Se ha denunciado esta presentación.

BSU PSYC 101 - Chapter 6 Lecture Slides (Memory)

1

Compartir

Próximo SlideShare
Chap 7   danae
Chap 7 danae
Cargando en…3
×
1 de 39
1 de 39

BSU PSYC 101 - Chapter 6 Lecture Slides (Memory)

1

Compartir

Descargar para leer sin conexión

PSYC 101 - General Psychology lecture slides for the memory chapter.
Bowie State University, Spring 2013

PSYC 101 - General Psychology lecture slides for the memory chapter.
Bowie State University, Spring 2013

Más Contenido Relacionado

Audiolibros relacionados

Gratis con una prueba de 14 días de Scribd

Ver todo

BSU PSYC 101 - Chapter 6 Lecture Slides (Memory)

  1. 1. PSYC 101 Friendly Reminders Back from the CIAA? Make up Exam 1 today or tomorrow only!  Appointments must be scheduled in advance with Graduate Assistant, Ms. Whitni Richardson in person(CLT 368) or via email: BSU.PSYC101@gmail.com  Give documented excuses for attending CIAA directly to your instructor. Missed Lab last Friday?  Students with an excused absence must make up quiz by this Thursday, 3/7.  During any ULA office hours. No appointment necessary. Writing Assignment #2 (due by 10am this Fri, March 8th)  Missed WA1? Complete it anyway; get feedback from ULAs to help you succeed on WA2.  Must complete survey to access dropbox.  Last call for feedback feedback from GAs/ULAs: 4pm this Wed 3/6 Exam 2 (Chapters 5 & 6) Next week: Mon, March 11th through Thurs., March 14th  Check your BSU email or Bb Announcements for detailed instructions on scheduling your exam appt.  Appointments are on a first come basis. Note: Thursday appointments always fill up first.  Absolutely NO exceptions will be made for students that do not schedule or miss their appointments. 1 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  2. 2. Chapter 6 Memory 2 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  3. 3. Memory Remembering details or information over time 3 Processes 1. Encoding 2. Storage 3. Retrieval 3 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  4. 4. Memory Encoding How information enters storage  Some enters automatically  Others require effort Attention Deep processing Elaboration Mental imagery 4 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  5. 5. Attention Encoding requires paying attention Selective Attention  Focusing on specific aspects of experience while ignoring others  Limitation of brain’s resources 5 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  6. 6. Attention Divided Attention Attending to several things simultaneously “Multi-tasking” 6 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  7. 7. Depth of Processing Deeper processing = better memory 7 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  8. 8. Elaboration Making different mental connections Deep and elaborate processing is best 8 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  9. 9. Mental Imagery Most powerful encoding tool Dual-Code Hypothesis Our memory for pictures is better than memory for words Pictures stored as image codes and verbal codes 9 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  10. 10. Memory Storage Where and how long information is . . .  held over time  placed in our memory Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory  Sensory memory  Short-term memory  Long-term memory 10 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  11. 11. Sensory Memory Holds sensory details for an instant Echoic Memory  Auditory details  Held for several seconds Iconic Memory Visual details Held for about ¼ second 11 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  12. 12. Short-Term Memory 12 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  13. 13. Short-Term Memory Information held up to 30 seconds Limited-capacity  Magic number = 7 ± 2 items Strategies Chunking  Group large info into meaningful chunks Rehearsal  Deliberate repetition 13 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  14. 14. Working Memory Temporary storage while working on a mental task 1. Phonological Loop  Briefly stores sounds and speech 2. Visuospatial Working Memory  Briefly stores visual and spatial info 3. Central Executive  Combines both types 14 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  15. 15. Long-Term Memory Relatively permanent storage Unlimited space 1.Explicit Memory 2.Implicit Memory 15 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  16. 16. Long-Term Memory 16 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  17. 17. Explicit Memory (aka Declarative Memory) Intentionally remembered information Permastore content 1.Episodic Memory  Autobiographical 1.Semantic Memory  General information 17 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  18. 18. Implicit Memory (aka Nondeclarative Memory) Effortless recall of info and experiences 1.Procedural Memory 1.Classical Conditioning 1.Priming 18 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  19. 19. Questions or Comments 19 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  20. 20. PSYC 101 Friendly Reminders Missed Lab last Friday?  Students with an excused absence must make up quiz by this Thursday, 3/7.  During any ULA office hours. No appointment necessary. Writing Assignment #2 (due by 10am this Fri, March 8th)  Missed WA1? Complete it anyway; get ULA’s feedback for success on WA2.  Must complete survey to access dropbox.  Start early, get clarity and feedback from GAs/ULAs, turn it in early Exam 2 (Chapters 5 & 6) Next week: Mon, March 11th through Thurs., March 14th Check your BSU email or Bb Announcements for detailed instructions on scheduling your exam appt. Consider your other midterm exams and obligations before scheduling Reminder: Thursday appointments always fill up first. Absolutely NO exceptions will be made for students that do not schedule or miss their appointments. 20 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  21. 21. Memory Organization Mental organization improves memory Schema Helps organize and interpret new info Scripts The past shapes our expectations 21 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  22. 22. Memory Location Located in several places throughout the brain Neurons  Specific sets  Neurotransmitters involved  Simultaneous neurons strengthens memory 22 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  23. 23. Memory Brain Structures Explicit Memory Implicit Memory Frontal Lobe  cerebral cortex  cerebellum  Left  Encoding  temporal lobes  Right  limbic system  Retrieval 23 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  24. 24. Memory Retrieval Taking memory out of storage Serial Position Effect Tendency to remember beginning or end of lists Primacy Effect  Better recall for items at beginning Recency Effect Better recall for items at end 24 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  25. 25. Memory Retrieval Factors that help retrieval Retrieval Cues Retrieval Tasks  Recall  Retrieve previously learned information  Recognition  Identify or recognize familiar information 25 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  26. 26. Memory Retrieval  Encoding Specificity Principle  Factors present during prompts your memory  Context-Dependent Memory  Same context or scenario  State-Dependent Memory  Same psychological state or mood 26 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  27. 27. Memory Retrieval Personal memories Autobiographical memories  Specialepisodic memories of your life experiences 27 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  28. 28. Memory Retrieval Emotional Memories Flashbulb Memory  Vivid memory of emotionally significant events  Personal not public events  Not = photographic memory Memory for Traumatic Events  Vivid, detailed and accurate Both more accurate but subject to distortion 28 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  29. 29. Memory Retrieval  Repressed Memories  Forgotten memories of a very traumatic  Forgot that you forgot  May reflect motivated forgetting 29 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  30. 30. Eyewitness Testimony Recalling what we saw/heard Often involves emotional events Errors due to:  time  distortion  bias  inaccuracy 30 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  31. 31. Why we Forget Encoding Failure  Not‘forgotten’ ~ never encoded Retrieval Failure  Storage problem  Brain condition  Fades over time 31 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  32. 32. Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve 32 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  33. 33. Interference Other information can block our memory Proactive Interference  Previouslylearned info disrupts learning new information Retroactive Interference  Learning new info disrupts retrieval of previous learning 33 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  34. 34. Interference 34 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  35. 35. Forgetting  Decay  Memory trace fades over time  Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon  Can almost recall but cannot fully access memory 35 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  36. 36. Prospective Memory  Remembering to do things in the future  timing (when)  content (what) 1. Time-Based Prospective Memory 2. Event-Based Prospective Memory 36 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  37. 37. Amnesia Memory loss Anterograde Amnesia  Cannot remember new information Retrograde Amnesia  Cannot remember past information  Can still form new memories 37 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  38. 38. Memory Tips For studying  Organize  Encode  Rehearse  Retrieve For your life  Stay active as you age  Physically and intellectually 38 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010
  39. 39. Questions or Comments 39 Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2010

×