Philippine History- Social Status during Spanish Era-last years of Spanish colonialism

A
anne sarmientoClinical Instructor at notre dame hospital and school of midwifery en notre dame hospital and school of midwifery
Social Status
during Spanish
colonization
• Principalia - it was the social and educated class
in the towns of colonial Philippines composed of
the Gobernadorcillo (Town Mayor), or the Cabeza
de Barangay (Chief of the Barangay) who
governed the districts and the awardees of the
medal of Civil Merit.
• Exempted from forced labor during the colonial
period
• Were allowed to vote, be elected to public office
and be addressed by the title: Don or Doña
• Given certain roles in the Church, such as assisting
the priest in pastoral and religious activities
Philippine History- Social Status during Spanish Era-last years of Spanish colonialism
Ilustrados
• (Spanish for "erudite," "learned," or "enlightened ones").
constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish
colonial period in thelate19th century
• They were the middle class who were educated in Spanish
and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist
ideals.
Philippine History- Social Status during Spanish Era-last years of Spanish colonialism
1. Indios - person of pure Austronesian (Malay/Malayo
Polynesian) ancestry (natives)
2. Insulares - Spaniards born in Philippines who took important
positions inthe Spanishgovernment in thePhilippines.
3. Mestizos - Filipinos of mixed indigenousFilipino
(Austronesian people/Malay/Malayo-Polynesian),
or European or Chineseancestry.
4. Peninsulares,Spaniards who are born in Spain
and took roles in thePhilippines
Kinds of Mestizo’s
Mestizo de Sangley
- person of mixed Chinese and Malay ancestry
Mestizo de Español
-person of mixed Spanish and Malay ancestry
Tornatrás
-person of mixed Spanish, Malay and
Chinese ancestry
Economic Achievements during
Spanish Time
1. Introduction of New Plants
2. Establishment of new Industries
3. The opening of Manila- Acapulco Trade
4. The founding of Economic Society of Friends
of the Country
5. Tobacco Monopoly
6. Creation of the Royal Company of Spain
7. The opening of the Philippines to the world
trade
Manila as Asia’s Trade Emporium
The 1st Spanish governor-general promoted
Philippine trade with the neighboring Asian
countries and with Mexico.
Trade was free, no restrictions on imports
and exports, Manila experienced a Marvelous
commercial boom.
Basco and Economic Progress
Jose Basco- the most economically-minded
Spanish governador-general.
• was develop the natural resources of the
Philippines.
• He adopted a general economic plan which
aim to foster Philippine agriculture, commerce
and industries.
• He also gave prizes to all persons
–who could excel in the cultivation of cotton,
mulberry trees, and spices to those who
could manufacture silk, porcelain, hemp,
flax and cotton.
–To those who could develop mines of gold,
iron, copper and tin
–To those who could make useful inventions
–To those who could distinguished
themselves in arts and sciences.
• He issued circulars on better methods of
producing cotton, silk, sugar and other
commodities
• He ordered 4,000,000 mulberry trees in order
to foster the silk industries.
• March 24, 1784- he issued decree providing
that the land, carabaos and farm implements
of the farmer could not be seized by creditors,
and they could not be arrested or jailed during
planting or harvesting of crops
Outstanding events
1. Founding of Economic Society of Friends of
the country in 1781
2. Establishment of tobacco monopoly in 1782
3. The creation of Royal company of the
Philippines and Mexico.
Economic Society of Friends of the
Country
April 26, 1781- ESFC was inaugurated in Manila
with Ciriaco Carvajal, member of the Manila
Audiencia as the first president.
•
– It Help much in the agricultural advances of the
Philippines.
• In 1784 it made the 1st shipment of indigo to
Europe.
• 1824- imported martines to fight locusts that
were destroying Philippine crops.
• 1825- it granted free scholarships to 8
Filipinos to study the art of dyeing in Manila
• 1829- it imported machine for hulling rice
from Cadiz, Spain
• 1837- Awarded 1000 to Dr. Paul de la
Gironiere, French Physician and Planter.
• 1853- gave Candido Lopez Diaz, Filipino
inventor a prize of 2000 and a gold medal for
inventing machine for cleaning hemp fibers.
• 1861- It founded the 1st agricultural school in
Manila
• It introduced the cultivation of tea, cotton,
poppy and mulberry tress.
• Imported agricultural implements. Cotton,
seeds and spinning machinery from the united
states.
The Tobacco Monopoly
March 1, 1782- a government monopoly of
tobacco was established pursuant to Royal
Decree of February 9, 1780.
It lasted from 1782-1882
Results of Tobacco Monopoly
1. It gave a large annual revenue to government
2. Promoted tobacco production
Direct Trade with Spain
As early as 1753 father Jose Calvo, Jesuit priest-
economist recommended to the Spanish Crown
the establishment of the Philippine-Spain trade
in order to improved the Philippine economy.
1766- King Charles III ordered the opening of
direct trade between Manila and Cadiz, in order
to relieve the Philippines from commercial
dependence to Acapulco.
• Buen Consejo- 1st frigate assigned on the new
Philippine-Spain Trade. Juan Casseins a french
naval officer in Spain service captained the
frigate.
• March 1, 1766- Frigate left Cadiz rounded the
Cape of Good Hope.
• Asuncion- Last frigate which was used in direct
trade between Manila and Cadiz.
– It brought the 1st Philippine shipment of Indigo to
Spain. (1784)
Royal Company of the Philippines
By his Royal Decree of March 10, 1785, King
Charles III of Spain established the Royal
company of the Philippines with Jose de Galves
as the President.
Aims of Royal Company
1. To promote Philippine Trade with Spain
2. To encourage Philippine agriculture and
industry
According to its charter the company had a
capital of 8M divided into 32,000 shares valued
at P250 each.
To help the company the king granted many
privileges
1. Use of Flag of the Spanish Navy in all vessels
2. Right to purchase supplies from Royal arsenals
at government prices
3. Exemption of all its shipments from tariff duties.
4. Right of all its ships to the ports of the Orient.
• 1782- decline of the company.
• July 12, 1803- King Charles IV issued a revised
charter which is increasing the capitalization
of the company to 12,500,000 and granting it
additional privileges:
1. Allowing foreigners to own or purchase its
shares
2. Permitting the Company vessels to trade
directly to China and other Asian countries
and return to Spain without calling at the
port of Manila.
3. 3. Allowing foreign vessels to bring oriental
goods to Manila.
Causes of the Failure of Royal
Company
1. Poor Management by incompetent Spanish
Officials
2. Hostility of Manila Merchants
3. Neglect to Ship European Goods which were
more in demand with Asian markets.
Royal Company contribution
1. It opened commercial relations between
Europe and the Philippines, ushering for the
first time free trade between Manila and
Cadiz.
2. The Company furnished the Philippines the
needed capital to develop her economy.
3. It fostered the colony’s infant industries.
Governor Berenguer de Marquina
Felix Berenguer de Marquina- succeeded
General Basco he arrived in Manila July 1, 1788
and took over the gubernatorial office.
Demolition of Nipa- houses in the city of
Manila..
Manila was opened to European vessels for 3
years by the Royal decree of August 15, 1789
issued by King Charles IV.
January 23, 1790-
“Plan of Reforms for the Government of the
Philippines”
1. Transform Philippines into a viceroyalty like
Mexico.
2. Encouragement of Chinese immigration to
the Philippines
3. Abolition of the odious monopolies
4. Sending of farming families from Cataluña,
Galicia and Valencia, Spain, to the Philippines
to teach Filipino farmers better methods of
agriculture.
5. Higher salaries fro alcalde mayor and
abolition of their trading privileges.
6. Establishment of a mint to prevent the
outflow of gold from the Philippines
7. Opening of Manila to world Trade.
Opening of Manila to World Trade
September 6, 1834- abolition of Royal Company
and Manila was opened to World Trade.
Effects:
• Establishment of foreign commercial firms
• Opening of foreign consulates
• Sinibaldo de Mas’- Spanish Economist and
diplomat.
– Results of his investigation-
1. Opening of more Philippine ports to world trade
2. Encouragement of Chinese immigration to stimulate
agricultural development.
3. Abolition of tobacco monopoly.
Banks
• Obras Pias- earliest banking Institution in the
Philippines.
• Francisco Rodriguez- 1st Filipino to engaged in
banking “ Rodriguez Bank” in 1835.
• Banco Español-Filipino- 1st government bank
in the Philippines.
– It was established in August 1, 1851 in accordance
to Royal Decree of Queen Isabel.
– May 1, 1852- issued bank note, a ten peso
denomination.
Spanish Heritage
Food and Dress
• Wheat
• corns
• patato
• cacao
• coffee
• cabbages
• papayas
• chico’s
• guavas
• Beef
• Mutton
• Longanizas
• Jamon
• Sardines
• CANNED GOODS
Male
• Bahag- Western coats and Trousers (Americana)
• Putong- hats
• And used of Slippers and shoes for the foot wear.
Female
• They discarded sarong and used saya for lower
apparel and adopted the camisa with long and
wide sleeves in place of the old short sleeve
Filipino Women During Spanish Times
• They have no freedom to studies in the
Universities, to engage in the professions and
to mix freely with men.
• But they were permitted to engage in
business.
• They were kept in seclusion at home or in
school exclusively for girls.
Colegios- exclusive school for girls operated by
nuns
They were trained the rigid rules of
conduct, to cook well, to sew and embroider
and to know music.
Beaterio- combined school and nunnery
• Governor-General Narciso Claveria-
corrected the Philippine Calendar..
• August 16, 1844- he issued an order
proclaiming Tuesday, December 31, 1844
to be Wednesday, January 1, 1845.
• November 21, 1849- Governor Claveria
issued an order of giving Spanish
surnames to Filipino Families.
Education
The 1st School to be established are parochial
school with the Spanish missionaries as the
teachers.
1st college for boys was founded by the Jesuits in
Manila in 1589. ( College of Manila)- (College of
San Ignacio) and in 1621 its rank was elevated
by Pope Gregory XV as University.
-College of San Ildefonso(1595)
-College of San Jose (1601)
In 1859 they took charge of the Escuela Pia
• College of Our Lady of the Rosary (1611)
• College of Santo Tomas and later changes to
University of Santo Tomas
• And in 1630 they founded the college of San
Juan de Letran
Journalism
• Del Superior Govierno- 1st newspaper in the
Philippines with Governor General Manuel
Gonzalez de Aguilar as the editor. It appeared in
Manila on August 8, 1811. Its last Issue came on
July 4, 1813.
– La Esperanza( 1846) – 1st daily newspaper
– La Illustracion Filipina –(1589) 1st Illustrated periodical
– El Catolico Filipino-(1862) – 1st Religious newspaper
– La Opinion(1887)- 1st political newspaper
– El Ilocano- (1889)- 1st vernacular newspaper founded
by Isabelo de los Reyes.
– El Hogar (1893)- 1st women Magazine
Literature
Prayer books
Doctrinas
Novenas
biographies of saints
other Religious matters.
• Awits (chivalric-heroic poems)
• Corridos (legendary-religious poems)
The favorite reading matter of Filipino during
lent season was the passion.
the story in verse of the life, suffering and
crucifixion of Christ.
Florante at Laura- Most popular epic tagalog
Literature. The Political Masterpiece of Francisco
“Balagtas” Baltazar.
Theater
1. Duplo- it is political debate held by trained
men and women on the 9th night or last night
of the mourning period.
-the male participants were called bellocos
and bellacas for female.
2. Karagatan-
Political debate but the partakers were amateurs
• Comedia- the 1st recorded drama in Cebu in
1598. it was written by Vicente Puche and it
was performed in honor of Msgr. Pedro de
Agusto, Cebu’s 1st bishop.
Popular Plays during Spanish Era
1. Cenaculo
2. Moro-moro
3. zarzuela
• Cenaculo- Religious play depicting the life and
sufferings of Christ. It was performed During
the Lent Season.
• Moro-moro- cloak and dagger play depicting
the wars of Christain and Muslims, with
Christian always on the winning side.
– Fr. Jeronimo Perez- wrote the 1st moro-moro and
was staged in Manila in 1637, to commemorate
Governor General Corcuera’s victory.
• Zarzuela- it is musical Comedy.
Architecture
• Stone Houses were introduced in Spanish
architectural style with the characteristics of
azotea and Andalucian court yard
Painting
Damian Domingo “ Father of Filipino Painting”
1st Filipino to win fame
in 1820 he founded the 1st school in
painting in Manila, Academy of Fine
Arts.
Hospitals
Juan Clemente a Franciscan lay brother founded
the 1st hospital in the Philippines.
Hospital de San Juan de Dios and San Lazaro
Hospital.
Orphanage
Hospicio de San Jose, was established in
Manila in 1810
Other Contibutions
• Celebrations during Fiestas
• Holidays
• Cockfighting
• Horse Races
• Lottery (Loteria Nacional)
• Carillo
• Siyaman
• Haranas
• Flores de Mayo
• Santacruzan
To be continued……..
Islam in the Philippines
• The Moros- “Moro” Spanish term for Moor or
Muslim.
Main Groups of Filipino Muslims:
1. Maranaos of Lanao
2. Maguindanaons of Cotabato
3. Samals of Zamboanga
4. Sangils of Davao
5. Yakans of Basilan
6. Toasugs of Sulu
Islamic Faith and Muslim Customs
ISLAM means “Submission to the Will of God”
5 Pillars of ISLAM
1.Profession of faith
2.Praying 5 times a day
3.Giving alms for the poor
4.Fasting
5.Pilgrimage to Mecca
• Shariff Makdum- a Muslim missionary from
Malacca who introduce Islam in the
Philippines in the year 1380.
• 1390 – Raha Baginda from Sumatra arrived in
Sulu and carried on Makdum’s work.
• 1450- Abu Bakr, an Arab authority on Islamic
religion and law from Johore. He married
Princess Paramisuli and founded Sulu
sultanate.
• Shariff Kabungsuan- 1st Muslim leader to
reach Mindanao, He landed in Maguindanao
in 1475 from Johore. He married a Princess
names Putri Tuñina.
Causes of Muslim War
1. The Spanish invasion of Mindanao and Sulu.
2. They defended their faith against foreign who
wants to propagate Christianity.
3. Love for Adventures.
June 1578- Beginning of Muslim wars
Governor Francisco Sande sent a Spanish
force against Jolo, this force was commanded
by Captain Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa.
Sultan Pangiran Budiman a Tausug leader
resisted the attack. (the Moro’s failed to
Spaniards)
• 1596 became the Governor of Mindanao
• April 20, 1596 they reached Rio Grande de
Mindanao and landed in Bwayan and the Datu
was Datu Ubal Sirungan.
• 1602- Sirungan and Buisan- organized a 145
caracoas.
Gov. Juan Cerezo de Salamanca
established a Military based in
Mindanao.
April 6, 1635- Capt. Juan de Chaves
with 1000 Visayans and 300 Spaniard’s
landed in Zamboanga. He was
accopampanied by Fr. Mechor de Vera
a Jesuit missionary engineer.
Tagal’ Last Raid
Tagal a fiery brother of Kudarat
he raided Visayas and Calamianes.
He continue raiding Spanish colonize area for 8
months
“I shall bring you the God of the Christian as a
prisoner.”
December 17, 1636- Tagal sailed Zamboanga
shore.
Iba- a friendly Lutao.
- Decemcer 21, 1636- Tagal got killed and 120
Christian captives were rescued and Gonzales
recovered the treasures which Tagal stolen form
Visayas.
Kudarat and Corcuera
Gov. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera decided to
invade Maguindanao- the sultanate of the
powerful Sultan Kudarat.
February 2, 1637- he left Manila and stopped in
Zamboanga.
March 13- Gov. Corcuera landed on the mouth
of Rio Grande de Mindanao.
• March 14, 1637- Lamitan fell in the hands of
Spaniards
• May 24, 1637- Gov. Corcuera returned to
Manila. Where he was given a hero’s
welcome.
• April 17. 1638- Jolo fell under Governor-
general Corcuera. Sultan Bungsu together with
his warriors escaped. Sultuna Tuan Baloca
was taken as a prisoner..
Sultan Alimudin I of Jolo
• 1749- Sultan Alimudin I was deposed by his
brother Bantilan.
• January 2, 1750- He arrived in Manila and
was received by Bishop Juan de Arrechedera.
• April 28, 1750 he was baptized by the
Dominican Fathers and he was named as Don
Fernando de Alimudin I.
• May 19, 1751- he left Manila for Jolo.
Decline of Moro Raids
Towards the closing decades of the 18th century
the Moro powers declined and the raids loss
their sting..
1848 -steamships where purchased by Spain to
England. (Magallanes, Elcano and Reina de
Castilla)
Feb. 16, 1848- Gov-Gen. Narciso Claveria
attacked Samals at Balanguigui. “Count of
Manila”
Governor-General Antonio de Urbiztondo
campaigned in Sulu archipelago.
• December 24, 1850 – Urbiztondo defeated
Moro’s in Tonquil.
• February 28, 1851- he attacked and captured
Jolo.
• 1876 – Governor- General Jose Malcampo
prepared a mighty aramada of 21 steam
warship, 11 transport and 10,000 combat
troops.
• February 21, 1876 – Admiral Malcampo
reached Jolo.
• February 29, 1876- they began to attacked the
Moro City.
• March 1 1876- Sultan Jamalil A’lam sued for
peace and transferred his Capital to
Maimbung.
• Malcampo was awarded by the Spanish crown
the title of “Count of Jolo”.
End of Moro Wars
Governor General Emilio Torrero (1886)led the
invasion of Cotabato.
Governor General Valeriano Weyler (1891)
invaded Lanao and Cotabato.
Datu Amai Pakpak- defender of Marawi
Datu Ali Jimbangan- Sultan of Cotabato
Governor-General Ramon Blanco (1895)
December 10, 1898- Peace Treaty under
Governor Buille
Twilight of Spanish Rule
The Philippine Representation in the Spanish Cortes
Ventura de los Reyes a creole born in Vigan.
Achievements:
1. He signed the Spanish Constitution of 1812
2. Succeeded in having the Galleon Trade abolished
June 18, 1837- Philippine Representation was
abolished
Advisory Body of the Governador
General
1. Board of Authorities- it serve as cabinet and was
created under R.D. of Apr. 16, 1850.
It was composed of the Governador General as the
president.
Members:
1. Archbishop of Manila
2. General (2nd in command)
3. Admiral of Navy
4. Director General of the civil administration
5. Treasurer
6. President of Royal Audiencia
7. Attorney general
2. The Council of Administration- it serve as
the council of state. It was composed of the
Governador General as the president.
Members:
1. Archbishop of Manila
2. General (2nd in command)
3. Admiral of Navy
4. Director General of the civil administration
5. Treasurer
6. President of Royal Audiencia
7. Director general of the civil registration
8. Father superior of the religious order
9. President of the Manila Chambers of Commerse
10. President of Economic Society of Friends of the
Country.
11.6 delegates.
Function:
It advise the Governor General on the annual
budgets of the local government, the budget of the
local government and on important matters
affecting the welfare of the colony
Changes in Judicial System
1584- Royal audiencia was created in 1861 the
Composition of the Royal Audiencia was
changed.
The Governor General was removed and
replaced by chief justice and 8 associate justices
(oidores)
• 1893- 2 Territorial Audiencia was created
1. Territorial Audiencia of Vigan
2. Territorial Audiencia of Cebu
TAX REFORM in the year 1884.
1. abolition of tribute and replaced by
cedula tax
2. reduction of days annual force labor
(polo) .
Reforms of Provincial Government
• On Sept. 23 1844 Queen Isabela II
promulgated a royal decree which ordered
that the qualified lawyers shall be appointed
as alcalde mayores.
Classification of Alcaldia
1. Entrada (3 years in service)
2. Ascenso
3. Termino
October 3, 1844- Queen Isabel ordered the
abolition of the Indulto de commercio.
R.D of Oct. 5 1847- Municipal Election Law,
changed the method of electing the town
official
“Town officials will be elected annually by an
electoral board by an outgoing gobernadorcillo
and 12 senior cabeza de barangay.”
Guardia Civil- Symbol of Spanish rule in the
Philippines (February 12, 1852)
Frailocracia(rule of friars)
Frailocracy
• Union of the church and the state.
• Friars dominates the government and
controlled the colony’s education system and
owned the best haciendas in the country.
Grievances of Filipinos
1. Little participation of Filipinos in their
Government
2. Human rights were denied to them
3. Corrupt Spanish official
4. Abuses and immoralities of the friars
5. Racial descrimination
6. Spanish maladministration of Justice
7. Persecution of Filipino patriots.
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Philippine History- Social Status during Spanish Era-last years of Spanish colonialism

  • 2. • Principalia - it was the social and educated class in the towns of colonial Philippines composed of the Gobernadorcillo (Town Mayor), or the Cabeza de Barangay (Chief of the Barangay) who governed the districts and the awardees of the medal of Civil Merit. • Exempted from forced labor during the colonial period • Were allowed to vote, be elected to public office and be addressed by the title: Don or Doña • Given certain roles in the Church, such as assisting the priest in pastoral and religious activities
  • 4. Ilustrados • (Spanish for "erudite," "learned," or "enlightened ones"). constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in thelate19th century • They were the middle class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals.
  • 6. 1. Indios - person of pure Austronesian (Malay/Malayo Polynesian) ancestry (natives) 2. Insulares - Spaniards born in Philippines who took important positions inthe Spanishgovernment in thePhilippines. 3. Mestizos - Filipinos of mixed indigenousFilipino (Austronesian people/Malay/Malayo-Polynesian), or European or Chineseancestry. 4. Peninsulares,Spaniards who are born in Spain and took roles in thePhilippines
  • 7. Kinds of Mestizo’s Mestizo de Sangley - person of mixed Chinese and Malay ancestry Mestizo de Español -person of mixed Spanish and Malay ancestry Tornatrás -person of mixed Spanish, Malay and Chinese ancestry
  • 8. Economic Achievements during Spanish Time 1. Introduction of New Plants 2. Establishment of new Industries 3. The opening of Manila- Acapulco Trade 4. The founding of Economic Society of Friends of the Country 5. Tobacco Monopoly 6. Creation of the Royal Company of Spain 7. The opening of the Philippines to the world trade
  • 9. Manila as Asia’s Trade Emporium The 1st Spanish governor-general promoted Philippine trade with the neighboring Asian countries and with Mexico. Trade was free, no restrictions on imports and exports, Manila experienced a Marvelous commercial boom.
  • 10. Basco and Economic Progress Jose Basco- the most economically-minded Spanish governador-general. • was develop the natural resources of the Philippines. • He adopted a general economic plan which aim to foster Philippine agriculture, commerce and industries.
  • 11. • He also gave prizes to all persons –who could excel in the cultivation of cotton, mulberry trees, and spices to those who could manufacture silk, porcelain, hemp, flax and cotton. –To those who could develop mines of gold, iron, copper and tin –To those who could make useful inventions –To those who could distinguished themselves in arts and sciences.
  • 12. • He issued circulars on better methods of producing cotton, silk, sugar and other commodities • He ordered 4,000,000 mulberry trees in order to foster the silk industries. • March 24, 1784- he issued decree providing that the land, carabaos and farm implements of the farmer could not be seized by creditors, and they could not be arrested or jailed during planting or harvesting of crops
  • 13. Outstanding events 1. Founding of Economic Society of Friends of the country in 1781 2. Establishment of tobacco monopoly in 1782 3. The creation of Royal company of the Philippines and Mexico.
  • 14. Economic Society of Friends of the Country April 26, 1781- ESFC was inaugurated in Manila with Ciriaco Carvajal, member of the Manila Audiencia as the first president. • – It Help much in the agricultural advances of the Philippines.
  • 15. • In 1784 it made the 1st shipment of indigo to Europe. • 1824- imported martines to fight locusts that were destroying Philippine crops. • 1825- it granted free scholarships to 8 Filipinos to study the art of dyeing in Manila • 1829- it imported machine for hulling rice from Cadiz, Spain • 1837- Awarded 1000 to Dr. Paul de la Gironiere, French Physician and Planter.
  • 16. • 1853- gave Candido Lopez Diaz, Filipino inventor a prize of 2000 and a gold medal for inventing machine for cleaning hemp fibers. • 1861- It founded the 1st agricultural school in Manila • It introduced the cultivation of tea, cotton, poppy and mulberry tress. • Imported agricultural implements. Cotton, seeds and spinning machinery from the united states.
  • 17. The Tobacco Monopoly March 1, 1782- a government monopoly of tobacco was established pursuant to Royal Decree of February 9, 1780. It lasted from 1782-1882
  • 18. Results of Tobacco Monopoly 1. It gave a large annual revenue to government 2. Promoted tobacco production
  • 19. Direct Trade with Spain As early as 1753 father Jose Calvo, Jesuit priest- economist recommended to the Spanish Crown the establishment of the Philippine-Spain trade in order to improved the Philippine economy. 1766- King Charles III ordered the opening of direct trade between Manila and Cadiz, in order to relieve the Philippines from commercial dependence to Acapulco.
  • 20. • Buen Consejo- 1st frigate assigned on the new Philippine-Spain Trade. Juan Casseins a french naval officer in Spain service captained the frigate. • March 1, 1766- Frigate left Cadiz rounded the Cape of Good Hope. • Asuncion- Last frigate which was used in direct trade between Manila and Cadiz. – It brought the 1st Philippine shipment of Indigo to Spain. (1784)
  • 21. Royal Company of the Philippines By his Royal Decree of March 10, 1785, King Charles III of Spain established the Royal company of the Philippines with Jose de Galves as the President.
  • 22. Aims of Royal Company 1. To promote Philippine Trade with Spain 2. To encourage Philippine agriculture and industry According to its charter the company had a capital of 8M divided into 32,000 shares valued at P250 each.
  • 23. To help the company the king granted many privileges 1. Use of Flag of the Spanish Navy in all vessels 2. Right to purchase supplies from Royal arsenals at government prices 3. Exemption of all its shipments from tariff duties. 4. Right of all its ships to the ports of the Orient. • 1782- decline of the company.
  • 24. • July 12, 1803- King Charles IV issued a revised charter which is increasing the capitalization of the company to 12,500,000 and granting it additional privileges: 1. Allowing foreigners to own or purchase its shares 2. Permitting the Company vessels to trade directly to China and other Asian countries and return to Spain without calling at the port of Manila. 3. 3. Allowing foreign vessels to bring oriental goods to Manila.
  • 25. Causes of the Failure of Royal Company 1. Poor Management by incompetent Spanish Officials 2. Hostility of Manila Merchants 3. Neglect to Ship European Goods which were more in demand with Asian markets.
  • 26. Royal Company contribution 1. It opened commercial relations between Europe and the Philippines, ushering for the first time free trade between Manila and Cadiz. 2. The Company furnished the Philippines the needed capital to develop her economy. 3. It fostered the colony’s infant industries.
  • 27. Governor Berenguer de Marquina Felix Berenguer de Marquina- succeeded General Basco he arrived in Manila July 1, 1788 and took over the gubernatorial office.
  • 28. Demolition of Nipa- houses in the city of Manila.. Manila was opened to European vessels for 3 years by the Royal decree of August 15, 1789 issued by King Charles IV. January 23, 1790- “Plan of Reforms for the Government of the Philippines”
  • 29. 1. Transform Philippines into a viceroyalty like Mexico. 2. Encouragement of Chinese immigration to the Philippines 3. Abolition of the odious monopolies 4. Sending of farming families from Cataluña, Galicia and Valencia, Spain, to the Philippines to teach Filipino farmers better methods of agriculture. 5. Higher salaries fro alcalde mayor and abolition of their trading privileges.
  • 30. 6. Establishment of a mint to prevent the outflow of gold from the Philippines 7. Opening of Manila to world Trade.
  • 31. Opening of Manila to World Trade September 6, 1834- abolition of Royal Company and Manila was opened to World Trade. Effects: • Establishment of foreign commercial firms • Opening of foreign consulates
  • 32. • Sinibaldo de Mas’- Spanish Economist and diplomat. – Results of his investigation- 1. Opening of more Philippine ports to world trade 2. Encouragement of Chinese immigration to stimulate agricultural development. 3. Abolition of tobacco monopoly.
  • 33. Banks • Obras Pias- earliest banking Institution in the Philippines. • Francisco Rodriguez- 1st Filipino to engaged in banking “ Rodriguez Bank” in 1835. • Banco Español-Filipino- 1st government bank in the Philippines. – It was established in August 1, 1851 in accordance to Royal Decree of Queen Isabel. – May 1, 1852- issued bank note, a ten peso denomination.
  • 35. Food and Dress • Wheat • corns • patato • cacao • coffee • cabbages • papayas • chico’s • guavas • Beef • Mutton • Longanizas • Jamon • Sardines • CANNED GOODS
  • 36. Male • Bahag- Western coats and Trousers (Americana) • Putong- hats • And used of Slippers and shoes for the foot wear. Female • They discarded sarong and used saya for lower apparel and adopted the camisa with long and wide sleeves in place of the old short sleeve
  • 37. Filipino Women During Spanish Times • They have no freedom to studies in the Universities, to engage in the professions and to mix freely with men. • But they were permitted to engage in business. • They were kept in seclusion at home or in school exclusively for girls.
  • 38. Colegios- exclusive school for girls operated by nuns They were trained the rigid rules of conduct, to cook well, to sew and embroider and to know music. Beaterio- combined school and nunnery
  • 39. • Governor-General Narciso Claveria- corrected the Philippine Calendar.. • August 16, 1844- he issued an order proclaiming Tuesday, December 31, 1844 to be Wednesday, January 1, 1845. • November 21, 1849- Governor Claveria issued an order of giving Spanish surnames to Filipino Families.
  • 40. Education The 1st School to be established are parochial school with the Spanish missionaries as the teachers. 1st college for boys was founded by the Jesuits in Manila in 1589. ( College of Manila)- (College of San Ignacio) and in 1621 its rank was elevated by Pope Gregory XV as University. -College of San Ildefonso(1595) -College of San Jose (1601) In 1859 they took charge of the Escuela Pia
  • 41. • College of Our Lady of the Rosary (1611) • College of Santo Tomas and later changes to University of Santo Tomas • And in 1630 they founded the college of San Juan de Letran
  • 42. Journalism • Del Superior Govierno- 1st newspaper in the Philippines with Governor General Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar as the editor. It appeared in Manila on August 8, 1811. Its last Issue came on July 4, 1813. – La Esperanza( 1846) – 1st daily newspaper – La Illustracion Filipina –(1589) 1st Illustrated periodical – El Catolico Filipino-(1862) – 1st Religious newspaper – La Opinion(1887)- 1st political newspaper – El Ilocano- (1889)- 1st vernacular newspaper founded by Isabelo de los Reyes. – El Hogar (1893)- 1st women Magazine
  • 44. • Awits (chivalric-heroic poems) • Corridos (legendary-religious poems) The favorite reading matter of Filipino during lent season was the passion. the story in verse of the life, suffering and crucifixion of Christ. Florante at Laura- Most popular epic tagalog Literature. The Political Masterpiece of Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar.
  • 45. Theater 1. Duplo- it is political debate held by trained men and women on the 9th night or last night of the mourning period. -the male participants were called bellocos and bellacas for female. 2. Karagatan- Political debate but the partakers were amateurs
  • 46. • Comedia- the 1st recorded drama in Cebu in 1598. it was written by Vicente Puche and it was performed in honor of Msgr. Pedro de Agusto, Cebu’s 1st bishop.
  • 47. Popular Plays during Spanish Era 1. Cenaculo 2. Moro-moro 3. zarzuela
  • 48. • Cenaculo- Religious play depicting the life and sufferings of Christ. It was performed During the Lent Season. • Moro-moro- cloak and dagger play depicting the wars of Christain and Muslims, with Christian always on the winning side. – Fr. Jeronimo Perez- wrote the 1st moro-moro and was staged in Manila in 1637, to commemorate Governor General Corcuera’s victory. • Zarzuela- it is musical Comedy.
  • 49. Architecture • Stone Houses were introduced in Spanish architectural style with the characteristics of azotea and Andalucian court yard Painting Damian Domingo “ Father of Filipino Painting” 1st Filipino to win fame in 1820 he founded the 1st school in painting in Manila, Academy of Fine Arts.
  • 50. Hospitals Juan Clemente a Franciscan lay brother founded the 1st hospital in the Philippines. Hospital de San Juan de Dios and San Lazaro Hospital. Orphanage Hospicio de San Jose, was established in Manila in 1810
  • 51. Other Contibutions • Celebrations during Fiestas • Holidays • Cockfighting • Horse Races • Lottery (Loteria Nacional) • Carillo • Siyaman • Haranas • Flores de Mayo • Santacruzan
  • 53. Islam in the Philippines • The Moros- “Moro” Spanish term for Moor or Muslim. Main Groups of Filipino Muslims: 1. Maranaos of Lanao 2. Maguindanaons of Cotabato 3. Samals of Zamboanga 4. Sangils of Davao 5. Yakans of Basilan 6. Toasugs of Sulu
  • 54. Islamic Faith and Muslim Customs ISLAM means “Submission to the Will of God” 5 Pillars of ISLAM 1.Profession of faith 2.Praying 5 times a day 3.Giving alms for the poor 4.Fasting 5.Pilgrimage to Mecca
  • 55. • Shariff Makdum- a Muslim missionary from Malacca who introduce Islam in the Philippines in the year 1380. • 1390 – Raha Baginda from Sumatra arrived in Sulu and carried on Makdum’s work. • 1450- Abu Bakr, an Arab authority on Islamic religion and law from Johore. He married Princess Paramisuli and founded Sulu sultanate. • Shariff Kabungsuan- 1st Muslim leader to reach Mindanao, He landed in Maguindanao in 1475 from Johore. He married a Princess names Putri Tuñina.
  • 56. Causes of Muslim War 1. The Spanish invasion of Mindanao and Sulu. 2. They defended their faith against foreign who wants to propagate Christianity. 3. Love for Adventures.
  • 57. June 1578- Beginning of Muslim wars Governor Francisco Sande sent a Spanish force against Jolo, this force was commanded by Captain Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa. Sultan Pangiran Budiman a Tausug leader resisted the attack. (the Moro’s failed to Spaniards)
  • 58. • 1596 became the Governor of Mindanao • April 20, 1596 they reached Rio Grande de Mindanao and landed in Bwayan and the Datu was Datu Ubal Sirungan. • 1602- Sirungan and Buisan- organized a 145 caracoas.
  • 59. Gov. Juan Cerezo de Salamanca established a Military based in Mindanao. April 6, 1635- Capt. Juan de Chaves with 1000 Visayans and 300 Spaniard’s landed in Zamboanga. He was accopampanied by Fr. Mechor de Vera a Jesuit missionary engineer.
  • 60. Tagal’ Last Raid Tagal a fiery brother of Kudarat he raided Visayas and Calamianes. He continue raiding Spanish colonize area for 8 months “I shall bring you the God of the Christian as a prisoner.” December 17, 1636- Tagal sailed Zamboanga shore. Iba- a friendly Lutao.
  • 61. - Decemcer 21, 1636- Tagal got killed and 120 Christian captives were rescued and Gonzales recovered the treasures which Tagal stolen form Visayas.
  • 62. Kudarat and Corcuera Gov. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera decided to invade Maguindanao- the sultanate of the powerful Sultan Kudarat. February 2, 1637- he left Manila and stopped in Zamboanga. March 13- Gov. Corcuera landed on the mouth of Rio Grande de Mindanao.
  • 63. • March 14, 1637- Lamitan fell in the hands of Spaniards • May 24, 1637- Gov. Corcuera returned to Manila. Where he was given a hero’s welcome. • April 17. 1638- Jolo fell under Governor- general Corcuera. Sultan Bungsu together with his warriors escaped. Sultuna Tuan Baloca was taken as a prisoner..
  • 64. Sultan Alimudin I of Jolo • 1749- Sultan Alimudin I was deposed by his brother Bantilan. • January 2, 1750- He arrived in Manila and was received by Bishop Juan de Arrechedera. • April 28, 1750 he was baptized by the Dominican Fathers and he was named as Don Fernando de Alimudin I. • May 19, 1751- he left Manila for Jolo.
  • 65. Decline of Moro Raids Towards the closing decades of the 18th century the Moro powers declined and the raids loss their sting.. 1848 -steamships where purchased by Spain to England. (Magallanes, Elcano and Reina de Castilla) Feb. 16, 1848- Gov-Gen. Narciso Claveria attacked Samals at Balanguigui. “Count of Manila” Governor-General Antonio de Urbiztondo campaigned in Sulu archipelago.
  • 66. • December 24, 1850 – Urbiztondo defeated Moro’s in Tonquil. • February 28, 1851- he attacked and captured Jolo. • 1876 – Governor- General Jose Malcampo prepared a mighty aramada of 21 steam warship, 11 transport and 10,000 combat troops. • February 21, 1876 – Admiral Malcampo reached Jolo. • February 29, 1876- they began to attacked the Moro City.
  • 67. • March 1 1876- Sultan Jamalil A’lam sued for peace and transferred his Capital to Maimbung. • Malcampo was awarded by the Spanish crown the title of “Count of Jolo”.
  • 68. End of Moro Wars Governor General Emilio Torrero (1886)led the invasion of Cotabato. Governor General Valeriano Weyler (1891) invaded Lanao and Cotabato. Datu Amai Pakpak- defender of Marawi Datu Ali Jimbangan- Sultan of Cotabato Governor-General Ramon Blanco (1895) December 10, 1898- Peace Treaty under Governor Buille
  • 69. Twilight of Spanish Rule The Philippine Representation in the Spanish Cortes Ventura de los Reyes a creole born in Vigan. Achievements: 1. He signed the Spanish Constitution of 1812 2. Succeeded in having the Galleon Trade abolished June 18, 1837- Philippine Representation was abolished
  • 70. Advisory Body of the Governador General 1. Board of Authorities- it serve as cabinet and was created under R.D. of Apr. 16, 1850. It was composed of the Governador General as the president. Members: 1. Archbishop of Manila 2. General (2nd in command) 3. Admiral of Navy 4. Director General of the civil administration 5. Treasurer 6. President of Royal Audiencia 7. Attorney general
  • 71. 2. The Council of Administration- it serve as the council of state. It was composed of the Governador General as the president. Members: 1. Archbishop of Manila 2. General (2nd in command) 3. Admiral of Navy 4. Director General of the civil administration 5. Treasurer 6. President of Royal Audiencia
  • 72. 7. Director general of the civil registration 8. Father superior of the religious order 9. President of the Manila Chambers of Commerse 10. President of Economic Society of Friends of the Country. 11.6 delegates. Function: It advise the Governor General on the annual budgets of the local government, the budget of the local government and on important matters affecting the welfare of the colony
  • 73. Changes in Judicial System 1584- Royal audiencia was created in 1861 the Composition of the Royal Audiencia was changed. The Governor General was removed and replaced by chief justice and 8 associate justices (oidores)
  • 74. • 1893- 2 Territorial Audiencia was created 1. Territorial Audiencia of Vigan 2. Territorial Audiencia of Cebu TAX REFORM in the year 1884. 1. abolition of tribute and replaced by cedula tax 2. reduction of days annual force labor (polo) .
  • 75. Reforms of Provincial Government • On Sept. 23 1844 Queen Isabela II promulgated a royal decree which ordered that the qualified lawyers shall be appointed as alcalde mayores. Classification of Alcaldia 1. Entrada (3 years in service) 2. Ascenso 3. Termino October 3, 1844- Queen Isabel ordered the abolition of the Indulto de commercio.
  • 76. R.D of Oct. 5 1847- Municipal Election Law, changed the method of electing the town official “Town officials will be elected annually by an electoral board by an outgoing gobernadorcillo and 12 senior cabeza de barangay.”
  • 77. Guardia Civil- Symbol of Spanish rule in the Philippines (February 12, 1852) Frailocracia(rule of friars)
  • 78. Frailocracy • Union of the church and the state. • Friars dominates the government and controlled the colony’s education system and owned the best haciendas in the country.
  • 79. Grievances of Filipinos 1. Little participation of Filipinos in their Government 2. Human rights were denied to them 3. Corrupt Spanish official 4. Abuses and immoralities of the friars 5. Racial descrimination 6. Spanish maladministration of Justice 7. Persecution of Filipino patriots.

Notas del editor

  1. Escuela pia a public school for boys in Manila.
  2. Santo tomas offered the same courses as those given in the Universities in Europe. Law, medicine, pharmacy, philosophy, theology and humanities.
  3. In proportion there are more person who can read and write in these island than in Spain and other civilized countries
  4. Don- Juan Garcia de Sierra- alcade mayor.
  5. Capt. Nocholas Gonzalez.
  6. Dr. Agustin de San Pedro and Capt. Francisco de Atienza - Was renowned as a recollect missionary warriors..
  7. Town officials will be elected annually by an electoral board by an outgoing gobernadorcillo and 12 senior cabeza de barangay.
  8. The Guardia Civil is the first national law enforcement agency established in Spain. It was founded in 1844, early in the reign of Queen Isabel II of Spain, and with consensus among the different political forces