Meaning of first aid
• First aid is the first assistance or treatment
given to a casualty or a sick person for any
injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an
ambulance, the arrival of a qualified
paramedical or medical person or before
arriving at a facility that can provide
professional medical care.
AIMS OF FIRST AID
• The aims of first aid are: 3 Ps
• To preserve life,
• To prevent the worsening of one’s medical
• To promote recovery, and
• To help to ensure safe transportation to the
nearest healthcare facility.
• It is important to always check the scene and ensure your safety
first. Remember that dialling emergency number for ambulance
and other related services is one of the most important steps
you can take to save another's life.
• Your safety is first, so leave the scene if you are at risk.
• While helping the victim, protect yourself from transmission of
– Use preventive breathing barriers / personal protective equipment
(PPE) when available.
– Try to cover your own cuts, sores, wounds, and any skin conditions
with a proper bandage before responding.
• Use disposable gloves to avoid direct contact with blood / bodily
fluids. In absence of gloves plastic bags or thick pad of cloths
can be used as barrier in between.
• Washing your hands properly is extremely important. Always
use soap and water after removing your gloves/barrier.
• If you suspect that a victim has suffered a spinal or neck injury,
do not move or shake the victim.
Role of First Aider
• Remember PACT
• P - Protect
• A - Assess
• C - Care
• T - Transport-Triage
Administer first aid to a casualty who
• Unconscious casualty
• Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
• Wounded and bleeding
• Suffering from shock
• Discussion of specific work related injuries
DEALING WITH AN EMERGENCY
• Always apply 4 main steps systematically during any emergency situations:
• Safety first – Make sure there is no danger to you and victim.
• Check response - is the person asleep or unresponsive – Call, Shake, Shout
• Seek help - Shout or call for help if you are alone but do not leave the
• Quick assessment of victim’s condition – Check consciousness and
breathing (look, listen, feel). Look for bleeding and other life threatening
conditions and take life-saving measures such as:
– If no breathing, start Chest compression (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
– If breathing present but unconscious, casualty is placed in side recovery
– If bleeding present, stop/control bleeding by direct pressure
– Immobilise bone/joint injuries and take care when handling or moving to
prevent any injury to the spine or neck
– And protecting casualty from heat/cold
• Take complete assessment and stabilise the person as per available local
• A burn is tissue damage from contact with:
• very hot water (scalding)
• corrosive chemicals
• radiation (including sunburn)
What is a major burn?
• Major burns can be recognized by four primary
• result in dry, leathery skin
• larger than 3 inches in diameter or cover the face,
hands, feet, buttocks, groin, or a major joint
• have a charred appearance or patches of black,
brown, or white
What is a minor burn?
• Minor burns are recognized by the following
• less than 3 inches in diameter
• surface redness (like a sunburn)
• skin blistering
First aid for a minor burn
• Cool down the burn. After holding the burn under cool, running water,
apply cool, wet compresses until the pain subsides.
• Remove tight items, such as rings, from the burned area. Be gentle, but
move quickly before swelling starts.
• Avoid breaking blisters. Blisters with fluid protect the area from infection.
If a blister breaks, clean the area and gently apply an antibiotic ointment.
• Apply a moisturizing lotion, such as one with aloe vera. After the burned
area has been cooled, apply a lotion to provide relief and to keep the area
from drying out.
• Loosely bandage the burn. Use sterile gauze. Avoid fluffy cotton that could
shed and get stuck to the healing area. Also avoid putting too much
pressure on the burned skin.
• Take an over-the-counter pain reliever if necessary.
Consider acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil), or naproxen (Aleve).
First aid for a major burn
• The first step in treating a major burn is to call 911 or seek emergency
• Steps to take until emergency arrives include:
• Make sure you and the person who’s burned are safe and out of harm’s way.
Move them away from the source of the burn. If it’s an electrical burn, turn
off the power source before touching them.
• Check to see if they’re breathing. If needed, start rescue breathing if you’ve
• Remove restrictive items from their body, such as belts and jewelry in or near
the burned areas. Burned areas typically swell quickly.
• Cover the burned area. Use a clean cloth or bandage that’s moistened with
cool, clean water.
• Separate fingers and toes. If hands and feet are burned, separate the fingers
and toes with dry and sterile, nonadhesive bandages.
• Remove clothing from burned areas, but don’t try to remove clothing that’s
stuck to the skin.
• Avoid immersing the person or burned body parts in
water. Hypothermia (severe loss of body heat) can occur if you immerse large,
severe burns in water.
• Raise the burned area. If possible, elevate the burned area above their heart.
• Watch for shock. Signs and symptoms of shock include shallow breathing,
pale complexion, and fainting.
Things not to do
• Don’t contaminate the burn with potential
germs by breathing or coughing on it.
• Don’t apply any medical or home remedy,
including ointment, butter, ice, spray, or
• Don’t give the burned person anything to
• Don’t put a pillow under their head if you
think they have an airway burn.
• These are often quite small in area, but they may nevertheless be
quite deep. They are normally found at the points of contact where
the current entered and left the body.
• Switch off the current and remove the plug before treating casualty
• If the casualty is lying in water, keep out of it yourself --- moisture is
an excellent conductor of electricity. For the same reason do not
hold the casualty under the armpits
• Check the casualty’s breathing. The current may have passed
through the chest, stopping the heart and stopping breathing. If so
start the Kiss of Life and heart massage immediately
• Continue the general treatment for burns.
Cuts and Abrasions
• Cleanse area thoroughly with soap and warm
water, carefully washing away any dirt.
• Apply direct pressure to wound until bleeding
• Put sterile bandage on wound.
• If cut is deep, get to a doctor as quickly as
• Wash thoroughly with soap and warm water.
• If it bleeds or oozes, bandage it to protect it from
• Signs of infected wound
• May cause fever
• Presence of pus
• Choking occurs when a foreign object lodges
in the throat or windpipe, blocking the flow
of air. In adults, a piece of food often is the
culprit. Young children often swallow small
objects. Because choking cuts off oxygen to
the brain, give first aid as quickly as possible.
First Aid treatment
•Use the Abdominal Thrust only in an actual
•Stand behind him with your arms around
•Place one fist, with the knuckle of the
thumb against the victim's midsection,
slightly above the navel but well below the
•Hold your fist firmly with the other hand
and pull both hands sharply toward you with
an upward-and-inward jab.
•This procedure should be administered
continually until either the object is forced
out or the victim becomes unconscious.
•Take the patient to the doctor immediately
if you're not comfortable handling the
• A convulsion (violent, involuntary contraction
or muscle spasm) can be caused by epilepsy or
sudden illness. It is dangerous if the victim
stops breathing. In such cases, it is
recommended to seek doctor's assistance.
• Muscles become stiff and hard, followed by
• The patient may bite his tongue or stop
• Face and lips may turn a bluish color
• May salivate excessively or foam at the mouth
Tips for action
• Clear all objects away from the victim and place something soft
under the head
• Do not place anything between the teeth or in the patient's mouth
• Do not give the victim any liquids
• If the victim stops breathing, check to see that the airway is open
and begin rescue
• Stay calm and keep the victim comfortable until help arrives.
• Most convulsions are followed by a period of unconsciousness or
• Take the patient to the doctor at the earliest
• Cool the body of a heatstroke victim immediately
• If possible, put him in cool water; wrap him in cool wet clothes; or
sponge his skin with cool water, rubbing ice, or cold packs.
• Once the victim's temperature drops to about 101 F, lay him in the
recovery position in a cool room.
• If the temperature begins to rise again, repeat the cooling process
• If he/she is able to drink, give him/her some water.
• Do not give any kind of medication
• Seek medical attention
• This is usually easy to identify as the casualty will be
lying unconscious near an electrical appliance or cable.
• Before touching the casualty remember to switch off
the electrical supply
• If the casualty is breathing, turn him into the Recovery
• If the casualty has stopped breathing, you must start
the Kiss of Life and heart message immediately
• Send for a doctor or ambulance
• Clear the airway and determine whether causality is
breathing and the heart pumping
• If the heart and breathing have stopped, then you
immediately start the Kiss of life an heart massage
• If the causality is just unconscious, then once removed
from water, he should be placed in the Recovery
• A doctor or an ambulance should be sent for
• When you are exposed to very cold
temperatures for a long period of time, the
skin and the tissues underneath the skin may
freeze resulting in frostbite.The most
commonly affected areas during a frostbite
are fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks and chin.
• The mildest and least serious form of frostbite is
termed Frostnip. It can be recognized by painful
sensations, darker areas of skin, or red skin. However,
the skin responds normally to pressure without serious
numbness and retains its normal texture.
• The affected part of the skin turns white or greyish-
• The affected part hardens and is cold.
• The affected area becomes numb or it itches and
burns. The area of the skin becomes red and is painful.
Care to be taken
• Consult a doctor as soon as possible. The following first aid can also
• Protect the skin from further exposure to the cold.
• Cover the area with warm clothes.
• Do not rub the affected area.
• Do not walk on frostbitten toes or feet.
• Do not use direct heat from stoves, heating pads, fireplace, etc as
this can burn the skin.
• Keep the affected area in warm water (around 40oC temperature).
Using water that is too hot will damage the tissues.
• Persistent numbness and pain requires immediate attention of a
• Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes
• Small roll of absorbent gauze or gauze pads of different sizes
• Adhesive tape
• Triangular and roller bandages
• Cotton (1 roll)
• Band-aids (Plasters)
• Pen torch
• Latex gloves (2 pair)
• Moistened towels and clean dry cloth pieces.
• Antiseptic (Savlon or dettol)
• Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricant
• Assorted sizes of safety pins
• Cleansing agent/soap
• The Red Cross recommends that all
first aid kits for a family of four include
• 2 absorbent compress dressings (5 x 9
• 25 adhesive bandages (assorted sizes),
also found within our Family First Aid
• 1 adhesive cloth tape (10 yards x 1 inch)
• 5 antibiotic ointment packets
(approximately 1 gram)
• 5 antiseptic wipe packets (
• 2 packets of aspirin (81 mg each)
• 1 emergency blanket
• 1 breathing barrier (with one-way valve)
• 1 instant cold compress, also found within our First Aid Kit
• 2 pair of nonlatex gloves (size: large)
• 2 hydrocortisone ointment packets (approximately 1 gram
• 1 3 in. gauze roll (roller) bandage
• 1 roller bandage (4 inches wide)
• 5 3 in. x 3 in. sterile gauze pads
• 5 sterile gauze pads (4 x 4 inches)
• Oral thermometer (non-mercury/nonglass), also within the
Deluxe All Purpose First Aid Kit
• 2 triangular bandages
• Emergency First Aid guide
Step :1Open their airway
• If they are unresponsive, open their
• Place one hand on the casualty’s
forehead and two fingers under their
chin. Gently tilt their head back and lift
Step :2Check their breathing
• Maintain the head tilt and chin lift,
and look for chest movement. Listen
for the sounds of normal breathing
and see if you can feel their breaths
on your cheek
• If they are not breathing, you need
to start CPR (cardiopulmonary
resuscitation – a combination of
chest pressure and rescue breaths)
Step:3Call for help and start CPR
• Call for an ambulance, or get
someone else to do it, or inform
• Next you’ll need to perform CPR -
This involves giving someone chest
compressions and rescue breaths
to keep their heart and circulation
going. If they start breathing
normally again, stop CPR and put
them in the recovery position
Step:4Giving chest compressions
• Kneel down beside the casualty on the floor level with their
• Place the heel of one hand towards the end of their
breastbone, in the centre of their chest
• Place the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand and
interlock your fingers, making sure you keep the fingers off the
• Lean over the casualty, with your arms straight, pressing down
vertically on the breastbone, and press the chest down by 5-
• Release the pressure without removing your
hands from their chest. Allow the chest to come
back up fully – this is one compression
• Repeat 30 times, at a rate of about twice a
second or the speed of the song ‘Staying Alive
• Give two rescue breaths.
Step :5How to give a rescue breath
• Ensure the casualty’s airway is open.
• Pinch their nose firmly closed.
• Take a deep breath and seal your lips around
• Blow into the mouth until the chest rises.
• Remove your mouth and allow the chest to fall.
• Repeat once more. Carry on giving 30 chest
compressions followed by two rescue breaths for
as long as you can, or until help arrives
Step:6 recovery position
• If the casualty starts breathing normally again,
stop CPR and put them in the recovery
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