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Cooperative infraestructure for sustaining non-profit Open Access

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Cooperative infraestructure for sustaining non-profit Open Access

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Cooperative infraestructure for sustaining non-profit Open Access

  1. 1. Cooperative infrastructure for sustaining non-profit Open Access Arianna Becerril García Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México Redalyc-AmeliCA
  2. 2. Journals at the beginning of the digital age Revista Ciencia Ergo Sum, Mexico. (1997) Comunicar, Spain. (2007) Psicothema, Spain. (2002)
  3. 3. Journals 20 years later Araucaria (2018) Comunicar (2018) Psicothema (2018)
  4. 4. Table of Content Reis, Spain. (2018) Reis, Spain. (2007)
  5. 5. Readability in scholarly journals Cinta de Moebio, Chile Cinta de Moebio, Chile 20181997
  6. 6. Readability in scholarly journals Comunicar Vol. I, nº 1, 2º semestre Comunicar Vol. XXVI, nº 54, 1º trimestre 20181993
  7. 7. 346 years later ... Find the differences
  8. 8. PDF, de-facto standard for scholarly journals 0 10 20 30 40 50 HTML EPUB XML DOAJ 13,500 EUROPA 0 10 20 30 40 50 HTML EPUB XML 0 10 20 30 40 50 HTML EPUB XML 0 10 20 30 40 50 HTML EPUB XML NORTE AMÉRICA P. IBÉRICA LATINOAMÉRICA 97 94 99 99 PDF PDF PDF PDF REVISTAS 99% PDF
  9. 9. PDF, de-facto standard for scholarly journals 0 10 20 30 40 50 HTML EPUB XML 0 10 20 30 40 50 HTML EPUB XML -6.4 3 12.4 21.8 31.2 40.6 50 HTML EPUB XML UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTÓNOMA DE MÉXICO UNIVERSIDAD DE SAO PAULO UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE89 100 95 PDF PDF PDF 96% PDF UNAM * USP * UdeCH REVISTAS 407
  10. 10. Is this the best we can do to achieve visibility, discoverability, inclusion, knowledge democratization?
  11. 11. Nonprofit platforms: visibility, edition, quality assurance, metrics Nonprofit institutional journal publishing Mainly public institutions Key factors: Cooperation Networking Crowdsourcing Open source software In-house software Free software Nonprofit, mainly publicly – funded scientific communication system 2,849 journal installations Scholarly-led scientific communication system composed of hundreds of publisher institutions Open Access Ecosystem in Latin America
  12. 12. • Comunicar (2007)
  13. 13. • Comunicar (2012)
  14. 14. • Comunicar (2018)
  15. 15. At what stage of the web is scholarly publishing running?
  16. 16. 2005 Sciences 2003 Quality assessment Social Sciences and Humanities 2006 OAI-PMH Data normalization 2009 Processes automation Web 2.0 2012 OAI-PMH journals Journal RSS Atlas Chile Atlas Austral de Chile Atlas de Iberoamérica Atlas de Interciencia Atlas de Psicología Atlas deVenezuela Gaia 2004 In-house software development 2013 Websites for: - Institutions - Countries - Areas - Journals OAI-PMH for institutions OAI-PMH for countries Mobile apps Interoperability with Institutional repositories 2015 - Interoperability LaReferencia, REMERI - Portal CLACSO- Social Sciences 2008 Bibliometrics Software on editorial processes 2011 SIIR Atlas de la Ciencia
  17. 17. Redalyc architecture
  18. 18. Journal evaluation Redalyc internal ratification International Advisory Board ratification  12 mandatory requierements  Peer review  75% original content  14 researchers  Different areas  11 countries rejected journals 88%
  19. 19. Marcalyc – XML JATS markup system – • It is free to use • Prevents editors from outsourcing XML Markup • Designed for non-technical users • Minimizes XML markup time • Automatic front and tables tagging. • Automatic reference tagging. MAY 8-10 | SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY HARBOUR CEN 2019 LIBRARY PUBLISHIN
  20. 20. Marcalyc – XML JATS markup system – • Hierarchical visual representation through panels: which avoids knowing the technical standard in depth. • Automatic appearance of possible tags. • Automatic reference inference ABNT, APA, AMA, ASA, Chicago, Harvard, IEEE and more. • Visual management of images, tables and links.
  21. 21. Mathematical expressions tagging with MathML XML tagging of tables and dataReplicability necessary condition in science XML tagging of annexes and supplementary materialOpen Data
  22. 22. Before: without XML Self-classification of information Improved reading experience Illustration of items Intelligent information retrieval After: with XML
  23. 23. • Interactive article reader • Mobile article reader • ePUB • PDF • HTML • XML JATS 4R
  24. 24. Dynamic cartography, interactive graphics, animation, audio, video, high resolution images, open data
  25. 25. ¿How much does Redalyc contribute to journals? (just in the edition phase) • Redaly/AmeliCA –with Marcalyc- contributes (subsidy) to the generation of electronic version for journals. • Since Marcalyc was launched 5000 issues have been processed that would cost in the market USD$ 7.8 Million • Redalyc holds 50K journal volumes and counting. Cost per journal issue (USD) XML markup 300 PDF 300 ePUB 300 HTML 300 Article reader 360 Total per issue 1.560
  26. 26. Successful case: journals generate its XML content with no-cost in Marcalyc, download the PDF, HTML, intelligent multimedia article reader, ePUB article versions and use them in their own websites
  27. 27. APC No APC Successful case: APC to non-APC conversion Journal of the Entomological Society of Argentina eliminated its APC policy to apply for a user account in Marcalyc.
  28. 28. OAI-PMH
  29. 29. Productivity Co-authorship Usage
  30. 30. Author homepage Institution homepage Area homepage Journal homepage Country homepage
  31. 31. Elsevier’s article of the future Many functionalities offered by commercial publishers in other parts of the world are provided for free by Redalyc and now by AmeliCA vs. Redalyc article reader technology However, the recognition of research assessment -by governments and institutions- is for what is present in Scopus (Elsevier) or WoS. If this doesn’t change there is no future for scholarly-led research communication
  32. 32. Redalyc at a glance 54.000 Redalyc daily users 10 million article downloads per month 1,300Peer-reviewed OA journals 629,000 full-text articles 622publisher institutions from 22countries 1.5 million authors from 10.000 institutions
  33. 33. The Latin American OA ecosystem is being fragmented Two different OA approaches
  34. 34. • Research assessment based on IF (JCR) or SJR (Scopus) as the most important metrics.* • Favours APC bussiness model (inherited from the Global North becoming attractive for Latin American journals) • Language criteria that disqualify publishing in local languages *Scielo’s agreement with Clarivate Analytics to generate Scielo Citation Index APC Approach 1: Dependent on Mainstream-metrics and Commercial Open Access
  35. 35. • Scholarly-driven publications and repositories This approach seeks to strengthen publishers inside universities by empowering editors with technology and training in favor of the sustainability of OA • Non-commercial OA -More than 500 journal publisher institutions adopting tools provided by Redalyc to keep the non-commercial nature of their processes and to avoid APCs. • Research Assessment - Efforts towards finding a better way to assess scientific research (Redalyc metrics, UdeA metrics) - More than 600 journals signed DORA (Redalyc’s additional mandatory requirement) • Intellectual Property - Publishers allow authors to hold the copyright without restrictions Approach 2: Scholarly-driven Scientific Communication and Non-commercial OA
  36. 36. So, we had to act in response...
  37. 37. A decision made to take advantage of the regional ecosystem, technology, knowledge and experience of multiple organizations so that the scholarly communication remains in control of the academy and that avoids losing subsidies by choosing a shift to address Open Access with commercial mechanisms such as the APC.
  38. 38. Redalyc’s technology now is extended to a broader cooperative initiative
  39. 39. An infrastructure to strengthen editorial teams within academic institutions through providing technology and knowledge to ensure low costs in journal publishing which contributes in the sustainability of Open access and prevents the inclusion of author charges.
  40. 40. A non-profit publishing model to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication Journals participating in this model have the following: Scientific and editorial quality Digital publishing technology (XML JATS) Open Access policy free of publishing or processing costs (APC) A vision to overcome the current assessment of science based on the Impact Factor, signing the Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)
  41. 41. Technology and Artificial Intelligence for a participatory and inclusive science ecosystem. XML Open data Linked data Knowledge Discovery Ubiquity Semantic web The potential of this model to create a global participatory arena
  42. 42. What part of current technology do academic publications take advantage of? • Open data • Open access • Linked data • Knowledge base • Discovery • Ubiquity • Semantic web • Data compression algorithms to incorporate high resolution content.
  43. 43. What if every source of information could be a provider of a linked data?
  44. 44. And contents including scholarly full-texts could be granulated into pieces
  45. 45. Every single piece of information could be part of a giant graph
  46. 46. Where each piece of information is a node and relations among nodes are identified
  47. 47. to compose a structure that expresses the inherent knowledge and to be linked to a wider and unrestricted knowledge cloud
  48. 48. An upper layer of linked knowledge could be built Aligned to the Web Foundation call on policymaker to reverse and leverage the power of technology to fight inequality: Accelerate progress towards universal access Level the playing field
  49. 49. It is possible to achieve a cooperative values-based infrastructure that benefits scientific communication worldwide. Academy has the power to take back control (or keep it) of the whole knowledge generation life-cicle. Publishing in control of academia can create a counterweight to the exclusionary system that prevails today.
  50. 50. We have the great opportunity to seek as humanity a more equitable participation of all in the scientific discourse that comprehends local agendas, diversity and that contributes in the reduction of gaps. I imagine a web of data for science, a knowledge cloud -sustainable and open- that promotes a participatory and inclusive science communication 58 Organic means for visibility, internationalization and discoverability of science could be enabled by technology and by evolving in our systems of valoration.
  51. 51. Arianna Becerril- García @ariannabec Thank you!