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Media in myanmar

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Gives out state and reach of media in Myanmar

Publicado en: Redes sociales
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Media in myanmar

  1. 1. To Analyze Media Profile in Myanmar
  2. 2. Historical Backdrop. Media Profile. Major Challenges. Laws Governing Media. 16 Pt Directive. Conclusion.
  3. 3. Historically, Burma was a monarchy ruled by various previous empires during the 19th century. The British colonized Burma in the late 19th century and it was under the jurisdiction of the British Raj until 1937. Burma was ruled as a British colony from the 1820s until 1948. Later, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nuh as its first Prime Minister. Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a military coup d'état. Media censored. A new constitution was drafted in 2007/2008. In 2010 elections held and democratic govt replaced Mil rule after
  4. 4. Population : 60 Million (2010)
  5. 5. Media Profile
  6. 6. Print Media • Myanmar`s first newspaper, The Maulmain Chronicle, was published in 1836 as an English weekly. • More than 300 publications and 100 are loc at Yangon and areas around. • 6 dailies - op and owned by the state. • 3 dailies are distr free. • News and analysis about a week old. • On 1 April 2013, the “first date” newspapers could be published freely. • 04 privately owned dailies – The Voice Daily, Golden Fresh Land, The Standard Time Daily, and The Union Daily – hit news stands on the same day.
  7. 7. News Paper Market Share Myanmar Ahlin 52 % Kyeimon 42 % Yandanbon 3 % Mandalay News 2 % The New Light of Myanmar 1 %
  8. 8. Weeklies Market Share First Eleven 24 % 7 Day News 21 % Weekly Eleven News 19 % In Arr 13 % Premier Eleven 10 %
  9. 9. • Due to poor infra and electricity reach of other media is ltd. • Radio is the main source of info and entertainment. • 16 state owned/ pvt AM/FM radio stns are active. • Reliance on BBC and VOA for news and current affairs. • Stations are mainly loc at Yangon, Mandalay and other major cities only. • Reach in Chin, Sagyang and Kachin regions is almost negligible. Radi o
  10. 10. Service Popularity Myanmar Radio 23 % Padaukmyay 5% Shwe FM 4 % Mandalay FM 4 % Ruby FM, BBC, Pyinsawaddy FM, and VOA 2 % City FM, RFA, Bagan FM and Cherry FM 1 % Thailand radio 0.1 % All India Radio, DVB and China radio 0.02 %
  11. 11. Broadcast Media Televisi on• Television broadcasting in Burma began in 1979 as a test trial in Yangon. • Regular television service was first formally launched in 1981. • Most television channels in the country are broadcasting from Yangon. TV Myanmar and Myawaddy TV are the two main ch. • Other channels are Myawaddy 1 & 2 (MWD-1-2), MRTV-4 (non-formal edn prog and movies and Movie 5 is a pay-TV. • Myanmar International for overseas audiences via satellite and internet.
  12. 12. Internet and Social Media • Only 03 ISPs. • Myanmar Teleport (MTP). • Yatamarpon Teleport (YTP). • Info Tech Central Services (ITCS). • Reach is only 0.8 %, mostly around main cities. • Accessed mainly through internet café`. • Increasing amongst young users due to 03 mobile operators since 2011. • Mobile operators : Ooredoo, Telenor and MTP. • Poor availability due to 50 years of censorship. Intern et
  13. 13. Internet and Social Media • Were punishable and banned by the Junta till mid 2011. • Over 30000 web sites were blocked. • Post democratic rule - norms have been relaxed. • All platforms Youtube, Facebook, twitter are now available. • E mail services are permitted now. Social Media
  14. 14. Exile Media • Plays an imp role in disseminating info. Democratic Voice of Burma TV ch, Mizzima and Irrawaddy Websites are widely viewed and read. • Op from various countries, have under cover reporters in the country. • Post 2011 some have started to come back. • Accused of brain drain.
  15. 15. Cinema • The cinema of has a long history dating back to the 1910s. • First film was a recording of the funeral of Tun Shein. • Total 49 film companies are in business. • Has mostly been privatized with riders. • Total 71 theaters are in operation. • 06 mini theaters have opened up between 2009- 2011. • Production tech is old.
  16. 16. The Burma Wireless Telegraphy Act (1933) - British government in colonial times, made it an offence to have in possession any wireless telegraphy apparatus without permission. The act was amended in 1995/96 by the junta to include fax machines and computers. Printers and Publishers Registration Law (1962) - Requires all publishers to submit copies of books and magazines to press scrutiny boards prior to publication for alterations. Martial Law Order 3/89 (1989) - Makes it an offence to publish any document without prior registration from the Home and Religious Affairs Ministry. The Television and Video Act (1995) - Requires the public and org who possess televisions and video equipment to obtain a license from the Ministry of Communication.
  17. 17. The Motion Picture Law (1996) - Licenses to make films must be obtained from the Myanmar Motion Picture Enterprise, which are later censored if necessary. The Computer Science Development Law (1996) - Media to have prior permission from the Ministry of Communication before using, importing or possessing computer equipment. Internet Law (2000) - Imposes regulations on postings on the Internet that may be deemed to be detrimental to the country, its policies or security affairs. Electronic Transactions Law (2004) - Regulates the Internet and other electronic transactions in a wide variety of ways, including defining penalties of up to 15 years in prison for using electronic transactions. • To commit any act detrimental to the security of the State or prevalence of law and order or community peace and tranquility or national solidarity or national economy or national culture. • For receiving/sending and distributing any info relating to the security of the State or prevalence of law and order or community peace and tranquility or
  18. 18. 16 Pt Directive • Use the three cardinal rules on the duties of citizens in an inappropriate way. • Write about or comment on the govt and its policies in a -ve way. • Write article that could harm Myanmar`s international relations. • Write about corruption, illegal drug production and tfc, human tfc, forced labour or child soldiers without reliable sources of info. • Write articles sp indl or org that act against the state. • Write insulting articles about the govt`s economic policies. Do Not….
  19. 19. • Show parts of the human body that are contrary to Myanmar`s culture or clothing style or show an obscene posture. • Promote gambling or predict results. • Write about ghosts, vampires or treasure hunts and do not write other kinds of mystery stories or disseminate irrational ideas that could create confusion in children. • Publish alcohol or tobacco ads. • Write articles or show photos about crimes committed by minors. • Show or publish photos or articles that could scare public. • Employ Buddhist usages and words from the Do Not….
  20. 20. • In any article critical of govt or pvt sect procedures, give the exact time, place, name and org. Have reliable sources of info and proof. • The appropriate Burmese translation should be applied in expressing the headline and the titles of the books rather than using their English names.
  21. 21. Maj Challenges • Quality and std of journalism due to avg age profile. • Primitive laws. • Shifting of C of G from state to the people. • Self censoring mindset. • Reqmt of new tech in a short span. • Tech expertise to production quality. • Finance to sustain. • Circulation to remote areas. • Fear of possible return of mil rule. • Trg of media pers.*• British, French and US Embassy premises, trg on elections by Indian Embassy. • IMS, Myanmar Egress, Internews, DFID (Pyoe Pin Programme), and Indo-China Media Memorial Foundation (ICMMF)
  22. 22. Conclusion