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The Economics of Urban Greening for Human Health

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The Economics of Urban Greening for Human Health

  1. 1. The Economics of Urban Greening for Human Health Kathleen Wolf, Ph.D. Research Social Scientist University of Washington (Seattle) School of Environmental and Forest Sciences Partners in Community Forestry 17 November 2016
  2. 2. primary action plan research supplement _____ value of research to U&CF growth
  3. 3. Research Needs Framework
  4. 4. source.wisegeek.com
  5. 5. annual value of $11.7 billion U.S. (2015 dollars) • cradle to grave human life cycle • varied expressions of urban greening (metro nature) • evidence based human health and wellness benefits • just beginning the analysis!
  6. 6. design: printing:
  7. 7. contributing analysts: Dr. Stephen Grado & Marcus Measells, MSU; Dr. Alicia Robbins, Weyerhaueser
  8. 8. Publications Green Cities, Good Health web site. A resource to learn more about nearby nature in cities and human health. Wolf, K.L. 2016. Uncovering benefits of the urban forest: A look at how urban forestry investment assists local economies, public health. Properties Magazine 70, 2: 55-57. Wolf, K.L., M.K. Measells, and S.C. Grado. (in review). Economics of nearby nature and elder health: A quantitative review. Environmental Health Perspectives. Wolf, K.L., M.K. Measells, S.C. Grado, and A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Economic values of metro nature health benefits: A life course approach. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 14: 694-701. Wolf, K.L., and A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environmental Health Perspectives 123, 5: 390-8. Wolf, K.L. 2015. Green strategies to improve public health and save billions. International Innovations 195: 54-55. Wolf, K.L. 2013. The urban forest. Communities & Banking 24, 2: 25-27. * Research and publications were funded in part by the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, National Urban and Community Forestry program, as recommended by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC).
  9. 9. WHO Health Definition A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (1946)
  10. 10. • scale of individual to community screen for benefits • urban forestry, parks, gardens, etc. green condition • market & non-market valuation strategy Analysis Process
  11. 11. process #1: screen for benefits
  12. 12. Sponsors: USDA Forest Service, U&CF Program University of Washington NGO partners Thanks! to U of WA students: Katrina Flora Mary Ann Rozance Sarah Krueger www.greenhealth.washington.edu Research Reviews & Summaries Green Cities: Good Health
  13. 13. contributing analysts: Dr. Stephen Grado & Marcus Measells, MSU; Dr. Alicia Robbins, Weyerhaueser
  14. 14. Metro Nature & Health Evidence Framework Synthesis of 40 years of peer-reviewed literature Wolf, K.L., A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environmental Health Perspectives 123, 5:390-8.
  15. 15. design: printing:
  16. 16. design: co-author & printing:
  17. 17. process #2: understand green condition
  18. 18. Landscape Community Gardencredit: Ignacio Bunster-Ossa
  19. 19. Diversity in Metro Nature
  20. 20. process #3: apply valuation strategy
  21. 21. Valuation Sources Benefit x Nature x Health Outcome
  22. 22. • factor income • avoided or replacement cost • burden of illness • hedonic pricing • stated preference/contingent valuation • revealed preference (e.g., travel cost) • quality adjusted life years • benefit/cost Valuation Strategies Benefits Transfer approaches
  23. 23. What is the Value?
  24. 24. Millions of U.S. Dollars (2012) Wolf, K.L., M.K. Measells, S.C. Grado, A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Economic values of metro nature health benefits: A life course approach. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. Summary Table
  25. 25. evidence of lower frustration and higher meditation when moving into the greener streets Green Streets for Walkability 26 Aspinall et al. 2013. The Urban Brain: Analysing Outdoor Physical Activity with Mobile EEG. British Journal of Sports Medicine
  26. 26. 20 adults with major depression walk in a park setting and an urban setting 50-minute walks one week apart before-after testing: Mood: Positive and Negative Affect (PANAS) Cognition: Backward Digit Span (BDS) Improving Depression Berman et al. 2012. Journal of Affective Disorders cognitive and affective improvements after walking in a nature setting
  27. 27. America’s State of Mind, Medco Health Solutions, Inc % of U.S. Population Using Mental Health Medications 2001 vs 2010
  28. 28. America’s State of Mind, Medco Health Solutions, Inc Prevalence of Adult Antidepressant Use 2001 vs 2010
  29. 29. The times . . . . they are a changin’ Bob Dylan urban & community forestry environment business outlook return on investment making people great
  30. 30. SYSTEMS THINKING AIR QUALITY STORMWATER WASTE WATER SOLID WASTE CULTURAL HERITAGE BIOTA EXERCISE & FITNESS ACTIVE MOBILITY CARBON ENERGY HEAT ISLAND CONNECTVITY SOCIAL CAPITALALLERGENS BMP’S COMMUNITY IDENTITY PUBLIC ART NOISE credit: American Planning Association
  31. 31. x
  32. 32. x
  33. 33. x
  34. 34. Military Service & Stress Military service to civilian transition issues Prevalence of Stress Response Service carry-overs Purpose High commitment & exertion Advanced skill sets Social cohesion/comraderie
  35. 35. Veterans Outdoor Therapy Les Winkeler/The Southern Illinoisan World-Herald News Service Outward BoundHope for the Warriors
  36. 36. urban forest restoration Civic Stewardship for Healing
  37. 37. community tree plantings parks public gardens street trees neighborhood American Forests Tree People, Los Angeles
  38. 38. community gardens local food food security child education nutrition food donations Keep Oakland Beautiful The Heights Community Garden, Dayton OH
  39. 39. Summary • evidence-based human health & wellness benefits • economic consequences! • market & non-market valuations • first efforts – promising! • = demonstrating return on investment Thank you to USDA Forest Service & NUCFAC!
  40. 40. copies available at this meeting!
  41. 41. www.naturewithin.info

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