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Goals and Objectives
General statements concerning desirable and attainable program purposes and aims
based on perceived language and situation needs (Brown 1995).
Objectives are specific statements of the particular knowledge, behaviors, and skills
expectations (Brown 1995).
Objectives are in a hierarchical relationship to goals (Brown 1995).
Statements about how the goals will be achieved. (Graves : 78)
Units of Progression
Objective 1 Objective 2
Objective 3 Goals
Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3Graves, 2000
Consideration in deriving goals from needs
1. General statement
2. Focus on the programs expectations and the students’ capability when the
program is over.
3. A basis to develop more observable objectives.
4. Flexible (not permanent).
GATHERING INFORMATION ON NEEDS
BREAKING DOWN GOALS INTO OBJECTIVES.
Example of Goals
By the end of our program the students will be able to :
- Read and comprehend materials written for native speakers when the topic and the language are
- Write short notes, uncomplicated personal and business letters, brief journals and short reports.
Language and Situation-centered.
e.g : students will be able to read a French menu and order a meal.
Structural – centered
e.g: students will be able to comprehend French grammatical structure.
Notion & Macalister. 2010
CHARACTERISTICS OF OBJECTIVES
e.g : By the end of the course students will be able to write the full forms of selected
abbreviations drawn from pages 6-8 of the course textbook with 80 percent
Mager (1975, p. 23)
Examples of Objectives
EAP of American University
By the end of the course, a student will be able to
Prepare a term paper (including footnotes, bibliography, title page, and so forth).
Take notes on a lecture.
Answer questions following such a talk.
Which are goals and objectives?
Examples of Goals and Objectives
To develop the students’ ability to read more comprehensibly and effectively.
(a)to develop effective strategies for dealing with unknown words.
(b)to be able to distinguish fact from opinion.
(c)to build confidence in dealing with a wide range of texts (different genres)
(Prof. Estela Braun: 2012)