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Environmental management

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Environmental management

  1. 1. Environmental Management Topic 2 A-level Human Geography
  2. 2. Content 1. Sustainable energy supplies 2. Management of Energy Supply 3. Environmental Degradation 4. Management of Degraded Environment
  4. 4. Non-renewable Energy • Finite sources of energy, as they are used the supply that remains reduced • Can become completely exhausted • Fossil fuels and nuclear fuels
  5. 5. Renewable Energy • Energy sources that can be used over and over again • Sources are sustainable and causes little to no harm to the environment • Hydro-electric Power, biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal, wave power
  6. 6. Energy Sources and the World • The key input to the global economic growth • Positive correlation between availability of energy and growth of a nation • Also positive correlation between economic level and energy consumption • Helps a country industrialize • Efficient utilization of natural resources
  7. 7. Energy Sources and the World • Employment opportunities comes with industrialization • Expansion of national infrastructures • Economic self sufficiency for nations • Energy use has been the main contributor to global warming • Issues of energy security has arose in dependent nations • Energy inadequacy has the potential to cause conflicts
  8. 8. Energy Crisis • A significant shortage/ bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy • Has occurred in many parts of the world to dire social and economic effects • Energy poverty has presented itself as a major obstacle to national development • In developing countries, fuel poverty still threaten the economically marginalized during harsh winter
  9. 9. Energy Mix • The group of different primary energy sources from which secondary energy for direct use is produced • For current, the energy mix of the world indicates great reliance on non- renewable fossil fuels • The challenge: To convert to renewable resources or at least achieve a more sustainable balance
  10. 10. Factors affecting the demand for and supply of energy
  11. 11. Demand for Energy • Governed by: – Size of Population – Level of economic development • There is a massive gap between LEDCs and MEDCs in terms of energy consumption • Highest demand in NICs (Industrializing) • Intentional policies also play huge parts
  12. 12. Global Variations in Energy Supply • Physical factors • Economic factors • Political factors
  13. 13. Physical Factors • Limited locations of Fossil fuels • HEP: relief, rock permeability, precipitation • Flat land • Geological foundations • Solar power and sun • Wind speed and wind power • Tidal range for tide power • Climatic conditions and biomass
  14. 14. Locations of Fossil Fuel • Deposits of fossil fuels are only found in certain locations • Formed by natural processes of anaerobic decomposition • Energy here originated from photosynthesis • Petroleum/ Natural gas: Phytoplankton/ zooplankton • Coal/ Methane: Fossilized terrestrial plants • Oil: Hydrocarbon • These deposits get buried by layers of sediments • Heat and pressure chemically altered them • Geological changes to earth crust have effects
  15. 15. HEP Locations • High precipitation: Reliable/ sustainable source of water • Topographical part of a river’s course: a valley? • Major steep-sided valley: providing gravitational potential energy • Impermeable rock surface: reliable storage of water • Rocks able to sustain high hydraulic pressure • Stable bedrock
  16. 16. Land requirement for power stations • Flat land • Geologically stable foundation • Proximal to mining sites
  17. 17. Solar Power and Insolation • Solar power gets its energy from the sun • Requires constant insolation • Limited seasonal variation of sunlight
  18. 18. Wind Power • A location where wind can be captured • High but flatland – if not size of wind farm will be limited • Close to coastlines • Wind speed should be sustained throughout the year • Wind direction should be consistent
  19. 19. Tidal Range – Tidal Power • Macro-tidal coastline • Preferably one with diurnal tidal cycles • Not prone to coastal erosion • Consistency in sediment cycle • Strong tidal currents
  20. 20. Biomass and Climatic conditions • Requires large land for farming plants • Needs the correct climate to farm plants that would produce specific energy • Usually tropical areas are best
  21. 21. Economic • Accessibility of fossil fuels • Onshore/ Offshore deposits • Transport Routes • Foreign Direct Investment • Fluctuations of Energy Prices • Exploration and Development
  22. 22. Accessibility • Requires technologies for mining • Deep sea stores of natural gas • Ideas of technologies such as fracking • Sufficient infrastructures for transportation
  23. 23. Onshore and Offshore Deposits • Onshore deposits cheap • Offshore deposits more expensive • More environmental costs • More likely to destroy biodiversity of areas • Since it usually involves areas close to hydrothermal vent – very unique ecosystem
  24. 24. Transport Routes • Energy needs to be developed with transport system • National grids • Pipeline systems • Harbor and boats
  25. 25. Foreign Direct Investment • Investment from foreign companies are important in LEDCs • FDI can be determined by the advantages and disadvantages of a country as an industrial locations or destination of investment
  26. 26. Explorations/ Development • Highly dependent on energy prices • Firm act as economic entities • Further investment in explorations can only come with more revenues through higher demands and rises in energy prices
  27. 27. Political • International Atomic Agency • International Agreements • International Rivers and HEP • Government Policies
  28. 28. International Atomic Energy Agency • International organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purposes • Created in 1953 at the peak of the Cold War by president Eisenhower • After Chernobyl: worked on safety • Yukiya Amano – Director since 2009 • Countries that want to develop nuclear energy has to go through this agency
  29. 29. International Agreements • International agreements on energy usage can impact national decisions • UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Conventions for Climate Change ) • Kyoto Protocol (1997): agreement that a) Global warming exists b) human-made CO2 emission caused it • Paris Conference (2015): keeping increase in global temperature below 2oC, adaptation for climate resilience in a manner that does not threaten food production, finance flow made consistent to climate policies
  30. 30. International River • HEP schemes will require agreements from other countries sharing a river • This is because dams have effects on the river’s lower courses • E.g. Egypt’s Aswan Dam: Nile River • Laos’ Xayaburi dam: Mekong River
  31. 31. Government Policies • In MEDCs, some major parties have worked on promoting on overturning climate change • Perhaps favoring uses of low-sulphur coal • Some countries may insist on energy security
  32. 32. Capital/ Technologies • Capital and technologies required for energy extraction
  33. 33. Factors affecting Energy usage • Technological Development • Increasing national wealth • Changes in demand • Changes in price • Environmental factors/ public opinions
  34. 34. Technological development • Nuclear energy has only been available since 1954 • Oil and water can be extracted from much deeper waters • Renewable energy is in developmental stage • Thus in some LEDCs, the original form of fuel: woods continue to be used • Coals may be used in non oil rich but developing nations like China
  35. 35. Increasing National Wealth • Increase in average income • Higher living standards (more expensive technologies in the homes, more air conditioners, cars, high energy infrastructures) • Increasing use of energy • Diversification of energy mix to cope with such changes
  36. 36. Changes in demand • A different energy source may be discovered • New supplies may be found • E.g. Britain’s discovery of North Sea Natural gas led to the negative changes in demand for coal
  37. 37. Changes in price • Prices of different sources of energy regularly influence demand • Relative prices influence people’s choices in countries with diverse energy mix • Oil prices fluctuate a great deal
  38. 38. Environmental Factors/ Public Opinions • Public opinions influence governmental decisions in democratic governments • 21st century opinions may be in favor of sustainable development and uses of renewable energy • People are much better informed about issues of climate change • Realizing the impact of conventional fuel sources
  39. 39. Trends in consumption of conventional energy resource
  40. 40. Fossil fuels and Regional Pattern • Fossil fuels dominate global energy situations • 2012 data: Oil 33% / Coal 30% / Natural Gas 24% • HEP is the highest among the unconventional energy sources
  41. 41. Oil • Asia Pacific is the only place where oil consumption is lower than 30% • Middle East: Over 50% • Major source of energy
  42. 42. Coal • Coal is the main source of energy in Asia Pacific • Extreme low usage (<5%) South/ Central America/ Middle East • China around half of the global consumption
  43. 43. Natural Gas • Main source of energy for Europe and Eurasia • Close second to oil in Middle East • Lowest share in Asia Pacific
  44. 44. Hydro-electricity • Most important in South/ Central America • Plays sufficient role in Africa • Les than 1% elsewhere
  45. 45. Nuclear Energy • Most important in Europe Eurasia and North America • Very little elsewhere • None in the Middle East
  46. 46. Renewables • Largest contributions in Europe/ Eurasia • Rising rapidly but from a very low base
  47. 47. MEDCs vs. LEDCs • MEDCs tend to use wider mixes • They can invest in domestic supply while purchasing exports • High investment required for nuclear energy limit them to HICs • Renewables are expensive to set up • Fuelwood is still important in LEDCs
  48. 48. Wealth and Energy Gap • The main factor explaining energy gap • Energy has been used to improve quality of life • Cars, washing machines • Climate can influence energy usage
  49. 49. Oil: Global Pattern and Trade
  50. 50. Significance of Oil • The most important of the non- renewable resources • Oil has been the mainstay in the global economy since the mid-20th century • The economy is still very much reliant on this source of energy • Becoming an important source of energy in the 20th century mean oil became tied to the Global geopolitical system
  51. 51. Advantages • Compact and portable – easy to transport/ store • Can be used for most mechanical transportation • Distillation can produced various types of products • Cleaner than coal • Easier to burn than coal • Highly economical compared to others • Source of advanced today’s technologies • By-product Sulphur can be used for other purposes • Well-established global infrastructure
  52. 52. Disadvantages • Non-renewable – millions of years required for formation • Generated CO2 greenhouse gas • Sulphur dioxide/ sulphur trioxide can combine with moisture in the air to form acid rain • Not as clean/ efficient as natural gas • Oil spills from Super tankers e.g. Exxon Alaska • Oil spill from pipelines e.g. North American states • Investment needed for further explorations of reserves • Vulnerable energy pathway associated with political instability • Peak Oil concern genuine • Fluctuation of prices • Strip mining for oil from tar sand causes serious environmental damage
  53. 53. Changes in oil consumption • Global demand in oil has rose since 1987 • It has caused massive environmental consequences • Faster depletion of oil reserves • Largest increase in Asia Pacific • Africa still consumes the least oil • Consumption is low in Middle East – oil used for commercial purpose, natural gas used for consumptions
  54. 54. Oil Reserves • Proven Reserves: An estimated quantity of all hydrocarbons statistically defined as crude oil or natural gas, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions
  55. 55. Oil Reserves • Reserves are proven if economic producability is supported by actual production/ conclusive testing • Middle East has 48% of such reserves • Political instability in the region has been caused by and remains a major concern for oil production
  56. 56. Reserves-to-production ratio • The remaining mount of non- renewable resource, expressed in time • Usually used with coal • Does not refer to resources running • But rather when production would hit its peak and decline according to Hubbert’s Peak Oil Theory
  57. 57. Reserve-to-production Ratio • North America: 38.7 • South America: 123 • Europe/ Eurasia: 22.4 • Middle East: 78.1 • Africa: 37.7 • Asia Pacific: 13.6 • Global Average: 52.9
  58. 58. Peak Oil – M King Hubbert • For any given geographical data, oil production follows a bell curve pattern • Early in the curve , rate of production increases with discovery rate and infrastructures • Production later declines with resource depletion • Hubbert predicted a peak in 1970 • This actually came through
  59. 59. Peak Oil • Rate of discoveries have fallen in recent years • There is a 60year gap between discovery and production • International Energy Agency predicts Peak Oil between 2013 – 2037 • USGS predicts 50 more years • New developments in shale oil and gas have acted as cushions for this
  60. 60. Shale Oil • Extraction of oil from tight oil reserves held in shale and other rock formation from which it does not naturally flow • Advances in technology made this more accessible • Allowed the USA to regain self-sufficiency • Case study: North Dakota Access Pipeline • Exploitation of shale gas led to oil • The shale revolution could spread to other parts
  61. 61. Shale Oil • Extraction of shale oil has environmental impacts • Involves hydraulic fracturing: pumping water in joints and beddings of rocks to open them up for flows of oil • It requires open mining which reduces diversity of ecosystem • Subsurface mining cause subsidence of surfaces • Waste materials • Influences water runoff – lowering of ground water level • Possible links to earthquakes after waste water disposal e.g. Oklahoma
  62. 62. Geopolitics of Oil • Energy security has a direct impact on the politics of nations • Energy insecurity is rising • 1977, USA constructed the Strategic Petroleum Reserve – stored in strings of salt domes and abandoned mines in Louisiana and Texas • High accessibility to pipeline and routes
  63. 63. Strategic Petroleum Reserve • Middle East: Largest exporters of oil Political tension causes concerns of vulnerability of oil field • Case study of the strait of Hormuz
  64. 64. Energy Pathway • The flow of energy from producer to consumer • Pathways can be vulnerable in political terms • Physical factors – natural routes difficult to move through
  65. 65. Natural Gas
  66. 66. Natural Gas Reserves • Global production of natural gas has been increasing • Largest producing regions: North America, Europe/ Eurasia • Highest relative increase: Middle East • Russia and USA highest • Strong correlation between production and consumption • Natural gas more difficult to transport • R/P ratio at 55.7 years
  67. 67. Advantages • More environmentally friendly than oil – less pollution • Emits fewer toxic materials • In US market: cheapest source of electrical power • Efficiently/ safely stored
  68. 68. Disadvantages • Cause greenhouse emission • Highly volatile • Colorless/ odorless: leaks undetectable without addition of sulphur • Danger in contamination with poor transport through pipelines • Environmental concerns over fracking • Micro earthquakes
  69. 69. Coal
  70. 70. Coal Reserves • Dominated by the Asia Pacific region (67.8%) – specifically China which takes up 50% of coal consumption • Strong relationship between consumption and production due to difficulty in transport • R/P ration is 50 for Asia 109 for the world • However coal reserves are known to be quickly exhausted due to lower efficiency of energy use
  71. 71. Distribution of reserves
  72. 72. History of Coals • Coal was discovered in abundance in both Britain and China • For Britain alone, it became the driving engine of the Industrial revolution • It powered the steam engine which then led to mechanization of farms and societal shift to an industrialized society • It revolutionized transportation – both maritime (steam boats) and train
  73. 73. History of Coals • The train system promoted mobility of population • Meanwhile coals also led to industrial developments in the forms of factories • This led to a pull factor, people began migrating by trains to cities • Thus coal was further integral to the development of cities • Oil would have a similar effects of revolutionizing transportations and technologies in the 20th Century
  74. 74. Extending the Life of Fossil Fuel • A way to maintain energy security when renewable is still being developed and implemented • In many people’s eyes, fossil fuels should phase out but there will need to be a considerable gap in between • New technologies can help sustain energy security during that gap
  75. 75. Coal Gasification • Transformation of coals into synthetic natural gas • Coals are cheap and allow energy independence thus it will be a source of energy for many • Coals transformed into SNG • Allows for easier transport • Reduce pollution • May be more costly • However it produces more CO2 • It is also more water intensive
  76. 76. Clean Coal technology • Allows burning of coals with greater efficiency • Capture pollutants before emitted into the atmosphere • High pressures and temperature used • Existing power stations can simply be upgraded for this
  77. 77. Unconventional Natural Gas • Conventional Natural Gas can be found very close to the surface • New technologies have since developed for unconventional natural gas to be discovered at the deeper layer
  78. 78. Deep Gas • Gases that exist in deposits far underground • Deep drilling, exploration and extraction techniques have improved • Such drilling is becoming more economical
  79. 79. Tight Gas • Gas stuck in tight formation underground • Trapped in impermeable hard rock, limestone or sandstone formation that is non porous • Will be extracted through hydraulic fracturing
  80. 80. Gas-containing shale • Gas trapped in fine grained sedimentary rocks • Shale does not disintegrate when wet • Extraction much more expensive • Hydraulic fracturing
  81. 81. Coal-bed methane • Coal mining can unleash stores of methane located in coal fields • Methane used to be a nuisance and a safety threat • Methane can now be extracted and injected into pipelines • Can be used for generation of electricity
  82. 82. Geopressurised zones • Underground formations unusually high pressure for their depth • Formed by clay deposited and compacted on porous absorbent sand/ silt • Natural gas in clay squeezed out and is stored in the porous sand/ silt under very high pressure • Found at great depths • Of all the unconventional sources, this hold the most gas
  83. 83. Arctic and sub-sea hydrates • Most recent to be discovered and researched • Lattice of frozen water form a molecular cage around methane • Look like melting snow • Discovered in permafrost regions of the Arctic • Contain high amount of organic Carbon • Extraction yet to begin, concerns about effects on the carbon cycle is an issue
  84. 84. Nuclear power: a global renaissance
  85. 85. History of Nuclear Power • Nuclear power was experimented on as a weapon of destruction in the US’ Manhattan Project • It was first used to bring an end to the 2nd World War • In 1953, President Eisenhower of the USA proposed the Atoms for Peace program • The creation of the Atomic Energy Agency • The process of exploiting nuclear energy from uranium began • Obinsk Nuclear Power plant constructed
  86. 86. History of Nuclear Power • Since then a number of accidents have occurred to cause concerns • 1986’s Meltdown at Chernobyl • 1999’s Three Mile Island accident • 2011’s Meltdown at Fukushima-Deiichi Powerplant
  87. 87. Nuclear Renaissance 21st Century: • Heightened fears about oil supply – associated with political instability • Vulnerability that came with the lost of energy security • Fear of climate change • Led to the introduction of nuclear power into the global agenda
  88. 88. Decline of Nuclear Energy • The latest accident at Fukushima Deiichi has had a global impact on the debates of nuclear power • Japan had shut down all of its reactor and shifted back to a more conventional energy mix with coal increasing in its share • India and many other countries have halted plans to construct new nuclear plants • Although as the fear subsided, the argument was shifting once more
  89. 89. Advantages • Zero emission of greenhouse gas – less problems with climate change • Less reliance on imported fossil fuels for many nations: energy security and self sufficiency • Not vulnerable to fluctuations of prices • Uranium is very plentiful and found in politically stable countries • Nuclear plants have been relatively reliable and stable
  90. 90. Concerns • Power plants accidents can release radioactive materials into land, air and water • Disposal of radioactive waste still an issue yet to be solved – no long-term solution • Rogue states/ terrorists could use them • High construction/ decommissioning costs • Increase in rate of cancer in areas close to power plant is still being investigated
  91. 91. Fast-breeder technology • A more efficient reactor that manufactures plutonium fuel from uranium • This eliminates the issue of plutonium as wastes • They can theoretically be recycled • However plutonium in solid fuel forms can be vulnerable to thefts
  92. 92. New Technology and Thorium • New element that could be used to produce nuclear power in replacement of uranium • Produces less radioactive waste • Lack of weaponization potential • Much more abundant in supply
  93. 93. Renewable Energy Resources
  94. 94. Renewable Energy • Renewable has become more popular due to its high energy security • However the current technologies still pose problems that needed to be solved • The transition from non-renewables to renewables is the issue of the current world that needs to be discussed
  95. 95. Renewable Energy • Hydro Electricity Power continues to dominated in the field of renewables • However Biofuels and winds are increasing at much faster rates • Investment in these energy have increased a great deal
  96. 96. Hydro-electric power • The only one of the traditional sources of energy that belonged to the renewable class • The most important among the renewables • China, Brazil, Canada, USA : The big four in HEP production: 53% • Large scale development limited due to specificity in locations and physical requirements
  97. 97. Hydro-electric power • Global consumption has increased • China has the largest share Problems: • Negative visual impacts • Obstruct rivers/ aquatic life forms • Deterioration in water quality • Large areas of land have to be flooded to form reservoirs • Submerging forest without clearances release high quantity of methane – greenhouse gas
  98. 98. Newer alternative energy source • New energy sources drew interest at the energy crisis of 1970s • Relative low prices of oil in the following decades then reduce that interest • Renewed concerns about energy security returned in the 21st century • New sources however tend to be more costly • Although this cost gap is reducing
  99. 99. Wind Power
  100. 100. Current Status • Most important of the non-traditional renewables • Increasing in dominance • Usually used by relatively small countries • China is the world leader however with USA, Germany, Spain, India following • More new wind powers are being installed in LEDCs and NICs than in MEDCs
  101. 101. Current Status • For many, wind energy has reached the takeoff stage • As a source of energy and manufacturing industry • The cost of wind energy becoming more and more comparable to conventional energy source • Advances in turbine technology • This combines with economy of scales • Leads to reduction of costs
  102. 102. Advantages • Renewable • Sufficient in production • Reduction of costs due to technological advances and economy of scale • Suitable locations with wind conditions not difficult to find • Wind energy has reached takeoff stage as source of energy and manufacturing industry • Offshore wind farms flexible in locations • Repowering increase capacity of wind farms • Significant public supports already exist
  103. 103. Disadvantages • Effects on landscapes • NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) protests – impact of local turbines on property values • Hum of turbines can disturb people/ wildlife • Debate about number of birds killed by turbines • TV reception can be affected • Requirement of government subsidies: better used elsewhere
  104. 104. Role of Public Financing • Government funding through subsidies is essential to development • The instability of the global economy makes development of renewables an even more vulnerable and dangerous prospect
  105. 105. Repowering • Replacing first generation wind turbines with modern wind turbines • Produce more wind turbine • Fewer turbines needed • Higher efficiency, lower costs • Lower speed of rotating: less humming, more visually pleasing • Better grid integration – similar to conventional power plants
  106. 106. Demands and Wind energy • Shortage of supply led to increase in demand for wind energy • Takes a long time to make • Thus increase in investment comes as a result of high demands
  107. 107. Biofuels
  108. 108. Current Status • Fossil fuel substitutes that can be made from a range of agri-crop materials including oilseeds, weed, corn and sugar • Blended with petrol and diesel • More croplands have been converted for this use • There are in fact environmental consequences
  109. 109. Method of Production • High sugar crops grown in fermentation chamber to produce ethanol through anaerobic respiration • Plant containing vegetable oil grown – Oils extracted and heated to reduce viscosity – Burned directly in diesel engine – Chemically processed to produce diesel fuel • Wood converted to wood gas, methanol or ethanol fuel • Cellulosic ethanol from non-edible plant parts – potential second generation of biofuels: not economical at the moment
  110. 110. Ethanol • The most commonly used (90%) • USA and Brazil (87%) • Production in China/ EU increasing • Take up 15% of petrol • Rising trend of usage • Difference in crop type (Brazil using Sugar cane) due to climatic factor, land availability, greater efficiency in conversion of light energy
  111. 111. Biodiesel • Also rising in production • Most common biofuel in Europe (60%) • Germany/ France lead producers • Can be used to mix with mineral diesel and used in diesel engine • Rapeseed oil – major source • Soybean oil in USA
  112. 112. Production • Still need government subsidies • Current transitions to larger plants: signs of economy of scale and higher production • Consolidation of smaller producers • Following the agricultural trend of intensification and commercialization
  113. 113. Geothermal Energy
  114. 114. Geothermal Gradients • Natural heat found under the earth’s crust in the form of steam, hot water and hot rock • Rainwater percolates into the surface • The geothermal gradient exists where temperature rises as depth below surface increases • This allows water to be heated • 30oC per km
  115. 115. Production • Hot water can be used directly for cleaning and heating • It can also be sued to power steam production of electricity
  116. 116. Advantages • Renewable • Extremely low environmental impact • Highly reliable/secure • Plant occupy small areas • Not dependent on weather conditions • Low maintenance cost
  117. 117. Disadvantages • Few locations worldwide where this energy can be fully utilized (plate tectonic regions where geothermal gradient is significant) • Global generation small • Locations further from regions of usage • Transportation can be difficult – energy more volatile in the form of heat • Pipe and installation can be costly
  118. 118. Solar Power
  119. 119. Solar energy • Using light energy in the form of photons to generate electricity • A rising prospect from a small base • Huge potential for further development • Could be a major source of energy • Solar capacity has been growing • Germany China Italy Japan USA Spain lead
  120. 120. Photovoltaic System (PV) • Solar panel convers sunlight into electricity • Receives photon that excites electron • Forms an electricity circuit • These are: costly to install • Have to be tilted carefully so not to block others • Companies are inventing new panels that are lighter – almost printing paper
  121. 121. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) • Mirror/ lenses focus large area of sunlight into small beams • Concentrated light use as a source of heat • Normal thermal energy production takes over • Fluid is heated and used for electricity generation • Solar trough, Parabolic dish, solar power tower
  122. 122. Solar Towers • Idea of constructing large glassed in area • Tall tower in the middle • Hot air rises in the tower • Driving the turbines
  123. 123. Tidal Power
  124. 124. Current Status • Still in infancy of development • Adequate potential as an energy source • Act like underwater windmill
  125. 125. Advantages • More predictable – tides • Less obtrusive
  126. 126. Disadvantages • High start up cost • Environmental concerns: potential effects on fish population • Sedimentation build-ups
  127. 127. Fuelwood in LEDCs
  128. 128. Current Status • Fuelwood, charcoals and animal dungs still the main source of many rural or underdeveloped areas • Main energy source in Sub Saharan Africa • Most important use of wood in Asia • Many people still live without access to electricity • E.g. Nigeria, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia • It is a very cheap form of energy however and technically renewable
  129. 129. Environmental Impact • Deforestation on a smaller scale – depleting rural areas if not replenished • Burning of woods can release large amount of greenhouse gas • Indoor air pollution • Reliance on animal dungs is not good as they release methane • However burning is also a way to get rid of the negative impact
  130. 130. Developmental Implications • Concept of energy ladder: moving from a less efficient forms of energy to more industrial-based forms of energy • Correlates to moving to higher level of development • Income and regional electrification and household sizes can affect demand of Fuelwood • As cities become wealthier, demand for fuelwood significantly drop • Woods are likely to remain significant in poorer regions
  131. 131. Trends in LEDCs and MEDCs
  132. 132. Industrialization • The development of industries in a country or a region on a wide scale • Period of social and economic change that transforms an agrarian society into an industrial one • Involves intense use of energy to increase productions of industrial goods • Development of infrastructures • Use of non renewables • Environmental concerns relegated in priorities
  133. 133. Deindustrialization • Decline in industrial activities in a region/ economy • Movement toward post-industrial society comes as heavier industries are exported to areas where labor costs are lower • MEDCs are therefore characterized by dominance of tertiary service industries • This has led to energy efficiency • Low rate of population growth • Thus a decline in primary energy consumption • More so in cases like Japan and Germany and UK
  134. 134. Development and Energy usage • Increases in energy use correlates with rate of industrial development and urbanization • A reverse of both of those trends = less energy use or shift toward cleaner, more efficient energy • Per person consumption may be high by national consumption will be below of the NICs • Strong correlation between GNP and per person energy consumption
  135. 135. Development and Energy usage • China, India, Korea are all NICs who consume large amount of energy • Even in LEDCs, the demand for energy is rising • This is likely due to high population growth • Even if energy consumption is not as high in quantity, growth rate in LEDCs can exceed NICs’ • In LEDCs high energy usage is still possible  Disparity between rich and poor is reflected in the energy use and consumption • Electricity grid in LEDCs don’t usually go everywhere
  136. 136. Environmental Impact of Energy • Increasing energy insecurity ahs led to more explorations • As energy prices rose so did the rate of explorations and exploitations • This leads to degradation of environment associated with those energy sources
  137. 137. Pathways crossing difficult environments • Supply routes between energy producers and consumers • Pipelines, cables or ships • They can be very difficult to construct, some energy sources are highly inaccessible (Trans Alaskan Pipeline) • In permafrost areas, constructions have to ensure pipelines are below melting zones/ active level • Problems of subsidence can also disrupt productions • These pathways can have negative impacts on the environment
  139. 139. Pollution
  140. 140. Impacts of Pollution • The dominant factor of environmental degradation • Has significant impact on human health • Deaths from pollution vary between countries: Low in West Africa and Europe, highest in Asia • Air pollution can be ambient or household • Can cause changes in DNA of children during pregnancy
  141. 141. Impacts of Pollution • The cost of healthcare for pollution related illnesses may increase • Interruptions to education and work: slow down development • Lost of labor productivity • It impacts the ecosystems
  142. 142. Toxicity • Every substance can be considered toxic at a certain dosage
  143. 143. Agglomeration • Industries are one of the main sources of pollutions • They may agglomerate to share infrastructure • This intensifies the level of pollution • Impact can spread beyond locality/ regions  Can cross borders • E.g. Deforestations/ smog from China has affected Southeast Asia
  144. 144. Externality • The cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur in the cost or benefit • Pollution is the major negative externality for industries • Most focused at industrial areas • Health risks usually highest around the source of pollution • Atmospheric conditions can influence this pattern of distance decay
  145. 145. Externality Gradient Distance Impact Externality Gradient Maximum environmental impact Geographical extent of imp
  146. 146. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) • Source: Industry • Health effects: Respiratory illnesses, Cardiovascular illnesses • Environmental effects: Can lead to acid rain  damage lakes, rivers, trees, cultural relics
  147. 147. Nitrous Oxide (NO2) • Source: Industry, Vehicles • Health effects: Respiratory and Cardiovascular illnesses • Environmental Effects: Nitrogen deposits in rivers/ water bodies  over-fertilization  Eutrophication
  148. 148. Particulate Matter • Source: Industry, Vehicles • Health: Can penetrate lung and enter/ contaminate blood stream • Environmental effects: Reduced Visibility
  149. 149. Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Sources: Vehicles • Health Effects: Headache, fatigue, can combine with haemoglobin and cause anaemia if in high concentration
  150. 150. Lead (Pb) • Source: Vehicles with leaded gasoline • Health effect: Accumulates in blood stream, damages nervous system • Environmental effects: Kill fish/ animals – highly toxic in water
  151. 151. VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) • Source: Vehicles, Industries (burning of fossil fuels/ natural gas), solvents/ paints/ glue • Health effects: Irritation in the eyes/ skins, nausea, headaches, carcinogens • Environmental Effects: Smog
  152. 152. Ozone (O3) • Source: Nitrous Oxide react with VOCs in the presence of light • Health effects: Respiratory illnesses • Environmental effects: Reduced crop production/ forest growth ; causes smog
  153. 153. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) • Source: Insecticide/ pesticide in agriculture • Health effects: Carcinogen, endocrine disruptor, linked to breast cancer • Environmental effects: Persistent organic pollutant absorbed very readily by soil, eggshell thinning in animals, contaminate water
  154. 154. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) • Source: Refrigerants, blowing agents, degreasing solvents • Health effects: Dizziness in high concentration • Environmental effects: Ozone depletion
  155. 155. Strategies against Air Pollution • Level pollutions have declined in MEDCs 1. Strict environmental legislations: make polluters pay for the costs o their actions 2. Greening of industries: Increase R&D funding for reducing impact of pollution 3. Industries exported
  156. 156. Environmental Kuznets Curve • A graph that hypothesize the relationship between environmental quality and economic development • Indicators of environmental degradation increases with economic growth until at a certain point it declines • Mostly true for environmental health concerns – not for cases like landfills and biodiversity
  157. 157. MEDCs, NICs, LEDCs • Pollution related to primary industries (mining, agriculture) is most common • Industrializing countries produce highest amount of industrial pollutants • Large urban industrial complexes usually cause this • MEDCs experienced deindustrialization  less pollution from industries • High vehicles pollution remain in MEDCs however
  158. 158. Incidental Pollution • One-off pollution linked major accidents caused by technological failures or human error • Incidental pollution can have long lasting impact e.g. Chernobyl
  159. 159. Sustained Pollution • Long-term pollution • Ozone depletion and global warming are the impacts of such type of pollution
  160. 160. Policies in industry • Clean technology reducing smokestack emission • Management of urban and agricultural wastes • Capturing of methane gas emitted from waste sites  using it as biogas
  161. 161. Policies in Transport • Clean modes of power generation e.g. CNG • Prioritizing urban transit, walking and cycling • Reducing fuel with sulphur content
  162. 162. Urban Planning • Making cities more compact • Prevent placing industries areas close to residential areas • Prevent industries from being close to water bodies
  163. 163. Power generation • Low-carbon fuel • Clean renewable sources • Distributed energy generations
  164. 164. Municipal/ Agricultural Waste management • Waste reduction/ waste separation • Recycling, reuse, reprocessing
  165. 165. Pollution and Equity • The most economically marginalized are the ones receiving the impact of pollution • Distribution of poors and minorities correlate with regions of pollutions
  166. 166. Equity • Procedural equity: Planning processes are applied in non discriminatory ways • Geographical equity: Proximity of communities to point sources • Social equity: Roles of race/ class in decision making
  167. 167. Government actions • Stringent government actions sometimes force firms to relocate to where voices of protests would be least powerful • The financially poors do not have the economic power to protests • They are thus regularly exploited • Sometimes the prospects of employments will be seen as more important than the less immediate environmental/ health risks
  168. 168. Ozone layers • A layer in the stratosphere that prevents ultraviolet (UV) from passing through into the atmosphere • CFCs have depleted the layers • UV can enter the earth causing skin cancer, cataracts • Montreal Protocol (1997) saw nations from all over the world recognizing the danger of CFC and agreeing to try to reduce the danger
  169. 169. Ozone layers • Skin cancer: fastest growing cancer in the US • Occurs with young people as well • Overexposure to UV is known to be the cause • Tanning salons
  170. 170. Ozone Layers • Ozone depletion takes longer time to show impact but is far more substantial • Sources of incidental pollutions are much easier to tackle
  171. 171. Water: demand, supply, quality
  172. 172. The Global Water Crisis • For 40% of the world population, water is a lacking commodity • Demand for water is doubling every 20 years • Places with enough water: wastage, mismanagement and pollution • Quality of drinking water has a direct effects on human health worldwide
  173. 173. Water Security • The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality of water for sustainable livelihood, human well being, and socio economic development, for ensuring protection against water borne pollution and water related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in the climate of peace and stability
  174. 174. Water Security • While in MEDCs, water pollution has reduced, LEDCs still see deaths from water-borne diseases • People living in rural areas suffer from lack of access • In LEDCs, lack of regulations mean wastes are easily dumped into water bodies • In LEDCs, women and children are forced to find water
  175. 175. Water Security • Can lead to food insecurity • Limit socio economic development • Create conflicts between nations sharing drainage basin • Growth of population exacerbates the problem • Water infrastructure has help kept the supply managed
  176. 176. Groundwater and aquifers • These stores of freshwater are quickly being drained • Not enough time to be replenished • Various major aquifers have been depleted
  177. 177. Water-stressed areas • Water stress occurs when the demand for water exceeds the available amount during a certain period or when poor quality restricts use • Includes other than physical scarcity: quality, environmental flows, accessibility
  178. 178. Water-scarce areas • When the resources is insufficient for demand • Ratio of human consumption to available supply in an area • A physical shortage that can be measured
  179. 179. Water Risk • Probability for an area to experience water hazards
  180. 180. Poverty and Water Scarcity • Strong link between poverty and water scarcity • Improving access to drinking water, sanitation, cleanliness  most cost effective way to reduce illnesses in LEDCs • Women and girls are used in LEDCs to collect water: creating more marginalization by gender and also disallowing education
  181. 181. Poverty and Water Scarcity • Lack of transportation system and accessibility is a major problem • In more affluent societies, per person usage has sky rocketed
  182. 182. Middle East Water Scarcity • Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Iraq • Lack of water resources + Poor management • Region’s climate is harsh and semi arid • Thus there is scarcity in arable land and water sources • The main issue is desertification • Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Iran are all facing this • Unsustainable agricultural practices: overgrazing
  183. 183. Middle East Water Scarcity • Attempts to solve the problems using desalinization  UAE • Sea water contains bromide – not good for health • It also costs a lot of energy: raising the price of energy
  184. 184. Regional Utilization of Water • Water is unevenly distributed • 60% of world population live in regions receiving 25% of all precipitation • Arid areas cover 40% of the earth surface where only 2% of precipitation is received • Congo river takes up 30% of Africa’s water resources but provide for only 10% of Africa’s population
  185. 185. Green Water • The part of the total precipitation received and absorbed by soil and plant (interception storage and soil moisture storage) • Then it is released back into the air (evapotranspiration) • It is unavailable for human use • However it is important to arable lands • Thus green water scarcity is the main cause of famine
  186. 186. Blue Water • Refer to precipitation collected as surface storage • Available for human use before it is evaporated or reached the ocean as runoff • Mostly human uses this in the form of irrigation for agricultural use • Industrial and domestic uses are also growing • Rearing of livestocks require water
  187. 187. Water use in Agriculture • Every crop needs water – usually to different degree • Water can be used in agricultural in the form of Rainfed water • It can also be used in the form of irrigated water
  188. 188. Irrigation • In California, the farming of water intensive almond crop has led to chronic water scarcity
  189. 189. Industrial Use of Water • Water is used to cool machineries • Productions of certain products
  190. 190. Domestic Use of Water • Cleaning • Bathing • Cooking • Recreational use – swimming pool • Watering plants
  191. 191. Urbanization and Water • Amount of water used by a population depends also on economic development and urbanization • Potable water (drinking water) has risen in demand • Demands can quickly outstrip supply
  192. 192. Urban-industrial complex • As urban industrial complex expand • Demand for water grows • Competition for water with agriculture is intensifying • Allocation of water has became more and more difficult
  193. 193. Physical water scarcity • When physical access to water is limited • Demand outstrips the ability for a region to provide water • Arid and semi arid regions most associated with physical scarcity • High temperature/ evapotranspiration rate with low precipitation
  194. 194. Human Activities and Physical Scarcity • Diversion of water from river basins have caused long-term scarcity • Over-exploitation of groundwater depletes aquifers • Pollution has rendered large volume of water undrinkable
  195. 195. Economic Scarcity • When a population does not have the necessary monetary means to utilize an adequate supply of water • Unequal distribution of resources: the main cause • Political conflicts • Ethnic conflicts/ persecutions
  196. 196. Cases • Egypt, Murray Darling basin, Colorado, Sub Saharan Africa
  197. 197. Increase in severity of Water scarcity • Increase in World Population • Increased affluence • Increased demand for biofuels • Climate change • Pollution
  198. 198. Cases • Rivers: Yangtze, Ganges, Nile • Aquifers: Beijing, New Delhi
  199. 199. Virtual Water • The amount of water used to produced/ manufactured products • Thus industrial production can be responsible for water shortages • Led to resolutions of conflicts that previously did not take this into the equation • E.g. Jordan and Israel • Global trades in virtual water is very high • Liberalization of agricultural trade will have more of this impact
  200. 200. Degradation of rural environment
  201. 201. Rural Environment • Supplies human population with food gene pool/ diversity and forest lands • Rural areas are rapidly being degraded • Causes: Population growth, increasing pressure on land • Urban activities can also have impacts: climate change
  202. 202. Soil Degradation • A change in soil health status resulting diminished capacity for ecosystem to provide goods and services for its beneficiaries. • Involves physical loss of soil • Reduction in quality of topsoil  nutrient decline  contamination • 15% of the land on earth has been degraded
  203. 203. Soil Degradation in Temperate regions • Attributed to market forces • Commercial behaviors of farmers and governments • Using farmlands without fallowing • Using fertilizers and overusing pesticides • Overusing land
  204. 204. Soil Degradation in Tropics • Attributed to high population pressure • Land shortages • Problems with land tenureship • Lack of education and awareness • Lower development levels in tropics is one cause • Poorer soil structure in tropics: more vulnerable to leaching • Greater climatic extremes
  205. 205. Deforestation • Removal of natural vegetation cover is the main cause of soil degradation • It leaves soil surfaces expose to the elements • Deforestation can be a result of clearing lands for agricultural uses • Cutting trees for timber industries • The need for fuelwood • Rain is no longer intercepted • Rain splash erosion can occur • Soil may be leached and saturated – more vulnerable to weathering/ mass movement
  206. 206. Overgrazing • Grazing of natural pastures at stocking intensities above the livestock carrying capacity • Result of population pressure and poor agricultural management • Marginal ecosystems most under risk Steps: 1. Trampling by animals damages plant leaves 2. Many leaves die away, reducing photosynthetic capacity
  207. 207. Overgrazing 3. There are fewer leaves to intercept rainfall  ground is more exposed 4. Plant species begin to disappear 5. At bare patches, soil erodes (trampling already compacted soil and damaged structures 6. Loose surface soil particles carried away by wind and water 7. Less water can percolate soil horizon 8. Growth rate and recovery possibilities reduced
  208. 208. Agricultural Mismanagement • Caused by farmers’ lack of knowledge • Pursuit of short term gain (typically profits) against consideration of long term damage • Cultivation without fallowing • Absence of soil conversion measures • Cultivation of fragile/ marginal lands • Unbalanced fertilizer use • Poor irrigation techniques
  209. 209. Major causes of soil degradation • Erosion by wind and water (80% of the land surface eroded this way) • Physical degradation: loss of structure, surface sealing and compaction • Chemical degradation: pollution – Acidification (fertilizers – buildup of hydrogen cation) – Salinization (water transported to an area – high evapotranspiration rates leave deposits of soil) • Biological degradation: loss of organic materials • Climate and land-use change
  210. 210. Environmental impact • Destruction of ecosystem • Disruption of the nutrient cycle • Disruption of the geological characteristics of areas • Vulnerability to mass movements and weathering  changes to landscape • Losses of species • Losses of water quality • Disruption of the drainage basin system • Disruption of climate due to losses of vegetation • Inability of soil in storing carbon = releases of more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
  211. 211. Socio-economic impact • Losses of arable lands for farmers • Food and water insecurity • Dangers to hazards like flooding/ mass movement • Losses of livelihood • Increase in unemployment and crimes • Loss of community pride • Encourage rural urban migration • Losses of young workforce • Elderly/ dependent population left to fend for one selves • Government disinterested in the areas • Exploitation by the economically upward population • Loss of cultures as urban areas more readily expand into the degraded rural areas
  212. 212. Food production • Losses of arable soil will reduce food production that is needed to support the urban areas • This is a cause of widespread scarcity in many LEDCs • Food insecurity will become more widespread and chronic
  213. 213. Policy Failure • Inadequate/ inappropriate policies • Pricing , subsidy, tax policies • Encouraged excessive/ uneconomic inputs of fertilizers, pesticides • Intensification of agriculture leads to overexploitation of land and overgrazing without fallow periods • Some policies favor farming systems that are inappropriate to the region  leading to mismanagement of soil by the uneducated farmers
  214. 214. Rural inequalities • Rural people possess the local knowledge and communal understanding of soil conservation • However economic need and financial disparity might force them to do things to survive • Resources may need to be overexploited • Some companies own lands in rural areas and overexploit the lands  dealing with the land not with the intricacies of farmers but the broad appeal of economies of scale • The pursuit of higher profits
  215. 215. Resource imbalances • Growth of population is highest in LEDCs • The population is also most likely to be exploited • Due mainly to the lack of awareness and education • Since LEDCs are least equipped to be self-sufficient – they are the targets of exploitation by NICs and MEDCs  cases like China and the African nations
  216. 216. Unsustainable technologies • New technologies and the green revolution have boosted agricultural production • But they have negative consequences • The benefits are highly unsustainable • Resistance genes to pesticides developing in insects for example • Poor irrigation technology, loss of nutrient, pollution, wind and water erosion and loss of rural biodiversity are all consequences of high technological usage
  217. 217. Trade relations • Value of raw material sales dropped in LEDCs • Thus the need to expand income by greater crop production • Increase in timber sales
  218. 218. Capital Intensive Farming • Deforestation, Land degradation, desertification, salinization, contamination of water, air pollution, concerns over health of farmers, landscape change, declines biodiversity • Cattle manure  pollution by heavy metal • The need to follow high demands lead to exploitation • The need to expand into geographically fragile environment e.g. rainforests • The need for uniformity in monoculture  vulnerability to diseases and loss of gene pools
  219. 219. Poverty and Rural environment • How poor households can be compelled to exploit natural resources • Although many of the operations that degrade rural areas are the works of corporations • Many times rural households are affected and marginalized by large operations by powerful companies • Government policies can have significant negative effects e.g. on land tenures
  220. 220. Factors leading to distressed population • Rapid population growth • Agricultural modernization in high potential • Inequitable land distribution, insecure tenure • External shocks and macroeconomic impacts • Limited non farm incomes low
  221. 221. Distressed Population • Population has: • Limited access to productive land • Limited credit, technology/ resource management • Reduction in common property resources
  222. 222. Impact of Poverty • Urban migration • Rural stagnation in drier years • Greater exploitation of hill slopes/ grazing areas • Pressure to forested frontiers
  223. 223. Rural Stagnation • Exacerbated drought conditions • Desertification and land degradation • Destruction of vegetative cover • Threats to biological diversity • Leads to fuelwood shortage • Declining land productivity • Food insecurity
  224. 224. Exploitation • Destruction of vegetative covers at watershed areas • Siltation – deposition downstream • Soil erosion • Threats to biodiversity • Downstream flooding • Declining productivity • Fuelwood shortage
  225. 225. Pressure to forested frontiers • Large scale deforestation • Flooding, siltation downstream • Loss of soil fertility • Threats to biodiversity • Contributes to global warming • Declining land productivity • Oss of potential forest based production
  226. 226. Urban/ rural impact • Untreated sewage can flow into rural rivers from urban areas • Urban use of groundwater can deplete and pollute aquifers • Saltwater intrusion in coastal areas • Urban industrial complexes are the main causes of climate change worldwide
  227. 227. Degradation of urban environment
  228. 228. Urban areas • Environment quality of urban area has a direct impact on the dense population • Urbanization, industrial development, inadequate infrastructure are the causes of urban degradation
  229. 229. Urban problems • Lack of solid waste management • Poor air/ water quality • Inadequate sanitation • Improper storage/ emission of hazardous substances • Urban environmental degradation can affect population at different scales: local, regional, global
  230. 230. Amenity Loss • Losses of infrastructures that are essential to the standards of living • Sanitation systems • Electricity grid • Landfills • Toilets • Hospitals
  231. 231. Traffic Congestion • Lack of population and urban management • Leads to cars being stuck • Increased stress • Higher pollution
  232. 232. Loss heritage and historical building • These may not be properly reserved • Subjected to urban decay • Destroyed in acid rains • Loss in natural hazards such as earthquakes/ floods
  233. 233. Reduced property and building values • Urban decay • Lack of urban renewal and regeneration scheme • Visual and land pollution • Unemployment and crime
  234. 234. Accidents and disaster • Urban vulnerability to hazards – especially in LEDCs • Locations of population • Lack of industrial maintenance: Bhopal
  235. 235. Flooding and surface drainage • Impermeable surfaces • No vegetation to intercept • Heat island effects • Poor drainage system
  236. 236. Toxic and hazardous wastes • Lack of proper solid waste management • Lack of landfill management • No awareness of urban problems
  237. 237. Loss of agricultural land and desertification • Urban areas intruding the rural fringes
  238. 238. Air pollution • Vehicles, Industries
  239. 239. Water pollution • Industries, domestic wastes, vehicles
  240. 240. Inadequate supply and loss of electricity transmission • Marginalized population does not receive adequate infrastructures • Lack of maintenance • Energy insecurity
  241. 241. Misguided government practice • Poor management of urban areas • No urban planning • Urban planning based upon powers and corruptions
  242. 242. High living densities • Traffic congestion • Upward growth of urban areas • Loss of spaces
  243. 243. Lack of/ inappropriate legislations • Lawlessness • Crimes • Unemployment • Bad reputation for FDI (Foreign Direct Investment)
  244. 244. Inadequate tax. Financial revenues • Not enough governmental funds to maintain infrastructures • Not enough funds to uphold law and legislations rendering city authorities useless
  245. 245. Polluted land • Visual pollution • Urban decay • Loss of property value • Water pollution: Rain washes over rubbish
  246. 246. Garbage dumping • Visual pollution • Need for incineration: air pollution • Inefficiency use of space • Breeding ground for rats, cockroaches, diseases
  247. 247. Flooding • Impermeable surfaces • Poor drainage
  248. 248. Noise pollution • Stress
  249. 249. Natural disasters • Vulnerable population unable to fend themselves against hazards • Lack of preparation and poor responses • No hazard resistant infrastructures
  250. 250. Lack of understanding and awareness • Poor education • Lack of social awareness
  251. 251. Inappropriate/ inadequate technology use • Lack of education • Lack of efficient infrastructures • Waste of public funding
  252. 252. Substandard housing • Residential segregation • Informal settlements can be sources of pollution • Correlation between poverty and degradation applies here too • Impede urban planning processes • Vulnerable to natural hazards
  253. 253. Lack of sanitation • Inadequate infrastructures • Water-borne diseases more common • Water pollution • Visual pollution
  254. 254. Urban poverty • The overall idea of urban poverty stems from income disparity • The marginalized population is so close to the affluent that the social effect is far higher than in rural areas • Thus increase in crime • Cycle of poverty which tends to exacerbate degradation • Lack of representation in public sectors = problems overlooked and not addressed
  255. 255. Impact of Rural areas • Runoffs from farm fertilizers and pesticides can pollute river • Urban areas generally down stream to rural thus the main river in urban areas is usually very much affected • Flood-drought cycle can be exacerbated
  256. 256. Impact of Rural areas • Degrading conditions in rural areas = more rural urban migration • Thus higher population pressure • Urbanization of poverty
  257. 257. Constraints on improving degraded environment
  258. 258. Population growth in LEDCs • This puts high pressure on fragile environment • Very difficult to reverse this trend since it is tied to socio economic need and cultural beliefs • Demographic trends take time to change
  259. 259. Rural Urban Migration • The gradient has to be graded but this is also difficult to accomplish
  260. 260. Environmental Hazards • These include flooding, drought, earthquakes, hurricanes • They are made worse by climate change • Increased in scale and becoming more unpredictable • Higher population growth means more people are living in marginal land and vulnerable to these hazards • Urban areas are also more vulnerable to property damage
  261. 261. Poor knowledge • Moderate adaptation of human behavior could often overturn environmental degradation • The lack of education in LEDCs and even lack of awareness in MEDCs such as the USA can have great impacts in impeding development
  262. 262. Management of government policies • Central and local government often make fatal mistakes in management • This can lead to severe degradation • They can also be influenced by lobbyists of exploitative companies • Quality of governance is key to development
  263. 263. Lack of investments • Substantial investment could improve degraded or decayed areas • Realistic solutions are often tied to finance • LEDCs may not be able to afford high cost schemes, and low cost schemes will require knowledge
  264. 264. Civil Wars • Internal conflicts slow down development • Force marginalized population to further exploit the environment • Allow exploiters to continue their exploitations during a time when law and legislations are not intact
  265. 265. Resource Management • High/ Low Institutional Cost • High/ Low Technical Cost
  266. 266. Irrigations • Large scale • Small scale hill irrigation
  267. 267. Population Reforestation in LEDCs • Arid and semi arid land • Mangroves
  268. 268. Land Reclamation • High technical and institutional costs • Enclosing areas with stonewalls for agriculture • Restoring coastal lands • They can damage ecosystems • Reclaimed land can be vulnerable to liquefactions
  269. 269. Integrated River basin management • High institutional and technical costs • Work on ecosystems, wetlands and groundwater systems as sources of freshwater • They must include maintenance of ecosystems • Long-term vision, policies needed (controlling urban development, agriculture, industries, fisheries and poverty reduction) • Needed active participation by all parties • Investment by government • Solid foundation of knowledge of the river basin, ecosystem and socioeconomic entity associated with it
  270. 270. Transboundary resources • High technical and institutional costs • Arid and semi arid land • Mangroves • International rivers • Required political management • International relations • Working with governments, locals and NGOs • Controlling HEP schemes, water drawing schemes, fishery schemes and utilization of resources
  271. 271. Resettlement schemes • High technical and institutional forces • Offer protection to people • However they may forcibly displaced • E.g. by HEP schemes • Needed socioeconomic and cultural understanding of the local people subject to the resettlement • Needed to find new and adequate areas with sufficient infrastructures
  272. 272. Water-pollution reduction programmes • High technical and Institutional Cost • The need for better sewage management • Better sewage treatment • Imposition of laws and legislation against industries • The need for surveillances, maintenance • A scientific agency required to do constant checkups • Work with the locals and tap on local feedbacks
  273. 273. Rural road maintenance • High technical/ institutional cost • Governmental funding needed • Civil engineering needed • Long term planning • Local people’s involvements needed
  274. 274. Ocean fisheries management • High technical cost, High institutional cost • Prevent overfishing • Setting up fishing quotas, landing fees, criteria to be fishermen, licenses, bans on certain practices, limit on number of fishing days, subsidies and taxes • Needed government funding, involvement and authority to maintain and impose management
  275. 275. Food crop systems on difficult soils • High technical cost • Soil management and improvement • Requiring the use of fertilizers in the form of manures • Setting up irrigation schemes
  276. 276. Water harvesting structure • High technical costs • Help recharge ground water • Create sustainable supply of water • Maintain agriculture during droughts • Need to educated farmers • Funding to install system
  277. 277. Centralized provision of energy services • High technical costs • Electricity grids • HEP schemes • Reduce energy poverty
  278. 278. Solar energy for individual households • High technical cost • High cost of installation • High cost of maintenance • Fair supply of non-polluting energy
  279. 279. Pipe sewer systems • High technical cause • Extensive system for cleanliness • Reduce diseases • Reduce pollutions
  280. 280. Emission reduction devices • High technical cost • Reduce pollution associated with industries • E.g. Clean coal technology
  281. 281. Improved public transport • High technical cost • An extensive system of public transport Rapid transit, underground trains • Reduce carbon emissions in private cars • Reduce traffic congestion • Reduce energy usage
  282. 282. Water-Aquifer management • High institutional cost • Associated at times with shared international water • Plans for recharging • Proper boundaries • Indication of water tables • Protections of aquitards
  283. 283. Protection of critical areas • High institutional cost • Laws/ legislations to protect areas vulnerable to degradation • Laws to prevent extension of industrial or agricultural lands • Green belts
  284. 284. Coastal fisheries management • High institutional cost • Similar to Ocean fisheries management but at a smaller scale – more locals/ regional
  285. 285. Coral Reef management • High institutional costs • Laws to protect reefs • Raising awareness among tourists • Control fishing • Reducing pollution • Reducing climate change with campaigns
  286. 286. Pasture Management • High institutional cost • Laws to prevent overgrazing • Raising awareness in importance of hill side slopes and open pastures • Education about danger of overgrazing and soil erosion
  287. 287. Land reform • High institutional cost • Redistribution of land tenureship so that farmers are not marginalized • Reduce poverty which is correlated to degradation
  288. 288. Integrated pest management • High institutional cost • Help farmers protect their crops and livelihoods • Try to prevent usage of pesticides  reducing pollution but also reducing resistant bugs
  289. 289. Wild game management • High institutional cost • Protection of species to maintain the biodiversity of the ecosystem thus protecting against further degradation
  290. 290. Sloping Agricultural land technology • SALT • Using tree legumes to improve fertility and stability of agricultural soils • Sustainable production without expense • Help farmers in marginal lands • Promote polycultures
  291. 291. Small scale quarrying • A form of coping strategy • Non-agricultural diversification which helps alleviate poverty • Case Study: Kenya
  292. 292. Household based sanitation system • Management of wastewater at a household level • Reduce water borne diseases • Reduce internal pollution
  293. 293. Improve cooking stoves • Reduce household air pollution • Better cooked food • Less usage of fuelwoods
  294. 294. Joint forest management regimes • An integral and sociocultural solution to income problems and degradation • Involving both local people and authority • Allowing steady income for local population • Conservation of forests • Case Study: India
  295. 295. Carbon trading • UN schemes to cut carbon emissions • Paying poor countries to preserve forests • Seen a recipe for corruption • With no strong safeguard could be hijacked by organized crimes • However it is strongly backed as it helps both conservationists and LEDCs
  296. 296. Protection of environment at risk • There are many ways to protect environments • Extreme ways: Human access denied • E.g. National Parks • However protections must take in account the roles of the locals • Authorities cannot villainies the locals and turn them against the cause • Sustainable-development policies should be implemented based on three factors: Needs, measures, outcomes
  297. 297. Needs, Measures, Outcomes Needs: • What needs to be done to reduce environmental degradations • What can be done without destroying local people’s livelihoods Measures: • What are the policies and practices that can be implemented within a realistic time scale Outcomes: • How successful have these polices been at different stages? • Are there unforeseen circumstances
  298. 298. Ecuador’s Andean Cloud Forest • Andean Corridor Project protects vital ecosystems of the diversity hotspot • 4 reserves are created • More are planned to protect wildlife from human activities • Employment of local people take in account local needs
  299. 299. Cross boundaries • Some degraded environments are shared (Mekong Rivers, Amazon rainforest, Southeast Asian Reef System) • Required cooperation between countries
  300. 300. END