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Laws Governing Media.
16 Pt Directive.
Historically, Burma was a monarchy ruled by various
previous empires during the 19th century.
The British colonized Burma in the late 19th century and it
was under the jurisdiction of the British Raj until 1937.
Burma was ruled as a British colony from the 1820s until
Later, the nation became an independent republic, named
the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first
President and U Nuh as its first Prime Minister.
Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a
military coup d'état. Media censored. A new constitution
was drafted in 2007/2008.
In 2010 elections held and democratic govt replaced Mil
• Myanmar`s first newspaper, The Maulmain
Chronicle, was published in 1836 as an English
• More than 300 publications and 100 are loc at
Yangon and areas around.
• 6 dailies - op and owned by the state.
• 3 dailies are distr free.
• News and analysis about a week old.
• On 1 April 2013, the “first date” newspapers could
be published freely.
• 04 privately owned dailies – The Voice Daily,
Golden Fresh Land, The Standard Time Daily, and
The Union Daily – hit news stands on the same day.
News Paper Market Share
Myanmar Ahlin 52 %
Kyeimon 42 %
Yandanbon 3 %
Mandalay News 2 %
The New Light of Myanmar 1 %
Weeklies Market Share
First Eleven 24 %
7 Day News 21 %
Weekly Eleven News 19 %
In Arr 13 %
Premier Eleven 10 %
• Due to poor infra and electricity reach of other
media is ltd.
• Radio is the main source of info and
• 16 state owned/ pvt AM/FM radio stns are active.
• Reliance on BBC and VOA for news and current
• Stations are mainly loc at Yangon, Mandalay and
other major cities only.
• Reach in Chin, Sagyang and Kachin regions is
Myanmar Radio 23 %
Shwe FM 4 %
Mandalay FM 4 %
Ruby FM, BBC, Pyinsawaddy FM,
City FM, RFA, Bagan FM and Cherry
Thailand radio 0.1 %
All India Radio, DVB and China radio 0.02 %
on• Television broadcasting in Burma began in 1979
as a test trial in Yangon.
• Regular television service was first formally
launched in 1981.
• Most television channels in the country are
broadcasting from Yangon. TV Myanmar and
Myawaddy TV are the two main ch.
• Other channels are Myawaddy 1 & 2 (MWD-1-2),
MRTV-4 (non-formal edn prog and movies and Movie
5 is a pay-TV.
• Myanmar International for overseas audiences via
satellite and internet.
Internet and Social Media
• Only 03 ISPs.
• Myanmar Teleport (MTP).
• Yatamarpon Teleport (YTP).
• Info Tech Central Services (ITCS).
• Reach is only 0.8 %, mostly around main cities.
• Accessed mainly through internet café`.
• Increasing amongst young users due to 03 mobile
• Mobile operators : Ooredoo, Telenor and MTP.
• Poor availability due to 50 years of censorship.
Internet and Social Media
• Were punishable and banned by the Junta till mid
• Over 30000 web sites were blocked.
• Post democratic rule - norms have been relaxed.
• All platforms Youtube, Facebook, twitter are now
• E mail services are permitted now.
• Plays an imp role in disseminating info.
Democratic Voice of Burma TV ch, Mizzima and
Irrawaddy Websites are widely viewed and read.
• Op from various countries, have under cover
reporters in the country.
• Post 2011 some have started to come back.
• Accused of brain drain.
• The cinema of has a long history dating back to
• First film was a recording of the funeral of Tun
• Total 49 film companies are in business.
• Has mostly been privatized with riders.
• Total 71 theaters are in operation.
• 06 mini theaters have opened up between 2009-
• Production tech is old.
The Burma Wireless Telegraphy Act (1933) - British
government in colonial times, made it an offence to have in
possession any wireless telegraphy apparatus without
permission. The act was amended in 1995/96 by the junta to
include fax machines and computers.
Printers and Publishers Registration Law (1962) - Requires
all publishers to submit copies of books and magazines to
press scrutiny boards prior to publication for alterations.
Martial Law Order 3/89 (1989) - Makes it an offence to
publish any document without prior registration from the
Home and Religious Affairs Ministry.
The Television and Video Act (1995) - Requires the public
and org who possess televisions and video equipment to
obtain a license from the Ministry of Communication.
The Motion Picture Law (1996) - Licenses to make films
must be obtained from the Myanmar Motion Picture
Enterprise, which are later censored if necessary.
The Computer Science Development Law (1996) - Media to
have prior permission from the Ministry of Communication
before using, importing or possessing computer equipment.
Internet Law (2000) - Imposes regulations on postings on
the Internet that may be deemed to be detrimental to the
country, its policies or security affairs.
Electronic Transactions Law (2004) - Regulates the Internet
and other electronic transactions in a wide variety of ways,
including defining penalties of up to 15 years in prison for
using electronic transactions.
• To commit any act detrimental to the security of the State or prevalence of law
and order or community peace and tranquility or national solidarity or national
economy or national culture.
• For receiving/sending and distributing any info relating to the security of the
State or prevalence of law and order or community peace and tranquility or
16 Pt Directive
• Use the three cardinal rules on the duties of
citizens in an inappropriate way.
• Write about or comment on the govt and its
policies in a -ve way.
• Write article that could harm Myanmar`s
• Write about corruption, illegal drug production
and tfc, human tfc, forced labour or child soldiers
without reliable sources of info.
• Write articles sp indl or org that act against the
• Write insulting articles about the govt`s economic
• Show parts of the human body that are contrary
to Myanmar`s culture or clothing style or show an
• Promote gambling or predict results.
• Write about ghosts, vampires or treasure hunts
and do not write other kinds of mystery stories or
disseminate irrational ideas that could create
confusion in children.
• Publish alcohol or tobacco ads.
• Write articles or show photos about crimes
committed by minors.
• Show or publish photos or articles that could
• Employ Buddhist usages and words from the
• In any article critical of govt or pvt sect
procedures, give the exact time, place, name and
org. Have reliable sources of info and proof.
• The appropriate Burmese translation should be
applied in expressing the headline and the titles of
the books rather than using their English names.
• Quality and std of journalism due to avg age
• Primitive laws.
• Shifting of C of G from state to the people.
• Self censoring mindset.
• Reqmt of new tech in a short span.
• Tech expertise to production quality.
• Finance to sustain.
• Circulation to remote areas.
• Fear of possible return of mil rule.
• Trg of media pers.*• British, French and US Embassy premises, trg on elections by Indian Embassy.
• IMS, Myanmar Egress, Internews, DFID (Pyoe Pin Programme), and Indo-China Media
Memorial Foundation (ICMMF)