Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.
1
A.T.E. ENTERPRISES PRIVATE LIMITED
Business Unit: HMX
v1.0– updated 17th Feb ‘15
2
Presented at the IDECool Launch for Channel Partners, Pune, 10-11 February 2017
Trends in Comfort Cooling
3
A Look Back
1840s First mention of “active cooling systems”
1915 Carrier Corporation founded (now a part of UTC --- Unit...
4
Fast-Forward Today
Rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere leading to global warming
Tied to the rising energy consumption a...
5
India’s Growth Fueled by Oil
If India’s economy grows as expected, it will consume several times more energy in
next dec...
6
Cooling Contributes to Global Warming
About 35-40% of the energy consumed by commercial and residential buildings
As muc...
7
Trends in Comfort Cooling
• Green Refrigerants
• Understanding Comfort and Models for Comfort
• Quantifying comfort: bui...
8
Refrigerant Type Global Warming Potential or GWP
(100 year, Assessment Report 4, 2007)
R410A – R32/R125 (50/50) HFC 2088...
9
Comfort
“That condition of mind which expresses
satisfaction with the thermal environment
and is assessed
by subjective ...
10
Comfort
Human body produces 100-150 W of heat under normal
conditions and moderate activity level
This heat must be “di...
11
Comfort in Engineering Terms
Human body can lose heat (“dissipation”) by various mechanisms
• Conduction to air due to ...
12
Comfort in Engineering Terms
Evaporation
Convection
and radiation
28 °C
Dry Bulb Temperature
HeatLoss
Source Heating, V...
13
Adaptive Model of Comfort
ASHRAE limits valid for :
• Operable windows
• No mechanical cooling
• Metabolic rate 1-1.3 m...
14
Adaptive Comfort is Applicable to India
ASHRAE limits
• Operable windows
• No mechanical cooling
• Metabolic rate 1-1.3...
15
Building Energy Modelling (BEM)
• Computer-based simulation of energy performance of a building
• Process of using a co...
16
BEM: Scope
Building simulation is commonly divided into two categories
• Load Design
• Energy-Analysis
Load Design is u...
17
BEM: Benefits
For same degree of comfort:
• Compare different building designs including passive constructions
• Identi...
18
Building Energy Modelling
6149 hours outside comfort envelope  3758 hours
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION
… WITH REFLECTIVE and ...
19
BEM: Example
Configuration
Machine Size, cfm
(300 unmet hours at 28 °C)
CapEx
Rs.
OpEx
Rs. / year
NPV *
Rs.
Ambiator 12...
20
Comfort through Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Parameters include:
• Volatile organics (VOCs)
• Particulate matter (PM2.5 , P...
21
Benefits Derived From Improved Comfort
• 12% higher productivity possible by
maintaining comfort conditions
Sharma & Ch...
22
Contact us
For more information:
A.T.E. Enterprises Private Limited (Business Unit: HMX)
Plot no 113 & 114, Phase III,
...
23
THANK YOU
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×

Trends in Energy Efficient Cooling

Presented at the HMX IDECool Launch for Channel Partners, Pune, 10-11 February 2017, "Trends in Comfort Cooling" discusses the history of cooling, the contribution of cooling to global warming, trends, and more. Visit http://ategroup.com/hmx/why-evaporative/ to learn more or e-mail us at contactus(at)ateindia(dot)com.

  • Sé el primero en comentar

Trends in Energy Efficient Cooling

  1. 1. 1 A.T.E. ENTERPRISES PRIVATE LIMITED Business Unit: HMX v1.0– updated 17th Feb ‘15
  2. 2. 2 Presented at the IDECool Launch for Channel Partners, Pune, 10-11 February 2017 Trends in Comfort Cooling
  3. 3. 3 A Look Back 1840s First mention of “active cooling systems” 1915 Carrier Corporation founded (now a part of UTC --- United Technologies) 1890s Air blown over stored ice or pipes with pressurized liquid that absorbed heat to provide comfort 1902 Sackett & Wilhelms, Brooklyn, New York, install a system to control the humidity in a printing factory. Designed by Willis Carrier. Silk mill Drug firm Gillette factory to manufacture safety razors 1920s Comfort in public spaces like cinemas and department stores Larger sizes, more standard products, refrigerants (CFCs, HCFCs), …… Sources multiple including The Economist, Stan Cox’s Losing Our Cool
  4. 4. 4 Fast-Forward Today Rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere leading to global warming Tied to the rising energy consumption all over the world and burning of fossil fuels
  5. 5. 5 India’s Growth Fueled by Oil If India’s economy grows as expected, it will consume several times more energy in next decade …. Sources Energy Statistics 2012, Central Statistics Office, Government of India
  6. 6. 6 Cooling Contributes to Global Warming About 35-40% of the energy consumed by commercial and residential buildings As much as 50% of the energy consumed in buildings is used for cooling India will construct 2x more building area in next 15 years than in last 60 years! Source: Energy Conservation and Commercialization [Eco-II], 2010 Huge potential in India to set a new energy- efficient and greenhouse gas-sensitive paradigm in “cooling for comfort”
  7. 7. 7 Trends in Comfort Cooling • Green Refrigerants • Understanding Comfort and Models for Comfort • Quantifying comfort: building modelling and simulation • Comfort through Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) • Benefits derived from Comfort • Energy-efficient comfort cooling • Building architecture to promote comfort
  8. 8. 8 Refrigerant Type Global Warming Potential or GWP (100 year, Assessment Report 4, 2007) R410A – R32/R125 (50/50) HFC 2088 R22 – chloro difluoro methane HCFC 1810 R134A – chloro difluoro methane HFC 1430 R32 – methylene fluoride HFC 675 R290 – propane HC, “natural” 3.3 R1270 – propylene HC, “natural” 1.8 R744 – carbon dioxide “natural” 1 R717 – ammonia “natural” 0 Green Refrigerants Agreement at Montreal Protocol (2016) • Developed countries to reduce using HFC from 2019 • China to reduce using HFC from 2024 • India to reduce using HFC from 2028
  9. 9. 9 Comfort “That condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation.” ASHRAE Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy
  10. 10. 10 Comfort Human body produces 100-150 W of heat under normal conditions and moderate activity level This heat must be “dissipated” in order to maintain constant body temperature Heat in Heat out When human body attains constant temperature, it is said to be “comfortable”
  11. 11. 11 Comfort in Engineering Terms Human body can lose heat (“dissipation”) by various mechanisms • Conduction to air due to difference between temperature of air in contact with that of the human body • Convection to air due to temperature difference and air movement • Radiation to surrounding walls due to difference in temperature of surfaces not in contact • Evaporation driven by moisture levels in air Which is more important and when?
  12. 12. 12 Comfort in Engineering Terms Evaporation Convection and radiation 28 °C Dry Bulb Temperature HeatLoss Source Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning Guide 37 63
  13. 13. 13 Adaptive Model of Comfort ASHRAE limits valid for : • Operable windows • No mechanical cooling • Metabolic rate 1-1.3 met • Clothing Level 0.5-0.7 clo IndoorOperativeTemperature f(IndoorTemperature,MRT) Prevailing Mean Outdoor Temperature (Moving average of mean daily temperature, 7-30 days, single value for each day of year) 10 °C 33.5 °C 31.7°C 24.7°C ASHRAE 55-2010, Section 5.3 ASHRAE Software Tool for Comfort http://smap.cbe.berkeley.edu/comforttool 2 1
  14. 14. 14 Adaptive Comfort is Applicable to India ASHRAE limits • Operable windows • No mechanical cooling • Metabolic rate 1-1.3 met • Clothing Level 0.5-0.7 clo
  15. 15. 15 Building Energy Modelling (BEM) • Computer-based simulation of energy performance of a building • Process of using a computer to build a virtual replica of a building • Focus on energy consumption and life-cycle costs • Building simulation is a method to quantitatively predict the future and thus has considerable value
  16. 16. 16 BEM: Scope Building simulation is commonly divided into two categories • Load Design • Energy-Analysis Load Design is used to determine • Air conditioning loads • Volumetric air flow requirements • Equipment capacities Energy Analysis or Energy Modelling is used to (building simulation when energy is involved is commonly referred to as Energy Modelling) • Predict the monthly & annual energy consumption and bills. • Compare and contrast different efficiency options
  17. 17. 17 BEM: Benefits For same degree of comfort: • Compare different building designs including passive constructions • Identify major contributors to heat load in the building • Compare different technologies and HVAC configurations • Evaluate equipment capacities based on unmet hours • Detailed hourly results • Compare annual energy consumption data of various equipment • Evaluate energy savings
  18. 18. 18 Building Energy Modelling 6149 hours outside comfort envelope  3758 hours STANDARD CONSTRUCTION … WITH REFLECTIVE and Low-EMISSIVITY SURFACES Case A.T.E. factory, Sari, Sanand taluk, Gujarat, 40,600 ft2 floor area
  19. 19. 19 BEM: Example Configuration Machine Size, cfm (300 unmet hours at 28 °C) CapEx Rs. OpEx Rs. / year NPV * Rs. Ambiator 122,000 3.66 Mn 2.07 Mn - 23.4 Mn Ambiator + Paint 85,000 2.96 Mn 1.56 Mn - 17.9 Mn Ambiator + Paint + Film 80,000 3.29 Mn 1.5 Mn - 17.7 Mn * Discount rate 10%, energy at constant Rs. 6/kWh, paint @ Rs. 10 / ft2 replaced every 3 years, film @ Rs. 12 / ft2 replaced every 5 years
  20. 20. 20 Comfort through Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Parameters include: • Volatile organics (VOCs) • Particulate matter (PM2.5 , PM10) • Biological contaminants • Chemical contaminants (NOx, SOx) • Carbon dioxide (CO2) mainly due to that exhaled by humans Two methods to maintain IAQ • Incorporate multiple levels of filtration • Use fresh air defined by ASHRAE standards for different applications
  21. 21. 21 Benefits Derived From Improved Comfort • 12% higher productivity possible by maintaining comfort conditions Sharma & Chandwani 2016 IIM Ahmedabad study on Indian factories • 0.2% rise in productivity for each 1°C drop in temperature Adhvaryu et al. 2014 U Michigan on 29 garment factories in Bangalore • 8.8% higher operator performance at a call centre by raising fresh air supply from 9.8 to 22.7 l/s-person (at indoor temperature 24.5°C) Tham et al. 2003 call centre in Thailand • Inadequate fresh air propagated tuberculosis to health care workers Menzies et al 2000 study on 17 Canadian hospitals • US soldiers got more coughs and colds if they slept in air-conditioned barracks than if they slept in tents and warehouses Richards et al 1993a on soldiers stationed in Saudi Arabian desert during Gulf War I • Common colds in crowded dormitories fell by 85% by raising fresh air to 5 l/s- person from 1 l/s-person Sun et al. 2011 3700 students in 1500+ dorm rooms
  22. 22. 22 Contact us For more information: A.T.E. Enterprises Private Limited (Business Unit: HMX) Plot no 113 & 114, Phase III, Peenya Industrial Area, Bengaluru - 560 058, India. Email: ambiator@hmx.co.in Phone: +91 80 - 2372 1065 / 2372 2325 Or visit us: www.ategroup.com/hmx
  23. 23. 23 THANK YOU

×