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Philosophy of Realism in Education

philosophy of education, realism, education

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Philosophy of Realism in Education

  3. 3. QUOTE “Knowing one’s self is the beginning of all wisdom.” “At the center of your being you have the answer; you know who you are and you know what you want.” ― Lao Tzu Aristotle
  4. 4. WHAT IS THE PHILOSOPHY OF REALISM? Dictionary: • the doctrine that universals have a real objective existence • represents the theory that particular things exist independently of our perception Books: It is an attitude of mind, a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the nature of things (Dhiman. 2008) • Matter has its own existence independently of our mind. • A doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of their being known or perceived
  5. 5. FAMOUS PHILOSOPHERS Aristotle (384-322 BCE) • First prominent Realist philosopher • Father of Realism • A pupil of Plato
  6. 6. ARISTOTLE 1. Design and order are present in the universe. 2. Ideas or forms such as the idea of God or idea of a tree can exist without matter, but no matter can exist without form. 3. Each thing has a purpose or function. 4. Humans are rational creatures fulfilling their purpose when they think. Thinking is their highest characteristic.
  7. 7. ARISTOTLE 5. Person who follows a true purpose leads a rational life of moderation avoiding extremes. Golden Mean – a path between extremes 6. Chief good is happiness. Happiness: harmony and balance of soul and body, which is through education. Our highest good comes through thinking.
  8. 8. ARISTOTLE 7. The knowledge of a thing, beyond its classification and description, requires an explanation of causality (why it is) or Four Causes: MATERIAL CAUSE (THE SUBSTANCE OF WHICH THE THING IS MADE) FORMAL CAUSE (ITS DESIGN THAT SHAPES THE MATERIAL OBJECT) EFFICIENT CAUSE (ITS MAKER OR BUILDER) FINAL CAUSE (ITS PURPOSE OR FUNCTION) -- wood, bricks, and nails -- the sketch or blueprint -- the carpenter who builds it -- is that it is a place in which to live: House
  9. 9. ARISTOTLE 8. Developed a method for testing the truth of statements, which he called the syllogism. Example: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is mortal. *Deductive logic
  10. 10. FAMOUS PHILOSOPHERS ST. THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) • Italian priest • Thomism – Roman Catholic • Reconciled Aristotelian philosophy with Christian concepts • Word of God (faith) = thinking of Aristotle • Reason and faith = harmonious realms
  11. 11. THOMAS AQUINAS 5 WAYS TO PROVE GOD’S EXISTENCE (SUMMA THEOLOGICA) : l) The Proof from Motion - The First Mover 2) The Proof from Efficient Cause - The First Maker 3) The Proof from Contingency - The Necessary Being 4) The Proof from Degrees of Perfection - The Most Perfect Being 5) The Proof from Design - The Designer/ Creator
  12. 12. THOMAS AQUINAS • God made it possible to acquire true knowledge so that we may know Him better. • Because we are children of God, our best thinking should agree with Christian tenets. • Each person is born with an immortal soul. • Aquinas epitomized the scholasticism of the Middle Ages. • Scholasticism is an approach that emphasized the human’s eternal soul and salvation.
  13. 13. FAMOUS PHILOSOPHERS Francis Bacon (1561-1626) • Father of modern • “sKcineonwcleedge is Power.” John Locke (1632-1704) • Medical researcher & followed the work of Francis Bacon
  14. 14. FRANCIS BACON • Challenged the Aristotelian logic and use of theological methods for examining scientific principles • Focused on scientific—or inductive—method uncovered errors in assumptions previously taken for granted • Science is a tool for creating new knowledge. • Human knowledge is divided into 3: History, Poetry, Philosophy
  15. 15. FRANCIS BACON • He believed we should analyze all previously accepted knowledge and we should rid ourselves of the four idols that we 'bow down' before: Idol of the Den/Cave (beliefs due to limited experience) Idol of the Tribe (believing because most people believe) Idol of the Marketplace (beliefs due to misuse of words) Idol of the Theatre (subjective beliefs colored by religion and personal philosophy)
  16. 16. JOHN LOCKE • Ordered sense data and reflected on them • No such things as innate ideas—mind at birth is a tabula rasa (young mind not affected by experience). • As an empiricist, he believed we gain knowledge from what we experience. • Educational views: children should be taught as emerging adults because they are rational creatures. • “A sound mind in a sound body" is a short but full description of a happy state in this world.
  17. 17. THE PHILOSOPHICAL POSITION OF REALISM HOLDS THAT: • External world is the reality. • Man will discover reality with the use of science and common sense through education or learning. • Mind is functioning & is geared towards creativity. • Reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning. • Values must be studied to be applied in the actual setting.
  18. 18. ARISTOTLE (384-322 BCE) FATHER OF REALISM FORMS OF REALISM 1) SCHOLASTIC REALISM A demand for truth or reality rather than beauties of Roman days arose 2) HUMANISTIC REALISM A reaction against emphasis on form & style of old classical literature 3) SOCIAL REALISM A reaction against production of scholars & professional men & neglect of practice 4) SENSE-REALISM A reaction against realities found in the classics or everyday human activities ST. THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) MIDDLE AGES E X P O N E N T S O F R E A L I S M FRANÇOIS RABELAIS (1483-1553) JOHN MILTON (1608-1741) MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE (1533-1592) FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) JOHANN AMOS COMENIUS (1592-1670) JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)
  19. 19. 1. SCHOLASTIC REALISM • It started when medieval thinkers wanted to bring together a relation between faith (Christian theology) and reason (Classical Philosophy). • St. Thomas Aquinas who wrote Summa Theologica used philosophy to help explain the doctrine and mysteries of the church. • Characteristics: Relied on authorities from the past; Synthesizing of knowledge; Deductive approach to reasoning; Use of syllogistic logic • Scholastic schools had two methods of teaching: 1."lectio" (the simple reading of a text by a teacher/ no questions were permitted); 2. "disputatio" (where question to be disputed was announced beforehand) • Education is the process by which he lifts himself up to the eternal.
  20. 20. 2. HUMANISTIC REALISM • Reaction against the emphasis on form and style of the old classical literature. Humanist realist emphasized content and ideas. • Aim: To acquire meaning & spirit of the classics • Purpose: to master his own environing life, natural & social thru knowledge of broader life of ancients • The study of old literature (Literature of the Greeks & Roman) is a means to understand the practical life. • Humanists believed that classical literature should be studied for the information and the knowledge of the facts of the pasts so that such knowledge could be used for the preparation for practical living (answer to any problem that man might need). • Basic concerns in education: Physical, moral and social development
  21. 21. 3. SOCIAL REALISM • Reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of practice • Aim: To train a “gentleman” for active participation in social life and social judgment and to prepare the practical man of the world • Social realists follow the method of travel of journey method. • Direct contact with things, people & social conditions thru travel rather than books. • Study of gymnastics, sports, riding, modern languages, customs of other countries • Study of one’s self but also others • Social realism explains that education should equip learners for a happy and successful life as a man of the world.
  22. 22. 4 . SENSE-REALISM • Emphasizes the training of the senses: Senses = gateways of knowledge; Learning takes place = operation of the senses. • Amalgam of humanistic & social realism • Sense-realism attached more importance to the study of natural sciences and contemporary social life. • Aim: To develop a natural society by working in accord with the laws of nature • Purpose: Happiness with God • Thru education, man can still know laws of nature and thereby control nature. • 2 characteristics of representatives: • formulation of basic assumptions • formulation of new curriculum based on natural sciences & contemporary life
  23. 23. 4 . SENSE-REALISM The sense-realists emphasized the 3 things: a. Application of inductive method (Bacon) in order to organize and simplify the instructional process b. To replace instruction in Latin by the instruction in Vernacular c. To substitute new scientific and social studies in place of the studies in language and literature As Innovators, their goal is discovery and utilization of the secrets of nature for the real and practical benefits they could bring to man
  25. 25. AIMS OF REALIST EDUCATION • Understanding the material world through inquiry • A study of science and the scientific method • A need to know the world in order to ensure survival and good life • Basic, essential knowledge with a no-nonsense approach • Transmit culture and develop human nature
  26. 26. THE REALIST CURRICULUM • Problem-centered (subject-centered) • Practical and useful • Highly organized and systematic • Physical activity has educational value (Locke) • Extensive use of pictures (Comenius) • Attention to the complete person (Locke) • Use of objects in education (Maria Montessori) • Highly organized, separate and systematically arranged (Science, Social Sciences and Mathematics)
  27. 27. REALIST METHODS OF TEACHING: • Emphasis on critical reasoning through observation • Supports accountability and performance-based teaching • Scientific research and development • Mastery of facts: Recitation, experimentation, demonstration, drills, exercises • Education should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. • Enhanced learning thru direct or indirect experiences: Field trips, lectures, films, TV, audio-visual aids, computer technology & library. • Learning is based on facts – analysis – questioning. • Vernacular to be the medium of instruction. • Precision and order: ringing bells, time periods, daily lesson plans, pre-packaged curriculum materials • Children should be given positive rewards
  28. 28. REALISM AND THE TEACHER • A teacher should be educated and well versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends. • He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. • He must be able to expose and guide the student towards the hard realities of life. (neither pessimist, nor optimist) • He must be able to co-relate between utility in daily life and education. • He should define simple rules. • He should teach subjects in proper order. • He needs to find out the interest of the child and to teach accordingly.
  29. 29. SCHOOL ORGANIZATION INFLUENCED BY REALISM 1) School organization would be based on the real needs of society. (not due to politics) 2) The opening of science classes in every school is a must. 3) Co-education is a natural happening so it cannot be rejected. 4) School is the mirror of the society. It is a miniature form of society and it presents the real picture of the society.
  30. 30. REALISM Reality (ontology) A world of things Truth or knowledge (epistemology) Correspondence and sensation (as we see it) Goodness (axiology) Laws of nature Teaching reality doctrine Subjects of physical world: math, science, social studies Teaching truth Teaching for mastery of information: demonstrate, recite Teaching goodness Training in rules of conduct Why schools exist To reveal the order of the world and universe What should be taught Laws of physical reality Role of the teacher Displays, imparts knowledge Role of the student Manipulates, passive participation School's attitude towards Always coming toward perfection, change orderly change
  31. 31. PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY Question: Am I a Realist?
  32. 32. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bauzon, Prisciliano T. Fundamental Philosophies of Education 2004. National Book Store Brennen, Annick M. Coursework booklet: Philosophy of Education. Northern Caribbean University. 1999 Cordasco, Francesco. A Brief History of Education. Reprinted in USA 1987 Dhiman, O.P. Foundations of Education. APH Publishing, New Delhi. 2008 Forkner, Carl B. The Influence of Realism on Modern Education: A Historical Review. Global Education Journal, 2013(1), Mar 2013 Garder, Jostein, Sophie’s World: A Novel about the History of Philosophy. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2007. Hopson, Teresa. Cheyney University of Pennsylvania. 2007 ’Realism', “Realism’