Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

Individual dimensions of organizational behavior

Cargando en…3

Eche un vistazo a continuación

1 de 111 Anuncio

Más Contenido Relacionado

Presentaciones para usted (20)


Más reciente (20)

Individual dimensions of organizational behavior

  1. 1. Individual Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour Presented by : Ashutosh Verma
  3. 3. What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? •People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. •The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.
  4. 4. Factors That Influence Perception
  5. 5. Attitudes and Behaviors Organization and Interpretation Selective Attention Perceptual Process Model Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting Environmental Stimuli
  6. 6. The Perceptual Process 1.Sensation • An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. 2.Selection • The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. 3.Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” 4.Interpretation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.
  7. 7. Steps in perception •1.Selection: It depends on interests, background, experience, attitudes, etc. • People unconsciously focus on those aspects of the individuals, events, or situations that are consistent with, or reinforce, their preceding attitudes, moods, values, needs, and they screen out other, relevant information as inconsistent with their pre-held beliefs.
  8. 8. • THE ORGANIZING PROCESS: • The stimuli received must be organized so as to give some meaning to them. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful whole is called the perceptual organizing. The three dimension of PO are • Figure ground: This principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception • Perceptual grouping: Principle of similarity Principle of proximity Principle of closure • Perceptual constancy: Our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant, despite variation in the stimuli that provides us that information.
  9. 9. a. Figure-Ground Illustration • Field-ground differentiation • This principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception.
  10. 10. B. PERCEPTUAL GROUPING Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern.  It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. Some factors underlying grouping are -Continuity -Closure -Proximity -Similarity
  11. 11. INTERPRETING • After the data has been received and organized, the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. Perception has said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted.
  12. 12. CHECKING & REACTING CHECKING: After the data have been interpreted, the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretation is right or wrong. One way of checking is introspection. REACTING: The last phase in the process is reaction. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. The action depends on whether the perception is favourable or unfavourable,
  13. 13. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation. Consistency: responds in the same way over time. Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
  14. 14. Attribution Theory
  15. 15. Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  16. 16. Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  17. 17. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
  18. 18. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
  19. 19. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
  20. 20. Specific Applications in Organizations • Employment Interview • Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants. • Performance Expectations • Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities. • Ethnic Profiling • A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.
  21. 21. Specific Applications in Organizations (cont’d) • Performance Evaluations • Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance. • Employee Effort • Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.
  22. 22. MOTIVATION Motivation is a force that drives a person to action. Motivation is a force that energizes behavior , gives direction to behavior and underlies the tendency to persist-Steers and Porter
  23. 23. Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
  24. 24. MOTIVE MOTIVATING MOTIVATION Needs in Individual Activating needs & providing need satisfaction environment Engagement of individuals in work behaviour MOTIVATION
  26. 26. FEATURES OF MOTIVATION •Motivation is an internal feeling •It influences human behavior •It can be both positive & negative •It is a complex process •It relates to attainment of satisfaction •It is a continuous process
  27. 27. TYPES OF MOTIVATION •Extrinsic •Intrinsic •Tangible •Intangible •Monetary •Non-monetary
  28. 28. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Carrot & Stick Policy: The traditional method CARROT: Reward STICK: Punishment
  29. 29. NEED HIERARCHY THEORY (A. MASLOW) Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self- actualization needs Lower-order needs Higher-order needs
  30. 30. • PHYSIOLOGICAL: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, and other bodily needs. • SAFETY: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. • SOCIAL: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. • ESTEEM: Includes internal esteem factors such as self respect, autonomy, and achievement and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention. • SELF-ACTUALIZATION: is represented by the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. This includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment
  31. 31. TWO-FACTOR THEORY (FREDERICK HERZBERG) • Herzberg categorized two set of factors that provide satisfaction or dissatisfaction : Hygiene Factors and Motivators Hygiene Factors : They provide no dissatisfaction to employees, i.e the presence of these factors do not motivate the employees, but their absence becomes a source of dissatisfaction. • They are also called Extrinsic factors, maintenance factors dissatisfier’s. • Maintenance factors because they maintain the level of performance on the job • Dissatisfiers because their absence dissatisfy the workers and deteriorate the performance • Extrinsic factors because they are related to work environment (job context) and not the job content.
  32. 32. TWO-FACTOR THEORY (FREDERICK HERZBERG) Motivators: These are the factors related to job content like recognition, achievement, opportunities for growth. • Their absence provides no satisfaction or motivation but their presence results in high degree of motivation and job satisfaction. • Also called intrinsic factors or satisfiers. • related with the job content.
  33. 33. MC CLELLAND'S THEORY OF NEEDS Need for achievement (nAch) - drive to excel Need for power (nPow) - the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise Need for affiliation (nAff) - the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships •High achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility, feedback, and intermediate degree of risk. • High achievers are not necessarily good managers. • Affiliation and power are closely related to managerial success • Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need.
  34. 34. ADAM’S EQUITY THEORY Employees weigh what they put into a Job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome). Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others. Outcomes (self) Inputs (self) Outcomes (other) Inputs (other) compared with
  35. 35. If they perceive their ratio to be EQUAL to that of relevant others, a state of equity exists. If the ratios are UNEQUAL, inequity exists, either under-reward or over- reward.  When inequities occur, employees will attempt to correct them. When employees envision an inequity, they may make one or more of five choices: •Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes •Behave in some way so as to induce others to change their inputs or outcomes •Behave in some way so as to change their own inputs or outcomes •Choose a different comparison referent •Quit their job
  36. 36. THEORY X AND THEORY Y (DOUGLAS MC GREGOR) Assumptions of Theory X  Workers lack ambition, avoid responsibility and work only if directed.  Managers direct, control, motivate and modify human behavior to meet the organizational goals.  People are resistant to change and want to work in sable conditions.  Workers lower order needs are stronger than Higher order Needs
  37. 37. Assumptions of Theory Y  Workers are not lazy , they have the potential to develop.  People are ambitious . Not only they accept responsibility but seek it from managers.  people are self directed and motivated to work towards organizational goals.  People are not resistant to change.
  38. 38. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another.  It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value.  Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). Three components of Expectancy theory: 1. Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)  Expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result in attainment of desired performance (P) goals.  This will effect how the individual's decision making process because they will ultimately chose behaviors that will ensure their desired goals. 2. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O)  Instrumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met.  This reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is the same for all performances given.
  39. 39. 3. Valence- V(R) : The valance refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation. The valence refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. -1 →0→ +1 -1= avoiding the outcome 0 = indifferent to the outcome +1 = welcomes the outcome The Expectancy Theory of motivation can help managers understand how individuals make decisions regarding various behavioral alternatives, and why they pursue these decisions. The model below shows the direction of motivation, when behavior is energized: Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
  41. 41. Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by the person’s ability to do the job and also by individual’s perception of what the required task is. So performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. These rewards, along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction. Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward.
  42. 42. PERSONALITY Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. Personality Determinants • Heredity • Environment • Situation
  43. 43. The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions Extroversion • Sociable, outgoing, and assertive Agreeableness • Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting Conscientiousness • Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized Emotional Stability • Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative) Openness to Experience • Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
  44. 44. How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior? • Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to higher job performance: • Highly conscientious people develop more job knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better performance. • Other Big Five Traits also have implications for work. • Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction. • Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills. • Open people are more creative and can be good leaders. • Agreeable people are good in social settings.
  45. 45. • Locus of control • Machiavellianism • Self-esteem • Self-monitoring • Risk taking managers • Self Efficacy • Type A & B personality Major Personality Attributes influencing OB
  46. 46. Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
  47. 47. Conditions Favoring High Machs • Direct interaction • Minimal rules and regulations • Distracting emotions
  48. 48. Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
  49. 49. • High self-monitors • flexible: adjust behavior according to the situation and the behavior of others • can appear unpredictable & inconsistent • Low self-monitors • act from internal states rather than from situational cues • show consistency • less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback Self-Monitoring Behavior based on cues from people & situations
  50. 50. Risk-Taking • High Risk-taking Managers • Make quicker decisions • Use less information to make decisions • Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations • Low Risk-taking Managers • Are slower to make decisions • Require more information before making decisions • Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
  51. 51. Self-Efficacy : Power or capacity to produce a desired effect; effectiveness.- beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectively Sources of self-efficacy • Prior experiences and prior success • Behavior models (observing success) • Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
  52. 52. Personality Types Type A’s 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B’s 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.
  53. 53. Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior Psychodynamic Theories: Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles Humanistic Theories: Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth Social-Cognitive Theories: Attribute difference in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental processes Personality Theories
  55. 55. Carl Jung: Swiss psychiatrist who believed that we are one of two personality types: • Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward • Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward Jung’s Theory Carl Jung
  56. 56. • Eysenck defined personality as a more or less stable and enduring organization of a person’s character, temperament, intellect, and physique, which determines his unique adjustment to the environment. • His definition emphasized traits (stable and enduring characteristics), which, when clustered together, are organized as types. Eysenck’s Three Factor Theory Hans Eysenck
  57. 57. Eysenck’s Three Factor Theory Hans Eysenck,: English psychologist, believed that there are three fundamental factors in personality: • Introversion versus Extroversion • Emotionally Stable versus Unstable (neurotic) • Impulse Control versus Psychotic ( element of psychotic was added later on)
  58. 58. Extraverts are sociable and impulse individuals who like excitements and who are oriented toward external reality. Introverts are quiet, introspective individuals who are oriented toward inner reality and who prefer a well-oriented life. Neurotics are emotionally unstable individuals. Some unreasonably fear certain objects, places, persons, animals, open spaces, or heights; others exhibit obsession or impulsive symptoms. Psychotics differ from neurotics. psychotics are insensitive to others, hostile, cruel, and inhumane, with a strong need to make fools of people and to upset them. Despite these socially undesirable traits, psychotics tend to be creative.
  59. 59. Eysenck’s Theory, continued The first two factors create 4 combinations, related to the four basic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks: • Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad, gloomy • Choleric (extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered, irritable • Phlegmatic (introverted + stable): sluggish, calm • Sanguine (extroverted + stable): cheerful, hopeful
  60. 60. Raymond Cattell: believed that there were two basic categories of traits: • Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas of personality • Source Traits: Underlying characteristics of a personality Cattell also constructed the 16PF, a personality test identifying 16 personality factors (source traits). Cattell: Source & Surface Traits Raymond Cattell
  61. 61. The Sixteen Personality Factors
  62. 62. Cattell: The Big Five Cattell believed that five factors were most important:  Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeable  Neuroticism (instability, anxiety, aggression)
  64. 64. Sigmund Freud : Viennese physician who thought his patients’ problems were more emotional than physical. Freud began his work by using hypnosis and eventually switched to psychoanalysis. Freud had many followers: Jung and Adler, to name a few. More than 100 years later, his work is still influential and very controversial Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
  65. 65. Id: Innate biological instincts and urges; self-serving & irrational • Totally unconscious • Works on Pleasure Principle: Wishes to have its desires (pleasurable) satisfied NOW, without waiting and regardless of the consequences The Id, Ego, and Superego Ego: Executive; directs id energies • Partially conscious and partially unconscious • Works on Reality Principle: Delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate
  66. 66. Superego: Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the ego • Superego comes from our parents or caregivers; guilt comes from the superego • Two parts - Conscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been punished (e.g., what we shouldn’t do or be) - Ego Ideal: Second part of the superego; reflects behavior one’s parents approved of or rewarded (e.g., what we should do or be) The Id, Ego, and Superego…….
  67. 67. Conscious: Everything you are aware of at a given moment Preconscious: Material that can easily be brought into awareness Unconscious: Holds repressed memories and emotions and the id’s instinctual drives Levels of Awareness
  68. 68. Unconscious theory • Conscious • Freud’s first level of awareness, consisting of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of which people are aware. • Preconscious • Freud’s second level of awareness, consisting of the mental activities of which people gain awareness by attending to them. • Unconscious • Freud’s third level of awareness, consisting of the mental activities beyond people’s normal awareness.
  70. 70. Self-system: the set of cognitive processes by which a person observes, evaluates, and regulates his/her behavior. Bandura proposed that what we think of as personality is a product of this self-system. Children observe behavior of models (such as parents) in their social environment. Particularly if they are reinforced, children will imitate these behaviors, incorporating them into personality. Bandura also proposed that people observe their own behavior and judge its effectiveness. Self-efficacy: a judgment of one’s effectiveness in dealing with particular situations. Bandura’s Theory
  71. 71. Julian Rotter: American psychologist, began as a Freudian! His personality theory combines learning principles, modeling, cognition, and the effects of social relationships External locus of control: perception that chance or external forces beyond personal control determine one’s fate Internal locus of control: perception that you control your own fate. Learned Helplessness: a sense of hopelessness in which a person thinks that he/she is unable to prevent aversive events Rotter’s Theory of Locus of Control
  72. 72. Attitude
  73. 73. Attitude "A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object.“ Attitudes can be positive / Negative “Attitudes are evaluative statements indicating one’s feeling either favourably or unfavourably towards persons, objects,events or situations”
  74. 74. Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Three components of an attitude: Attitude Behavioral Cognitive Affective The emotional or feeling segment of an attitudeThe opinion or belief segment of an attitude An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
  75. 75. The attitude is like IceBerg
  77. 77. Features of Attitude Changes with time & situation Related to feelings & beliefs of people Effects one’s behavior positively or negatively Affect perception Learned through experiences
  78. 78. Family and Peers Group Neighborhood Attitude Vicarious Learning Economical Status Mass Communication Experience with the object Formation Of Attitude
  79. 79. Formation Of Attitude  Experience with Object : Attitude can develop from a personally rewarding or punishing experience with a object.  Vicarious Learning : Formation of attitude by observing behavior of others and consequences of that behavior.  Family and Peer Groups : A person may learn attitudes through imitation of parents.  Neighbourhood : Involves being told what attitudes to have by parents, schools, community organizations, religious doctrine, friends, etc.  Economic Status : Our Economical and occupational positions also contribute to attitude formation.  Mass Communication : Television, Radio, Newspaper and magazine feed their audiences large quantities of information.
  80. 80. Determinants of Attitude Experience Education Environment Environment consists of the following: •Home: positive or negative influences •School: peer pressure •Work: supportive or over critical supervisor •Media: television, newspapers, magazines, radio, movies •Culture Experiences our behavior changes according to our experiences with people and events in our life. If we have a positive experience with a person, our attitude toward him becomes positive
  81. 81. Change of Attitude. Changing attitude of self. Changing attitude of employees.
  82. 82. Changing attitude of self.  Be aware of one’s attitude.  Realize that there are few , if any, benefits from harboring negative attitude.  Keep an open mind.  Built a positive self esteem.  Stay away from negative influence.
  83. 83. Changing Attitude of Employees  Give feedback.  Accentuated positive conditions.  Positive role model.  Providing new information.  Use of fear.  Influence of friends or peer group.
  84. 84. Learning 1. “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result of the learner’s interaction with the environment” (Driscoll). 2. “the relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience” (Mayer). 3. “an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience” (Shuell).
  85. 85. Nature of learning • Learning involves change. • The change must be relatively permanent. • Learning involves change in behavior. • There is no age for learning
  86. 86. The behavioral learning is represented as an S-R .The organism is treated as a “black box.” We only know what is going on inside the box by the organism’s overt behavior. Stimulus (S) Organism (O) Response (R) Behavioral Learning
  87. 87. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be discovered and studied within the behaviorist tradition (hence the name classical). Classical conditioning can be defined as a process in which a formerly neutral stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus that illicit a conditioned response. (Luthans) The major theorist in the development of classical conditioning is Ivan Pavlov, a Russian scientist trained in biology and medicine (as was his German contemporary, Sigmund Freud).
  88. 88. The specific model for classical conditioning is: • A stimulus will naturally (without learning) elicit or bring about a reflexive response • Unconditioned Stimulus (US) elicits > Unconditioned Response (UR) • Neutral Stimulus (NS) --- does not elicit the response of interest • This stimulus (sometimes called an orienting stimulus as it elicits an orienting response) is a neutral stimulus since it does not elicit the Unconditioned (or reflexive) Response.
  89. 89. OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY  Type of learning in which behavior is influenced by its consequences.  The operant conditioning states : “ a behavior that has a rewarding consequence tends to be repeated, whereas a negative or punishing consequence tends not to be repeated again” a) Operant-> Operant is the behavior that produces effects. b) Responses -> Skinner put forward the idea that most of our responses cannot be attributed to unknown stimulus
  90. 90. SKINNER’S EXPERIMENT WITH RAT • Skinner developed a special apparatus known as skinner’s box. • This box has a grid floor, a system of light or sound produced at the time of delivery of a pellet of food, in the food cup, on the pressing of lever. • Skinner placed a hungry rat in the box. • In this experiment, pressure on the bar in a certain way, by the rat could result in the production of a click and emergence of a food pellet. • The rat was rewarded for each proper pressing of the lever. • The rat repeated this process, and ultimately learned to press the lever as desired by the experimenter.
  91. 91. Operant Conditioning
  92. 92. MECHANISM OF OPERANT CONDITIONING • Shaping: The process of building a chain of responses through a step by step process called shaping. • Chaining: Chaining refer to a process in which required behavior or task is broken down into small steps for its effective learning. • Discrimination: It is a process of using signals, clues to determine when behavior is likely to be reinforced or punished. • Generalization: It refer to the ability of an organism dealing with the perception of response to, similar stimuli.
  93. 93. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2– 104 CLASSICALCONDITIONING Vs OPERANT CONDITIONING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING Behavior is the result of stimulus (there may be direct relationship between stimulus and response) Behavior is the result of consequence. ( many possible behaviors can result in particular stimulus situation) Responses are fixed to stimulus (no choice) Responses are variable in types and degree (choice) CS is stimulus such as a sound , an object, a person, etc. CS is situation such as an office, a social setting, a specific set of circumstances Reinforcement is not received by choice Person is instrumental in securing reinforcement by ‘operating’ on the environment
  94. 94. COGNITIVE THEORY OF LEARNING  This theory is based on the experiments conducted by Tolman using rats in the laboratory.  He showed that they learned to run through a complicated maze towards their goal or food.  The learning took place when the relationship between the cues and the expectancy was strengthened because the cues led to the expected goals.  Based on this theory training programs have been designed to strengthen the relationship between the cognitive cues such as supervision, job procedures etc and workers expectations like monetary rewards.
  95. 95. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Social learning theory recognizes that learning is a blend of conditioning and cognitive process. is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others occurs when an observers behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model also known as vicarious learning, social learning or modeling. Social learning theory holds that children in particular, learn by observing and imitating models Children take an active part in their own learning The child’s own characteristics influence the choice of models.
  96. 96. Guiding principles behind Social learning theory: 1. The observer will imitate the model’s behavior if the model possesses desirable characteristics. 2.The observer will react to the way the model is treated and imitate the models behavior. 3. People can learn by observing the behavior of others and the outcomes of those behaviors. 4. Learning by observation involves four separate processes: Attention, Retention, Production, and Motivation.
  97. 97. Reinforcement Theory ( B.F Skinner)  According to this theory , past actions and outcomes influence a persons present and future actions.  Past behaviors associated with positive outcomes are repeated in future , while the negative ones are avoided.  The behavior of a person is thereby influenced by External environment.  The future behavior is thus reinforcement of past outcomes.
  98. 98. Positive Reinforcement: It is a method of strengthening behavior by offering rewards for good performance. ( e.g. Manager using rewards or praise for an employee for his performance)  Positive reinforcement is a reward for a desirable behavior.  The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable , so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behavior.  Negative reinforcement or Avoidance learning : It takes place when an individual learns to escape or avoid unpleasant consequences. Eg. Driving carefully to avoid any accident.  Negative reinforcement is different from Punishment which is used to curb undesirable behaviour. TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT
  99. 99. Extinct behavior: It means non –reinforcement i.e if a response is not reinforced, it will eventually disappear. This is used to weaken the behavior. ( eg. A manger ignoring the behavior of an employee)  Punishment: This is the last resort used to restrain the behavior of an employee ( eg a manager reprimanding an employee for coming late, an deducting his salary).  Punishment is used to avoid undesirable behavior in future.  The undesirable behavior should be focused and not the person  Punishment should be administered privately, and not in public.  Punishment should immediately follow the undesirable behavior to have the maximum effect.
  100. 100. THANKS