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Measuring cultural value using social network analysis: a case study on valuing electronic musicians

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Measuring cultural value using social network analysis: a case study on valuing electronic musicians

  1. 1. Measuring cultural value using social network analysis A case study on valuing electronic musicians Anna Jordanous (University of Kent, CC/music informatics), Daniel Allington (University of the West of England, SNA/digital culture), Byron Dueck (Open University, music/ethnomusicology) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  2. 2. Types of value Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org • Monetary value £ $ € – (what a thing is worth) • “Good” things – e.g. “good” opinions – (Thanks Mike Cook) • etc … • Cultural value – Based on what we are culturally led to like – Subjective – Value shared between members of a community/culture
  3. 3. Introduction: Aim of this work Can we measure the cultural value of a creative entity in a quantitative / algorithmic way? In other words… Is there a way to judge cultural value, that can be computerised and stuck into the creative process of a computational creativity system? NB Evaluation is an important part of the creative process… but this is another talk… Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  4. 4. Evaluating value (as part of evaluating creativity) We (CC) would like to have metrics for value that we can implement computationally Q How do we measure/assess cultural value? …using social network analysis? Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  5. 5. Some premises before we start 1. Evaluating value is an important part of evaluating how creative something is 2. If you want to know how good a creative entity is, ask someone (something) that knows what it means to be good in that way 3. This is a case study in judging value of electronic musicians, but can be useful for other creative domains (with a little work) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  6. 6. Premise 1. Evaluating value is an important part of evaluating how creative something is Creativity = novelty + value + …?? Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  7. 7. Premise 2. To know how valuable a creative entity is, ask someone/something(s) that knows that creative area Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZu097wb8wU
  8. 8. e.g. Would you trust Dan Ventura on what art galleries are good in Park City? Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  9. 9. Premise 3: Our approach to measuring value in electronic music can be useful more widely • ‘One size does not fit all’ • But [I argue] our approach is useful, if you want to analyse cultural value in domains other than electronic music • (with a little work) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  10. 10. Premises set out… let’s begin We (CC) would like to have metrics for value Q How do we measure/assess cultural value? …using social network analysis? Case study: electronic music[ians] – Who are the main ‘players’ (no pun intended..?) – Who values who? How do they show this? Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  11. 11. Qualitative and Quantitative work informing each other Interviews SoundCloud data analysis Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org e.g. focus on valuing (as a verb), not value (as a noun) e.g. it is possible to create SC groups - is this useful?
  12. 12. Distinct types of electronic music Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org http://valuingelectronicmusic.org/2014/1 2/19/glitch-lich-live-performance/ http://valuingelectronicmusic.org/201 5/01/02/winterlight-live-set/ http://valuingelectronicmusic.org/2015/02 /01/slackk-live-set/ http://valuingelectronicmusic.org/2014/11 /25/slackk-winterlight-glitch-lich-electronic- music-producers-panel/
  13. 13. (Where we left this - work-in-progress paper ICCC’14) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  14. 14. Who is on SoundCloud? From analysing ‘follow’ relationships: –By countries, top 3 are US, UK, Germany –By cities, top 3 are London, New York, Berlin –People tend to follow people within same city –http://valuingelectronicmusic.org/2014/09/08/geography-soundcloud-following/ • And people in same genre –By genre, top 3 are house, hip hop, techno –http://valuingelectronicmusic.org/2014/06/04/exploring-genre-on-soundcloud-part-i/ –NB This is not filtered for electronic music genres - but electronic music dominates Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  15. 15. Comments: typically very positive Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org Comments highlighted by interviewees as an important valuing activity
  16. 16. Identifying sub-networks: place • Ego-network of one of our interviewees and their immediate followers/followees • Colours = places – London = Green – Bristol = Purple – LA = Red (Tony what should we call these colours?) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  17. 17. Identifying sub-networks: genres • Three distinct macro-genres identified: – EDM – Urban – ‘other’ • (Corresponds with music research groupings) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org
  18. 18. Distinct vocabularies per genres # Techno Dubstep House Hiphop 1 set sick nice dope 2 great tune house shit 3 tracks nice super beat 4 loved big production leave 5 fantastic mix support song Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org Top words appearing in comments per genre
  19. 19. Bringing this back to computational creativity - how can CC use this work? As a proxy for value: – look for [meaningful] interactions between people linked together in subnetworks / ego networks / cliques = evidence of interpersonal relationships – On SoundCloud, interactions tend to be  (or spam) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org For a ‘CC electronic musician’: – Set up London-based SC account + upload tracks – Develop the system to interact with other music- makers in similar genres: • Comment on other tracks and respond to comments using that genre’s key vocab • Follow users in those genres – Follow users in key cities (e.g London, NY, Berlin, LA)
  20. 20. Remember: comments usually positive Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org Comments highlighted by interviewees as an important valuing activity
  21. 21. Hmm.. Can commenting be used as a simple proxy for value judgments? • Using commenting as a valuing activity • # chars track comments = proxy value metric? EXPERIMENTING: Trying this on Scottish users in our data 1. calvinharris (electro-pop, house) 2. the-nibelheim-incident (Daryl Constance) (dubstep) 3. === middleschoolfrown (John Kevin, electronic pop), davecruickshank (techno), jasegallacher (techno) • But differences in commenting behaviour by genre (not just based on the different vocabulary used) • dubstep producers most prolific (2569 comments) • then techno (2254), hiphop (2081) and house (1725) Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org Early days … work in progress
  22. 22. Conclusions • You can ‘proxy’ cultural value computationally by studying social network activity – But – look at smaller subnetworks, not the whole – In Soundcloud: networks around place and genre • How do people show they value others’ work? – Look for relationships/links between people – Work out what linking activities indicate more value • In Electronic Music it is commenting and collaborating • We could take advantage of this to measure value computationally, as part of evaluating creativity Valuing Electronic Music http://valuingelectronicmusic.org

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