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Tree census was collected in 2009, from over 2,000 plots. This provided a good baseline for the work we are doing today.
Tree inventories in major cities often include detailed information about the type, size, location (address or GPS spatial), condition, and maintenance needs of managed trees in the population.
475+ known invasive forest pests in US
These five insects and diseases threaten common trees such as willow, poplar, ash, birch, maple, oak, and elm (Appendix VI). Of the 10 most common tree species, the only species not threatened by these insects and diseases are European buckthorn (an invasive species that comprises 28.2 percent of the total tree population), black cherry (the fourth most common species and 4.9 percent of the population), and amur honeysuckle (the eighth most common species, 2.1 percent of the population, and another invasive species)
Pest Risk Assessments are types and percentages of trees represented in a community can be correlated with a list of known major pest and disease infestations located within a given radius of the community to estimate relative risk in terms of canopy and associated benefit loss for each threatening pest. Knowledge of the natural and artificial spread of a respective pest or disease can also be helpful in predicting the timing or likelihood of an infestation.
We are using GIS and inventory data to establish a prioritization process; we will be reviewing climate, tree pest risk and host susceptibility assessments to determine what and where the current risks are in the community and what tree species might fare better based on newly developed models.
Nonative forest pest, such as wood-boring beetles are estimated to cost nearly $1.7 billion in local government expenditures, and approximately $830 million in lost residential property values.
The tasks, costs and resources dedicated to keeping our communities healthy, functioning and vibrant are significant. When Emerald Ash Borer devastated our communities, the loss was significant. Many communities were caught off guard, it was only when their trees started dying did the wonder what was next. Many communities turned to their townships only to find that they too were caught off guard, under funded, and were left to try to figure out what to do first with limited funds.
Tree inventories in smaller communities are usually less detailed and may be based on statistically representative sample data from the tree population. Either method will provide a listing or percentage of various tree species in the population needed to quantify the number of trees at risk and their overall percentage of the tree population. For communities without any tree inventory, this is the first step that must be completed to assess and manage risk
Communitywide Inventories can be very helpful in identifying potential insect pest and disease problems. Because public trees usually represent a small percentage (typically less than 15 percent) of the overall urban forest, communities with responsibility for identifying and abating hazardous trees on private property — and those that want information for the entire community forest — will need to rely on communitywide assessments and advanced tools to quantify the number or trees at risk or identify the location of host trees threatened by a forest pest or disease.
Prevention, or keeping invasive species out, is the most effective method of defense. This is the first step in combatting the problem of invasive species. It is cheaper and easier to keep them out than to try to get rid of them once they are here. The next step is early detection and rapid response (EDRR). Careful monitoring through surveys can help detect an invasive species as soon as it arrives and before it becomes established.
Reactive versus Proactive. EAB Once you have this information, ash tree inventory data can be used to make management decisions. • Identify which ash trees: – Should be immediately removed: consult needed, poor condition, etc. – Are good candidates for EAB insecticide treatments – Are owned or managed by an entity other than your community (utility company, adjacent property owner)
There are many tools to help communities map tree inventories. This community used ARCGIS to identify local ash tree populations. Geographic maps help identify high risk areas, communities that need education and resources to plan for removal and replanting. GIS mapping tools can graphically display risk zones based on radial distance of the closest known location of a specific forest pest/disease to the community and can can be a very helpful in communicating relative risk to key members of the community.
Tree inventories can create better, stronger more viable management plans. If I were a municipal forester, or a member of a governing body, I would be able to use this data to create more realistic budget plans—not only for today, but for the decades to come. This community suffered a huge loss, the ecosystems services provided by those trees— reduction of energy costs, property values, air quality, stormwater management, these services will take 50-75 years to replace.
The suspension of cyclical pruning activities during the “EAB removal years" negatively impacted the branch structure, health, and longevity of immature and replacement trees. Those "undermaintained" trees now compose a significant percentage of the current, mature street tree population and require even more resources to be maintained for health and safety
Ecological Threat In southern Asia, a generation requires one year, but in northern areas, two years are required. Generations may be overlapping. Unlike many cerambycids, A. glabripennis attacks healthy trees as well as those under stress. Several generations can develop within an individual tree, eventually killing it.
CHINESE LONG-HORNED BEETLE (12). Another invasive long-horned beetle, Hesperophanes campestris; synonym Trichoferus campestris and similar to ALB appeared for the first time in 2009 near O’Hare airport and in Crawford county in east central Illinois. Its arrival at O’Hare is not surprising since it is a major point of entry, but the east central Illinois find is unsettling. The CLHB was captured near a pallet-making plant which is consistent with the movement of infested green wood and wood products. CLHB has also been found near Minneapolis, MN and in Quebec, Canada. The insect is originally from Asia and parts of Eastern Europe and spreads through movement of infested wood. It has a similar life cycle as the Asian long-horned beetle (ALB) and causes similar damage to trees. Preferred hosts of the CLHB are presented in Table 1 (Figure 11).
Another invasive long-horned beetle, Chinese Long-horned Beetle: Hesperophanes campestris; synonym Trichoferus campestris, is similar to ALB appeared for the first time in 2009 near O’Hare airport and in Crawford county in east central Illinois. Its arrival at O’Hare is not surprising since it is a major point of entry. The CLHB was captured near a pallet-making plant which is consistent with the movement of infested green wood and wood products. CLHB has also been found near Minneapolis, MN and in Quebec, Canada. The insect is originally from Asia and parts of Eastern Europe and spreads through movement of infested wood. It has a similar life cycle as the Asian long-horned beetle (ALB) and causes similar damage to trees. Preferred hosts of the Chinese long-horned beetle are Apple, Ash, Beech, Birch, Cedar, Cut Wood of Spruce and Pine, Elm, Fir, Larch, Locust, Maple, Mulberry, Oak, Walnut, Willow
Origin The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, currently established in North America, is a European native that was accidentally introduced into New England in the late 1800's during an attempt to rear an alternative silk producing insect.
For those that can’t see this list, it is probably a good thing. The first 5 species are maple---and many of you know, we have a TON of maple in our communities. And two species are known to be HIGHLY invasive, Callery Pear and Norway Maples!
Updating ordinances for tree species list will allow citizens to make informed decisions. And if people aren’t buying them, then hopefully, the garden centers will stop selling them, and the nurseries will sop growing them!
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill) SwingleSimaroubaceae Family Ecological ThreatA common tree in urban areas where it causes damage to sewers and structures, ailanthus poses a greater threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. It is a vigorous growing tree and prolific seeder that establishes dense stands that push out natives. Tree of heaven contains chemicals, including ailanthone, that have been found to have strong allelopathic (herbicidal) affects on the growth of other plants which help it establish and spread.
ALB is Native to China, Japan, Korea---if it were to reinfest, the potential losses are HUGE! 42 million trees, with a compensatory value of approximately $17 BILLION dollars.
Introduced in solid wood packing material, Discovered in 1996 in New York, 1998 in Chicago Now has breeding populations in 5 U.S. states, Canada, and 11 countries in Europe. The concern is that the Asian Longhorn beetle attacks our nations urban and native forests. Each type of tree has a different level of susceptibility with the maples and elms being most susceptible. ALB has a long list of native host trees including Maple, Elm, Birch, Willow, Horsechestnut, Buckeye, Ash, European Mountainash, Hackberry
First discovered in 1998 in Ravenswood With a combination of tree removal and chemical treatments, declared eradicated in 2008 Is not currently found in Illinois
Spottted Lanternfly—preferred host is Tree of Heaven---
This is a current map of EAB detections by counties in Illinois. It is crucial to stay current so that we can continue to provide the education and resources you need.
With advanced planning and assessment tree composition and risk to threats, coupled with proactive management strategies, will help minimize tree canopy an ecosystem losses.
Faced with the threats of invasive insects and diseases, communities, planners and foresters should consider should work together to defend communities. When the unique perspectives, skill sets, and knowledge are combined, significant progress can be made in protecting our communities and future forests.
Here are some resources
One resource is i-Tree (www.itreetools.org), a suite of free software tools developed by the USDA Forest Service to assess urban forests. There are two i-Tree applications particularly useful for planners: • i-Tree ECO can be used to establish a statistically accurate estimate of the type and quantities of trees in the urban forest. While cost effective, a communitywide i-Tree ECO analysis is best performed by qualified forestry staff or professional consultants. • i-Tree Canopy utilizes aerial images in Google maps to generate statistically accurate estimates of land cover, including tree cover. This tool can also be useful for monitoring changes in tree canopy over time.
Community Tree Risk Assessment: What's Missing in Your Management Plan?
Pest Risk and Host Susceptibility Analysis:
What's Missing in Your Management Plan?
Every tree around us…
What is the Urban Forest?
• 475+ known invasive forest pests in US
• Other invaders
– Norway maple
– Japanese Honeysuckle
Did you know…
Scott Schirmer, IDA
Number of trees
Tree and shrub cover
Source: US Forest Service
Regional Forest Summary (Trees)
(based on 2010 i-Tree Eco analysis)
Tree Species Distribution – Chicago Region
Northern red oak
Trees in your community
Management plan should have:
• How many trees does your community have?
• What condition are they in?
• Where are they?
What is a tree inventory?
Tree Inventory is a count of all publicly managed trees
• All public trees (trees in right-of-ways (streets), on public property, in
• Only street trees
• Public and private trees that impact community spaces
Why do it?
• To know current state of publicly managed community
trees Identify where to focus limited resources
• Improve long term management and health to maximize
• Identify potential pest and disease risks
• Quantify the economic and environmental benefits of the
urban forest resource
Is there enough tree diversity to provide resilience to invasive pests and/or
No more than:
30% from one Family
20% from one Genus
10% from one Species
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) has the
potential to cause more damage to trees than
Gypsy Moth, Dutch Elm Disease, and Chestnut
•Maple (Acer spp.)
Asian Longhorned Beetle: Annotated Host List Updated by Baode Wang January 2015 (published on USDA
APHIS web site) USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Otis Laboratory
What’s at stake?