subject to the country‘s tariffs. Cost of carrying inventory Transportation cost ISB&M Retail Management
  54. 54. Merchandise Procurement / Sourcing 2. Contacting & Evaluating the sources of supply Contacting can be vendor initiated contact or retailer initiated contact Points to be kept in mind The target market for whom the merchandise is being purchased. The image of the retail organization & the fit between the product & the image of the retail organization. The merchandise & the prices offered. Terms & service offered by the vendor. The vendor‘s reputation & reliability. 3. Negotiating with the sources of supply The types of discounts that could be made available to the buyer Trade discounts Chain discounts Quantity discounts Seasonal discounts Cash discounts ISB&M Retail Management
  55. 55. Merchandise Procurement / Sourcing 4. Establishing Vendor Relations To build & maintain strategic partnership with vendors, the buyer needs to build on: Mutual trust Open communication Common goals Credible commitments 5. Analyzing Vendor Performance The total orders placed on the vendor in a year The total returns to the vendor, the quality of the merchandise The initial markup on the products The markdowns (if any) Vendor‘s participation in various schemes & promotions Transportation expenses if borne by the retailer Cash discounts offered by the vendor The sales performance of the merchandise ISB&M Retail Management
  56. 56. Category Management - A Method of Merchandise ManagementISB&M Retail Management
  57. 57. Category ManagementCategory Management can be defined as “the distributor/supplier process of managingcategories as SBUs, producing enhanced business results by focusing on delivering customervalue”. A category is an assortment of items that a customer sees as reasonable substitutes of each other. A category management concept is a focus on a better understanding of consumer needs as the basis for retailers‘ & suppliers‘ strategies, goal, & work processes. The need to reduce costs, control inventory levels & replenish (refill) stock efficiently led to the concept of Efficient Consumer Response (ECR). Category management provides renewed opportunities for meeting consumer needs & at the same time, for achieving competitive advantage as well as lower costs through greater work process efficiencies. ISB&M Retail Management
  58. 58. Category Management contd..Category Management is now considered as the “new science of retailing”because - 1. It involves a systematic process. 2. It emphasizes decision-making based on complex analysis of consumer data & market level syndicate data. 3. It replaces the brand bias that stems from suppliers‘ interest & encourages objective view based on consumers‘ desires.Why Category Management? Consumer changes Competitive pressures Economic & efficiency considerations Advances in IT ISB&M Retail Management
  59. 59. Components Category Management Performance Measurement Strategy Trading Organizational Partner Capabilities Relationships Business Process Information Technology ISB&M Retail Management
  60. 60. The Category Management BusinessProcess ISB&M Retail Management
  61. 61. The Category Management BusinessProcessStep 1: Category Definition A distinct, manageable group of products/services that consumers perceive to be interrelated/substitutable in meeting a consumer need. The category definition should be based on how the customer buys, & not on how the retailer buy. This step decides the products that represent a category, sub-category & major segmentation. At this step, the retailer assigns products to the various categories based on factors such as consumer usage & packaging.Step 2: Category Role It determines the priority & importance of each category in the overall business. It serves the basis of resource allocation. Consumer-based category roles: Destination categories – Why you as a retailer? Preferred/routine category Occasional/seasonal category Convenience category – one-stop shop ISB&M Retail Management
  62. 62. The Category Management BusinessProcessStep 3: Category Assessment – Brain Harris’s Quadrant Analysis Sleepers Winners - Identify key products within category - Continue current policies - Delist slow movers & marginal products - Be alert to adaptation of new products - Give quick movers more self space - Minimise operational problems like “out of - Optimize margin mix stock” - Optimise margin mix Market Share Questionable Opportunities - Limit product mix to core assortment & delist - Harmonise product mix with market trends marginal products - Improve price image via low prices for key - Look for price raises products - Minimise self space at category level - Maximise shelf space at category level - Transfer logistical & operational work to third - Give promotional support to key items parties Market Growth ISB&M Retail Management
  63. 63. The Category Management BusinessProcessStep 4: Category Performance Measures Sales Profits Market Share Inventory Turnover Changes in the Assortment Consumer TransactionStep 5: Category Strategies Typical category marketing strategies are: Traffic building Transaction building Turf defending Profit generating Cash generating Excitement creating Image enhancing (Areas: Price, Service, Quality & Varity) ISB&M Retail Management
  64. 64. The Category Management BusinessProcessStep 6: Category Tactics Category tactics work towards the determination of optimal category pricing, promotion, assortment & self management/presentation of the merchandise.Step 7: Category Plan Implementation What specific tasks needs to be done? When each task needs to be completed? Who will accomplish each task?Step 8: Category Review ISB&M Retail Management
  65. 65. Retail Marketing Mix The Retail Marketing Mix ISB&M Retail Management
  66. 66. The Retail Image Factors People Pricing Associations Presentation The Adidas Retail Store CA, USA Brand Retail Customer Promotion Service Store Image Product / Place / Merchandise Location features Shopping Experience ISB&M Retail Management
  67. 67. The Retail Communication Mix Sales Promotion Public Advertising Relations Retail Communication Mix Personal Direct Selling Marketing ISB&M Retail Management
  68. 68. Retail Selling Process Acquiring Product/Merchandise Knowledge Studying the Customer Approaching the Customer Presenting the Merchandise Overcoming Resistance Suggestive Selling Closing the Sale ISB&M Retail Management
  69. 69. Retail Management Information SystemISB&M Retail Management
  70. 70. Effect of a Single Customer Transaction Marketing & Promotions Recording Inventory Merchandise Management Customer Warehouse Transaction Sales Analysis Customer Credit Card Database Payments ISB&M Retail Management
  71. 71. Why IT in Retail? Scale & scope of operations Factors The HR affecting financial availability the use of resources IT available Efficient Stocking of Merchandise The nature of Collection of Data business Efficiency in Operations Helps Communication ISB&M Retail Management
  72. 72. Application of IT Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Database Management, Data Warehousing, Data Mining Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Transaction Processing System (TPS) Decision Support System (DSS) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Intranet & Internet E-Commerce or E-Trailing …… ISB&M Retail Management
  73. 73. SCM in RetailISB&M Retail Management
  74. 74. The Basic Supply Chain Raw material packaging Manufacturer warehouse Supplier warehouse Manufacturer Physical Flow Finance Flow Retailer warehouse Retailer ISB&M Retail Management
  75. 75. Framework for Analyzing Issues in SCM Customer Service STRATEGIC Channel Network Design Strategy STRUCTURAL Warehouse Transportation Materials Design & Management Management Operations FUNCTIONAL Organization & Information Policies & Facilities & Change Systems Procedures Equipment Management IMPLEMENTATION ISB&M Retail Management
  76. 76. Servicing the Retail CustomerISB&M Retail Management
  77. 77. Kill a Brand, Keep a Customer!Customer Service―Customer service is a task, other than proactive selling, that involvesinteractions with customers in person or by telecommunication, mail orautomated process. It is designed, performed & communicated with two goals inmind – Operational Production Customer SatisfactionCustomer Service focuses on measurement of howwell a firm meets the established performancestandards that are viewed as important formeeting customer needs.Customer Satisfaction is how the customersmeasure externally the service performance of afirm. ISB&M Retail Management
  78. 78. Customer Service – A USPRetail mix like Product, Price, Place, Promotion can be duplicated or copied bycompetitors – the total experience (image of the store, ambience, music,& levelof service offered) that the customer gets in the store stay unique. Identify the key customers & listen & respond to them Define superior service & establish a service strategy Set standards & measure performance Select, train & empower employees to work for the customer Recognize & reward accomplishments ISB&M Retail Management
  79. 79. Measuring Gaps in Service ISB&M Retail Management
  80. 80. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) ISB&M Retail Management
  81. 81. How CRM Benefits Retailer? Customer needs Retailer traditionally CRM benefits customer provides by enabling Product choice Range selection Tailored range Access Channel choice Consistent experience Support Information Enhanced service Individual treatment Customer service 1:1 relationship Value Scale efficiencies Customer defined “value” ISB&M Retail Management
  82. 82. Customer Segmentation in Retail Lower Value Segment Grow able Segment Most Valued Segment Value per No. of customer customers In-store PoS Advertisement Targeted Direct Mail Merchandising Added value Tailored, cross- services learning based relationship Lower value Grow able Most Valuable segment Segment Segment ISB&M Retail Management
  83. 83. Retail Store Design & Visual MerchandisingISB&M Retail Management
  84. 84. Retail Store Design Retail stores needs to be designed to be more competitive, the retailer first needs to catch the customer‘s eye & then, to draw his attention away from other stores. The basic principles of store design require that the image being created in tune with the merchandise, the advertising & the service offered by the store. Retail design is primarily a specialized practice of architecture and interior design, however it also incorporates elements of interior decoration, graphic design, ergonomics, and advertising. Store Image Store Store Theme Atmosphere Elements of the Store Environment ISB&M Retail Management
  85. 85. Why Retail Store Design is Important? The store design & layout tells a customer what the store is all about. The creates the image of the retail store in the minds of the customer. This image is the starting point of all marketing efforts. It make the store simple to navigate. It creates the sense to belongingness, responsibility, security, & pleasure in shopping. ISB&M Retail Management
  86. 86. Elements of Retail Design Frontage & Parking Entrance Location Building Location Arch. Access Safety Store Design Store Theme Target Merchandise Customer Mix ISB&M Retail Management
  87. 87. Interior Store Design Space Space Planning helps determining: Planning The location of various departments. The location of various products within the department i.e., creating planograms. The pros/cons of specific location for impulse products, destination areas, seasonal products, Atmosphere products with specific merchandising needs, Layout & Aesthetics adjacent departments etc. The relationship of space to profitability. Atmosphere & Aesthetics Fixtures Flooring & Ceiling Lighting Graphics & Signage Theme graphics Campaign graphics Promotional graphics ISB&M Retail Management
  88. 88. Free-flow Layout Fixtures and merchandise are grouped into free-flowing patterns on the sales floor. ISB&M Retail Management
  89. 89. Grid Layout The counters and fixtures are placed in long rows or ‗‗runs,‘‘ usually at right angles, throughout the store. ISB&M Retail Management
  90. 90. Racetrack/Loop Layout A major customer aisle begins at the entrance, loops through the store— usually in the shape of a circle, square, or rectangle—and then returns the customer to the front of the store. ISB&M Retail Management
  91. 91. Spine Layout A single main aisle runs from the front to the back of the store, transporting customers in both directions, and where on either side of this spine, merchandise departments using either a free-flow or grid pattern branch off toward the back side walls. ISB&M Retail Management
  92. 92. Visual MerchandisingAn orderly, systematic, logical, & intelligent way of putting stock on the floor. ISB&M Retail Management
  93. 93. Visual Merchandising contd.. It has several aspects & involves SKU planning, store windows & floor displays, signs, space design, fixtures & hardware, props & mannequins. Creating the right atmosphere in the store & presenting the merchandise in the right manner is very important. Good visual merchandise means a selling space that is neat, easy-to-see, follow & shop. Color dominance Methods of Display Coordinated Presentation presentation by price ISB&M Retail Management
  94. 94. Thank you