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Male Animal infertility

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Male Animal infertility

  1. 1. By: Dr. Arshaq Asfar
  2. 2.  Infertility implies delayed or irregular reproduction or inability to conceive.  Also defined as diminished or absent capacity to produce viable offspring's.
  3. 3.  Hereditary  Congenital  Genetic  Infectious  Nutritional  Hormonal  Miscellaneous
  4. 4.  Chronic prolapse of prepuce  Umbilical hernia  Sperm defects  Cryptorchidism  Testicular hypoplasia  Spermiostasis
  5. 5.  Phimosis  Diphallus  Phallocampsis  Imperfect descent of testis  Testicular hypoplasia  Segmental aplasia of mesonephric duct  Sperm cell defects
  6. 6.  Genes related to defects in Meiosis  Genes associated with spermatogenic arrest  Genes related to sperm-egg interaction  Genes related to sperm structure
  7. 7. Gene Phenotype References Meiosis Related Cyclin A1 meiotic arrest prior to first division, increased apoptosis Liu et al, 1998 Cyclin D2 decreased sperm concentration Sicinski et al, 1996 DMC1 meiotic arrest at zygotene, abnormal synaptonemal complex Pittman et al, 1998 HSP 70-2 synaptonemal comples fails to desynapse Dix et al, 1997 MLH1 meiotic pachytene arrest Baker et al, 1996 MSH4 abnormal chromosome pairing during zygotene Kneitz et al, 2000 MSH5 incorrect or absent chromosomal pairing Edelmann et al, 1999 PMS2 partial meiotic arrest, oligo- teratozoospermia Baker et al, 1995 SCP3 failure of synaptonemal complex to form Yuan et al, 2000 TLS delayed, unpaired and mispaired chromosomes Kuroda et al, 2000
  8. 8. Spermatogenic Arrest A-myb degeneration of primary spermatocytes Toscani et al, 1997 BCL-w increased apoptosis Print et al, 1998 Crem round spermatid stage arrest Blendy et al, 1996 DAZl speramatogonial arrest Ruggiu et al, 1997 Morc increased apoptosis, prophase 1 arrest Watson et al, 1998 Spermine synthase build up of spermidine, spermatogenic arrest Lorenz et al, 1998 TRF-2 speramatogonial arrest Zhang et al, 2001 Vasa depletion of post meiotic germ cells Tanaka et al, 2000 Sperm-Egg Interaction Calmegin no sperm-egg adhesion, poor transit through fallopian tubes Ikawa et al, 1997 Cyritestin sperm fail to bind zona pellucida Shamsadin et al, 1999 Fertilin B same as calmegin Cho et al, 2000
  9. 9. Stuctural Defects CK2 oligo- and globozoospermia Xu et al, 1999 C-ros bent tails and decreased motility Yeung et al, 1999 EGR4 multiple structural abnormalities Tourtellotte et al, 1999 E-map-115 deformed nuclei, abnormal microtubule associations Komada et al, 2000 JunD oligo- astheno- teratozoospermia Thepot et al, 2000 nectin-2 misshapen heads and midpieces Bouchard et al, 2000 PCI abnormal morphology and fertilization Uhrin et al, 1999 THEG abnormal elongation and tail defects Yanaka et al, 2000
  10. 10.  Balanoposthitis  Phimosis  Tumour of penis and prepuce  Brucellosis  Campylobacteriosis  Trichomoniasis  IBR-IPV
  11. 11.  Testicular degeneration  Orchitis  Infection of vas deferens and ampulla  Seminal vesiculitis  Prostatitis
  12. 12.  Lack of condition or obese condition  Vitamin A  Vitamin E  Phosphorus  Calcium  Cobalt  Iodine  Copper  Iron  Manganese
  13. 13.  Testicular neoplasm  Anterior pituitary tumour  Hypothalamus tumour  Prostatic hyperplasia
  14. 14.  Inbreeding  Hybrids  Intersex  Torsion or rotation of descended testis  Improper delivery of semen  Fistulous opening of urethra  Urethral calculi
  15. 15. 1- Reduced or complete lack of sexual desire and ability to copulate (Impotentia Coeundi). 2- Inability or reduced ability to fertilize (Impotentia Generandi). 3- Miscellaneous Diseases affecting reproductive organs
  16. 16.  Reduced to complete lack of sexual desire and ability to copulate.  In males complete physical capability is necessary so that each component of copulatory patterns (sexual arousal, sexual display, erection, protrusion, mounting, intromission and dismounting) are performed well.  Necessary for males that all senses (visual, olfactory, auditory and tactile) should be perfectly normal.
  17. 17.  Heriditary  Nutrition  Systemic diseases  Age  Managemental practices  Psychogenic factors  Climatic factors  Endocrine factors  Joint, muscle, bone, nerve, tendon injury  Diseases of penis and prepuce  Miscellaneous factors
  18. 18.  Incapacity or reduced capacity to fertilize.  Characterized by normal sexual desire as well as normal ability to copulate but fertility is either subnormal or absent.
  19. 19. 1- Associated with production of apparently normal semen. May be due to: a) Infectious diseases b) Inherited sperm defects. 2- Associated with production of semen, which is abnormal in morphology, concentration, motility, and other qualities.
  20. 20.  Infectious diseases • Brucellosis • Campylobacteriosis • Trichomoniasis • IBR-IPV etc. Semen may be normal in motility, conc., and morphology but such semen results in embryonic/foetal death, abortion, and signs of infertility.
  21. 21.  Inherited sperm defects • Diadem defect/nuclear pouch formation defect/eversion of galea capitis and crater shaped defect. Sign of severe disturbance in spermiogenesis rendering a bull infertile or nearly sterile. There are invaginations of the nuclear membrane and defect is confined near anterior border of the post nuclear cap. Feulgen stain and phase contrast microscopy reveal this defect.
  22. 22. • Knobbed spermatozoa Acrosomal defect related to defective spermiogenesis involving golgi apparatus. Eosin-B, fast green or phase contrast microscopy reveal this defect. Sperm incapable of penetrating ovum. • Gene or chromosomal defects Occurs at meiosis due to chromosomal aberration. Structural changes of chromosomes including translocation and inversion. May cause fertilization but zygote dies in early gestation.
  23. 23. Knobbed spermatozoa Gene or chromosomal defects
  24. 24. • Atypical basic nuclear proteins Defect in sperm cell chromatin. Interfere with activation and penetration of sperm into ova. • Inherent enzymatic disturbances Causes early death of spermatozoa in female genital organs.
  25. 25. This type of infertility may be associated with pathology of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, accessory sex glands and urethra or may be associated with abnormal semen production due to congenital or heriditary causes or due to acquired causes.  Cryptorchidism  Imperfect descent of testis  Scrotal or inguinal hernia  Testicular hypoplasia  Testicular degeneration
  26. 26.  Orchitis  Testicular fibrosis  Testicular calcification  Testicular neoplasms  Epididymitis  Spermiostasis  Tumours of epididymis  Segmental aplasia of mesonephric duct  Pathology of vas deferens and ampulla
  27. 27.  Seminal vesiculitis  Prostatitis  Prostatic hyperplasia  Inherited or congenital sperm cell defects  Diadem defect  Knobbed sperm  Decapitated sperm Ultrastructure abnormality in neck or implantation region of sperm resulting disintegration into heads and tails in caput of epididymis.
  28. 28.  Sterilizing tail stump Instead of actual tail, there is a short tail stump(2-3µ)  Dag defect Main piece strongly coiled over mid piece. In about 40% spermatozoa. Found associated with elevated levels of zinc in seminal plasma.  Pseudo droplet defect Sperm have rounded or elongated thickening on mid piece
  29. 29. Sterilizing tail stump Pseudo droplet defect Dag defect
  30. 30.  Cork screw defect Mid piece in shape of corkscrew due to irregular distribution of mitochondrial sheath.  Returned tail and narrow head Apparently genetic found in jersey breed.
  31. 31.  Inbreeding Results in reduced fertility accompanied by increase in the number of abnormal seminiferous tubules,poor semen quality and testicular hypoplasia.  Infertility in hybrids Major difference in number of chromosomes of parents leads to infertility in offspring. Sterility common in male hybrids. Eg Horse and ass crosses (mule sterile), bison and domestic cattle (bulls sterile), yak and domestic cattle (bulls sterile) etc.
  32. 32.  Intersex Animals with congenital malformation of sexual development rendering them invariably sterile. • True hermaphrodites: have various combinations of ovaries, testis and ovo-testis together with varying of bisexuality in accessory sex organs. • Male and female pseudo-hermaphrodites: exists discrepancy between external genetalia and gonads. Males have testis and female externalia and females have ovaries and male externalia. • Freemartins : results from sexual modification of female twin due to exchange of blood from male twin in uterus.
  33. 33.  Torsion or rotation of testis Testicles rotated and held high in scrotum. Semen characteristics not affected but spermatozoa production affected.  Urethral fistula Glans penis have opening on ventral side leading to deposition of semen in middle of vagina.  Urethral process Necrosis or lodgement of calculi in urethral process leads to improper delivery of semen.
  34. 34.  Some male animals have high fertility but show low fertility and the cause remains unexplained.  Fertility is determined genetically.  The semen of some male animals do not withstand freezing.  The fertility of male animals also varies from herd to herd and from individual to individual and also in the same individual at different times.