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120630107090 Bhandari Anjali Dilipbhai
How Clusters Computer works ?
Types of cluster
Components of clusters
Issuse to be considered
Difference Between Cluster, Grid and cloud
Cluster computing is a group of loosely coupled
computers that work together closely so that in many
respects it can be viewed as though it were a single
Clusters are commonly connected through fast local
Clusters are usually deployed to improve speed and/or
reliability over that provided by a single computer, while
typically being much more cost effective than single
computer the of comparable speed or reliability .
In cluster computing each node within a cluster is an
independent system, with its own operating system,
private memory, and, in some cases, its own file
Because the processors on one node cannot directly
access the memory on the other nodes, programs or
software run on clusters usually employ a procedure
called "message passing" to get data and execution
code from one node to another.
Cluster computing can also be used as a relatively low-
cost form of parallel processing for scientific and other
applications that lend themselves to parallel
Greg Pfister is a computer scientist and worked a lot
for cluster computing, according to him clusters were
not invented by any specific vendor but by customers.
The first commodity clustering product was ARC
net(Attached Resource Computer Network), developed
by Datapoint in 1977.
The next product was VAXcluster,released by DEC in
Microsoft, sun microsystems, and other leading
hardware and software companies offer clustering
A cluster is a type of parallel /distributed processing system,
which consists of a collection of interconnected stand-alone
computers cooperatively working together a single,
integrated computing resource.
• A single or multiprocessor system with memory, I/O
• Generally 2 or more computers (nodes) connected together
• In a single cabinet, or physically separated & connected via
• Appear as a single system to users and applications
• Provide a cost-effective way to gain features and benefits
HOW CLUSTER COMPUTERS WORKS
Fig :- Cluster Computer at short Glance
In the above arrangement of clusters the machines are
arranged through the common high speed bus in a
manner that they can communicate with each other.
A simple High speed LAN can be used to connect these
machines through which these machines can be
accessed via web or these machines can access the
LAN arrangement contains numbers of busses for the
flow of traffic in circuit,CPU’s to process the data,
memory to storage devices to store the unprocessed
(received) data and processed (transmitted) data, and
shared memory will have data from number of CPU’s.
High performance clusters
High availability cluster or Failover Clusters
Load balancing cluster
TYPES OF CLUSTER
Start from 1994
Donald becker of nasa assembled this cluster.
Also called beowulf cluster.
• Dependable parallel computers
• Application like data mining , simulations , parallel
processing , weather modeling etc.
HIGH PERFORMANCE CLUSTER
Avoid single point of failure.
Designed to provide uninterrupted availability of data or
services to the end
This requires atleast two nodes a primary and a
Always with redundancy.
Almost all load balancing cluster are with HA capability.
Used to implement database, mail, file print, web
HIGH AVAILABILITY CLUSTERS OR
Pc cluster deliver load balancing performance.
It distributes incoming requests for resources or content
among multiple nodes running the same programs or
having the same content
Each node in cluster is able to handle requests for the
same content or application.
Both the high availability and load balancing cluster
technologies can be combined to increase the reliability,
availability , and scalability of application and data
resources that are widely deployed for web , mail or FTP
LOAD BALANCING CLUSTER
The basic building blocks of clusters are broken down
into multiple categories:
The cluster nodes,
Cluster operating system,
Network switching hardware and
The node/switch interconnect
COMPONENTS OF CLUSTER
• In case if server is having a problem another server from the
cluster takes over the server having issue. This ensure the
high availability of web applications.
• Server clustering is completely a scalable solution.
Resources can be addeded to the cluster accordingly.
Load Handling and maintenance
• If a dedicated server from the cluster requires
maintenance,it can be stopped while other servers handles.
Easy to manage
• More easy cluster management software are emerging to
manage the clusters and in present also some are available.
More Space is required
• Server clustering usually requires more servers and
hardware to manage and monitor thus increases the
infrastructure. Some web hosting providers may afford
• It is not a cost-effective solution, as it needs a good
server design which can be a bit expensive.
ISSUSE TO BE CONSIDERED
Grid Computing: - It is collection of computer
resources from multiple locations to reach a common
Cluster Computing: - It is a form of computing in
which a group of computers are linked together so that
they can act like a single entity.
Cloud Computing :- It is a type of com putting that
relies on sharing computing resources rather than
having local servers or personal devices to handle
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLOUD, GRID AND
Clusters Grid Cloud
Servers, and network
Size/Scalability 100 1000 100 to 1000
Node OS Linux, Windows Mainly Unix Multiple OSs Running
on Virtual Machine
Ownership Single Multiple Single
InterconnectionNetwork?speed Dedicated, high-end
network with low
latency and high
Mostly internet snd
high latency and low
network with low
latency and high
Characteristics Clusters Grid Cloud
Medium level of
Depend on User
Public/private key pair
mapping a User to an
Limited support for privacy
Each user/application is
provided with a virtual
machine high security,
High Security. Privacy is
Support for selling per-file
Access Control List(ACL)
User Management Centralized Decentralized, Virtual
Decentralized to Third
Resource Management Centralized Distributed Centralized/ Distributed
Allocation/Scheduling Centralized Decentralize Centralized/
Single System Image yes no Yes, But Optional
Capacity Stable and Guaranteed Varies but High Provisioned on Demand
Service Pricing Limited in Non-Open
Mainly Internal Pricing Pricing according to
Effects with Discount for
Characteristics Clusters Grid Cloud
Internet Working Multi-clustering
Limited High Potential,
loose Coupling of
Standards/inter-operability Virtual Interface
Some Open Grid
Web Services (Simple
Application Drivers Science, business,
and High throughput
and web applications
Clusters are promising
Solve parallel processing paradox
New trends in hardware and software technologies are
likely to make clusters.
Clusters based supercomputers(Linux based clusters)
can be seen everywhere!!