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Introduction to textile industry processes

A textile mill has three major processes which transform fibre into fabric. This is a quick overview of these processes.

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Introduction to textile industry processes

  1. 1. 1 Introduction to textile industry processes Transforming fibre to fabric
  2. 2. 2 Types of fibre Fibre can be broadly classified as: • Natural fibre, like cotton and linen • Animal fibre, like wool and silk • Man made fibre, like viscose, rayon, acrylic and polyester
  3. 3. 3 A textile mill A textile mill has three major processes: • Spinning, where raw fibre is converted into yarn • Fabric formation where yarn is converted into raw (gray) fabric – woven or knit • Processing, where raw fabric is converted to finished fabric
  4. 4. 4 The manufacturing process Blow room Carding Drawing Combing Roving Spinning SPINNING FABRIC FORMATION Warping / Sizing Weaving Singeing Knitting Desizing Scouring and bleaching Mercerizing Dyeing / Printing Shrinking / Sanforizing Calendering / Raising PROCESSING Winding FABRICATION / GARMENTING Cutting Sewing Finished goods Note: Most mills follow this process. Specialised mills may use other unique processes.
  5. 5. 5 Blow room • The raw material bales are loosened from their compacted form and cleaned • The cleaned raw material is blended with different kinds of fibers in the mixing ring Example: Polyester and cotton, viscose and cotton, different kinds of cotton
  6. 6. 6 Carding • Carding is a mechanical process that breaks up unorganised lumps of fibre and aligns them in parallel • The fibres are individualised or separated and then assembled into a loose strand
  7. 7. 7 Drawing • A number of loose strands of fibre are combined together to form a thick structure called sliver • The sliver has low strength and has continuous strands of loosely connected fibre
  8. 8. 8 Comber • A number of slivers of fibre are combined together to form a thick circular structure called as a lap • Several (usually 8) such laps are fed to a comber where short fibres are removed and one sliver is formed again • This process is not used for all yarns
  9. 9. 9 Roving • The sliver which is taken from the draw frame / comber is thick and is not suitable for producing yarn • Roving decreases the width of the sliver and also gives it some twist and strength • Roving is carried out in a machine called “roving frame”
  10. 10. 10 Ring spinning • The yarn after the roving process is spun continuously onto a rotating spindle (bobbin) • Once the yarn is spun onto bobbins, they are ready to be woven or knitted
  11. 11. 11 Open end or air jet spinning • Open end spinning involves creating yarn without using spindles • In air jet spinning, the yarn is made by wrapping fibres using compressed air • A false twist is given to the yarn before it is spun in air jet spinning
  12. 12. 12 Winding The creation of large yarn or packages (cones or cheeses) from ring bobbin yarn that can be easily unwound is called “winding”
  13. 13. 13 Fabric forming process Non-Woven Fabric Fabric Forming Woven Fabric Knitted Fabric Circular Knitting Warp KnittingFlat Knitting
  14. 14. 14 Warping • Warp is the set of yarns that are laid out first on a loom or beam • In the warping process, yarns from many winding packages are aligned longitudinally on a frame and are held in tension • In sizing, additional required strength is given on yarn by chemicals known as “size” to improve weavability
  15. 15. 15 Weaving • The warp yarns that are held lengthwise on a beam, are interlaced with the weft yarns which are aligned at right angles to the warp yarns • The weft yarns determine the breadth of the finished fabric Examples for woven fabric include bedsheets, shirts, trousers, technical textiles for agriculture, construction etc.
  16. 16. 16 Knitting – flat, circular and warp knitting • Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line • Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops Examples of knitted fabric include t-shirts, sweaters, innerwear, socks, sports wear, technical textiles used in agriculture, construction etc.
  17. 17. 17 Singeing and desizing (1/2) • The protruding fibres from the fabric surface are burnt off during singeing • The fabric is passed over a gas flame at such a speed that only the protruding fibres are burnt and the main body of the fabric is not damaged
  18. 18. 18 Singeing and desizing (2/2) • During the warping process, the warp yarns are added with sizing agents in order to improve their tensile strength so as to reduce yarn breakage • These sizing materials on the warp yarns can resist dyes and chemicals in subsequent stages • Hence, these sizing materials added to the warp yarns are removed by desizing i.e., washing off
  19. 19. 19 Scouring and bleaching • Scouring is a chemical treatment process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax, and non-fibrous impurities • Bleaching improves the whiteness by removing natural colour of the fibre
  20. 20. 20 Mercerising (1/2) • Mercerising is done to enhance the cross sectional profile of the fibre • This improves light reflection property of the fabric and hence provides luster Fibre cross section before Mercerizing Fibre cross section after Mercerizing Gloss on the mercerized fabric
  21. 21. 21 Mercerising (2/2) • Mercerizing is done by treating the fabric with a strong alkaline solution such as Sodium Hydroxide
  22. 22. 22 Dyeing / Printing (1/2) • Uniform coloration of textile is called dyeing • Dyeing can be done in the form of fibre, yarn and fabric • Various classes of dyes like reactive, vat, pigment and disperse are used based on the type of substrate
  23. 23. 23 Dyeing / Printing (2/2) • In the printing process, the dyes are applied locally on the fabric to produce the desired design • During printing, the dyes are applied on only one side of the fabric • Printing can be done either on undyed pre-treated fabric or coloured fabric • Rotary, flatbed and digital printing machines are used for applying colours on fabric Printed fabric Dyed fabric
  24. 24. 24 Shrinking / Sanforising • This operation is performed to improve the dimensional stability of cellulosic fibre • The fabric is passed between a rubber sleeve and a heated cylinder and is forced to follow a brief compression
  25. 25. 25 Calendering / Raising • The fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effect • During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth Fabric after calendering and raising
  26. 26. 26 ` THANK YOU