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Literature study on site planning and landscaping

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This presentation provides a brief explanation about the site planning techniques and methods involved along with the landscaping techniques.
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Literature study on site planning and landscaping

  2. 2. SITE SELECTION  The site should be selected so as to reduce occupants’ dependence on automobiles.  Development that interrupts wildlife corridors or break up contiguous natural areas should be avoided.  Attention should be paid to cultural and agricultural resources when choosing a site and avoid disruption whenever possible.  Site planning and building siting should be considered part of the overall building design, particularly as related to cooling-load avoidance, natural day lighting, passive solar heating, and natural ventilation. SITE PLANNING AND FACILITY SITING  Site inventory surveys should be thorough and objective and include the following: geology, topography, orientation and slope aspect, soils, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife habitat. All structures and physical construction on the site should be mapped and all prior uses noted.  Proximity of trees to structures and constructed features should take into account the type of trees (deciduous , coniferous, for example), growth rate, life span, and ultimate canopy shape—all of which can influence both shading and solar/daylighting access
  3. 3. Orientation on a Site  Both site selection and site planning have a major impact on the relative “greenness” of any Federal facility being planned. Site selection includes issues such as transportation and travel distances for building occupants, impacts on wildlife corridors, and impacts on the hydrology (storm water flows, wetlands, etc.).  Thoughtful placement of the building on the site promotes energy conservation by taking advantage of natural site features such as breezes, sunlight, shade, and topography. Good site planning minimizes site-clearing (saving money), and preservation of existing vegetation may provide a low maintenance landscape that avoids supplemental irrigation and fertilizer.  Buffers should be retained along wetlands, erosion prone slopes, and other fragile areas or locations of special ecological importance.  Natural drainage systems should be used and preserved wherever possible. Site buildings, roadways, and parking so that water flowing off the developed site during extreme storm events will not cause environmental damage.  Desirable locations for driveways and parking are generally on south- facing slopes or the south sides of buildings in snowy climates, and on the east or north sides of buildings in southern climates—the latter reducing heat buildup during hot afternoons (existing or newly planted shade trees can cool these surfaces).
  4. 4. PARKING  Parking is the single biggest user of land area at a facility.  Anything that can reduce the area devoted to parking results in a reduction of polluted surface runoff (stormwater), greater groundwater recharge, more green area for employee recreation, a reduction in localized warming from parking lots (“urban heat island” effect), and improved air quality from more oxygen- producing plants.  Turning Area For Standard Cars:
  5. 5.  Turning area for heavy duty vehicles:  Lay out surface parking lots to allow for sheetlike drainage to infiltration and bioremediation strips and swales, minimizing points of concentration and piped flow, and maximizing groundwater recharge and pollutant removal.  Stormwater detention/retention facilities should be planned so that they are aesthetically attractive and environmentally responsible  Public/private partnerships for parking structures— particularly when planned with corporate neighbors—should provide incentive-based opportunities for the private sector.
  6. 6.  LANDSCAPING General Landscaping Principles: 1.Good general landscaping practices increase the ecological value of landscapes while reducing energy use, minimizing or eliminating the use of harmful pesticides, minimizing the use of potable water, and decreasing stormwater runoff. 2.Recommended practices include choosing appropriate plantings, responsibly managing water on the site—both water we add and rainfall and choosing appropriate materials for landscape constr. 3.All landscapes change, grow, and evolve in a process of succession. By sensitively working with these natural dynamics, good landscaping can provide economy, efficiency, and satisfaction for the workforce.
  7. 7.  PLANT MATERIALS  Thoughtful selection and setting of trees, shrubs, and groundcovers to provide shade and lower ambient air temperature can reduce air conditioning energy use by 5–20%.  Selection of plant materials for low water consumption, as well as for disease and pest resistance, can contribute significantly to an environmentally responsible landscape.  WATER USE  Efficient irrigation is accomplished by grouping plants with similar water needs. Design irrigation systems to avoid overwatering by using ultra-low-volume distribution devices.  As the landscape matures, less irrigation is required—especially when native or well-adapted plants and thick mulches are used.  Reclaimed wastewater, sometimes called Irrigation Quality or IQ water, is another possible source of water for irrigation.  Gray-water is untreated wastewater generated within the facility from shower and bath, laundry, and bathroom sinks (not from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks, or dishwashers). In some parts of the country, gray-water can be used for below- ground irrigation.  Rainwater harvesting can often satisfy all landscape water needs while helping to reduce storm water runoff.  Watershed management for water quality and habitat protection/improvement should be carefully addressed on most sites.
  8. 8.  LANDSCAPE MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES  To pave surfaces in landscaped areas, use loosest masonry units, flagstones, gravel, turf block, “geo-webs” (flexible or rigid synthetic grid structures) planted with grass or groundcovers, crushed shells, mosaics of reused concrete slab, and forest-derived materials.  Mulches hold soil moisture, reduce weed growth, slow erosion, build soil texture, increase root density by keeping soil cooler in summer and warmer in winter, and feed important soil microorganisms (which, in turn, buffer soil pH). Mulches add color, texture, contrast, and definition. They can consist of leaves; grass clippings; shredded wood from site clearing, utility, or commercial sources; pine bark; pine straw; nut hulls;or sawdust.  Storm water Management  Storm water is precipitation that does not soak into the ground or evaporate but flows along the surface of the ground as runoff. Conventional practice for storm water management—concentrating runoff and carrying it off a site as quickly as possible through storm sewers— causes various environmental problems, including erosion and downstream flooding, pollution loading of surface waters, and reduced groundwater recharge. Responsible management of storm water involves a combination of strategies to reduce the amount of runoff generated, to reduce the amount of pollutants that are transported in the runoff, and to remove pollutants that runoff. Generally, the most important management strategy for storm water is to provide for infiltration into the ground as close as possible to where the precipitation falls.
  9. 9.  Strategies for improving storm water management can also improve wildlife habitat on a site, improve water quality in the region, and help to recharge underground aquifers.  Storm water runoff and erosion during construction are of particular concern and generally necessitate actions well beyond practices for storm water management once the facility is developed.
  10. 10.  Technical Information  A stormwater analysis includes soil analysis, topography mapping, peak flow calculations, and examination of historical patterns of stormwater flow. It should also predict (with new facilities) or quantify (with existing facilities) the vehicular pollutants that reach the runoff stream, such as oil, gasoline, heavy metals, detergents, and cleaners.  Minimize impervious paved surfaces. Minimize the size of parking lots and the width of roadways. Use porous paving, such as porous asphalt, porous concrete, modular block pavers, and specialized grass-paving systems.  Separate impervious surfaces with turf, gravel, or vegetation to increase infiltration. Avoid curbs where possible—they increase the concentration of pollutants. When there are no curbs, rainwater runs off driveways, sidewalks, and roads and goes directly into the ground.  Consider green roofs as a stormwater management strategy. By capturing and absorbing rainfall, green (vegetated) roofs function like stormwater detention basins by slowing down the flow of runoff.  Rainwater harvesting systems can also reduce stormwater production, though the potential benefit is determined in largepart by the size of the storage cistern(s).  Reduce pollutants in stormwater. Minimize the use of road salt, sweep streets regularly, reduce animal waste, and reduce car use.  Reducing reliance on cars can be achieved through emphasis on public trnsprtn bicycle and pedestrian paths, and carpooling.
  11. 11.  Plantings in the Sustainable Landscape:  Plant selection and placement around buildings can help us benefit from sunlight and airflow while minimizing negative impacts of those forces. Plants proeconomicalmeans of modifying microclimate and are an investment in future energy savings. They can complement design features of buildings that are intended to conserve energy or provide passive solar heating, daylighting, and natural ventilation.  Simple, flowing designs usually require less maintenance. When choosing and placing plants,their mature size and form should be anticipated.  Wildlife habitat should be created: Designing plantings that foster biodiversity should be a consideration for any facility. With the increasing loss of open space, providing wildlife habitat and wildlife corridors in the landscaping around buildings is increasingly important ecologically.  Xeriscaping is a specialized type of landscaping and plant selection for low water use. While xeriscaping strategies are most important in dry Southwestern climates, they can be important on certain soils and in certain microclimates in many parts of the country—especially areas prone to periodic droughts.  Bio-engineering is a relatively new specialty of landscaping in which plants are used for erosion control and other “engineering” functions. What civil engineers generally do with rip-rap-lined channels, wire-mesh shrouded gabions, and rock fill, skilled landscapers can often do with natural, biodegradable mats, fiber-rolls, and native plantings.
  12. 12.  The use of herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers in the landscape should be avoided.  Reliance on natural “bio-filtration” systems to remove pollutants should be increased: Vegetated swales, vegetated infiltration basins, and constructed wetlands should be used to remove pollutants through biological action. Microorganisms and plants in the biologically active layer of soil (close to the surface) and in wetlands are highly effective at removing or detoxifying many of the pollutants in stormwater.  Specialized mechanical means of removing stormwater pollutants should be considered in locations where very high levels of pollutants are generated, such as fuel storage yards, filling stations, and large parking lots.  Stormwater runoff at construction sites should be avoided: Construction activities can cause high stormwater runoff, erosion, and pollution discharge into streams and rivers. Avoid soil compaction because heavily compacted soil absorbs water less efficiently. Heavily compacted areas can be made more permeable through “deep ripping.”
  13. 13. “THANK YOU”