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Introduction to TV Production

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Introduction to TV Production

  1. 1. Introduction to TV Production • TV System • Four Stages of Production • Staff and Crew • Producing for Television
  2. 2. Television System NTSC Standard (National Television Standards Committee) • Standard for U.S., Japan, and Korea • 4 X 3 Aspect Ratio • 525 Lines • 30 Frames Per Second • Scanned in "Fields"
  3. 3. PAL System (Phase Alternating Line) • Another World Television Standard • 4 X 3 Aspect Ratio • 625 Lines • 25 Frames Per Second • Scanned in "Fields" • There are Slight Variations: PAL-B, -G, -H, -N • Used in Continental Europe and Parts of Africa, Middle East & So. America • More Lines = Better Resolution • Fewer Frames/Fields = More "Flicker"
  4. 4. SECAM System (Sequential Color and Memory) • Another World Television Standard • 4 X 3 Aspect Ratio • 625 Lines • 25 Frames Per Second • Scanned in "Fields“ • Used in France, Eastern Europe and Parts of the Middle East & Africa • More Lines = Better Resolution • Fewer Frames/Fields = More "Flicker"
  5. 5. HDTV System (High Definition Television) • 16 X 9 Aspect Ratio • A Digital System • Permits Several Levels of Picture Resolution Similar to that of High-Quality Computer Monitors, With 720 or 1080 Lines (1280 x 720 pixels or 1920 x 1080 pixels) • Ranges from 24 to 60 frames per second, progressive or interlaced scan • Uses MPEG-2 Compression to squeeze a 19 megabit-per- second data flow so that it can be accommodated by a standard broadcast TV channel of 6 MHz bandwidth • 5.1 Channels of Dolby AC-3 Digital Surround-Sound Audio
  6. 6. Four Stage of Television Production (1) Preproduction (2) Setup & Rehearsal (3) Production (4) Postproduction
  7. 7. Four Stage of Television Production 1. Preproduction - A very essential stage for a successful show - Research and concept development - Script - Initial meeting of key members 2. Setup and Rehearsal • Setup for studio and control room • Rehearsal - Out of studio and in-studio rehearsal - Monitoring and revision of script - Dress rehearsal
  8. 8. Four Stage of Television Production 3. Production • Live - The final phase of the production - News program, sports coverage • Videotaping for Editing - Taping in segments for later editing - Drama, advertising & PSA • Striking the Set : The equipment and set is usually removed and the studio or location returned to its original condition
  9. 9. Four Stage of Television Production 4. Postproduction • Creative control - Selection of shots - Juxtaposition • Special effects and graphics - Computer technology: Non-linear editing • Audio - Enhancement and modification or addition
  10. 10. The Television Team • Production Staff - PD, DIR, AD, PA • Production Crew - TD, AUD, FM, FA, CAM, CG, LD, SET, TAL • Golden Rule “Try to be a good crew person for your fellow classmates when they direct, just as you will most certainly want them to be a good crew for you when you direct.”
  11. 11. Producer Pre-  Develop program concept & program budget ProductionSetup & Rehearsal Productio Postproduction program’s director  Preproduction Assign n  Work with writer on script Setup &  Supervise overall production activities Rehearsal  Keep production moving on time and within budget  Approve last-minute changes as they arise Production  Help director as needed Post-  Approve final edited version Production  Coordinate with station for promotion/publicity
  12. 12. Director Pre-  Work with producer and writer on script Production  Cast performers  Work out camera shots  Consult with LD, SET, AUD, TD and approve all details Setup &  Rehearse performers Rehearsal  Rehearse camera shots in studio  Integrate all production elements into a coordinated show Production  Execute production Post-  Supervise editing Production
  13. 13. Staff and Crew in Production AD  Assist director by readying camera shots and other cues  Keep track of program timing  Roll in film or videotape segments TD Operate production switcher AUD Operate audio control console to mix program audio FM Relay all cues to talent CAM Operate cameras during the production CG Operate the character generator and electronic graphics
  14. 14. Producing for Television
  15. 15. Producers • Staff Producers These are regular employees of a network, station, or production company who are responsible for developing and supervising program production. They are usually assigned to a specific division, or in the local level, working on a wide variety of shows. • Independent Producers Independent producers are entrepreneurs who sell programming to network and stations. They assemble a creative “package,” which consists of the program idea, the script, the director, the performers, and the production team. They are responsible for almost all network and syndicated
  16. 16. Producers - Creative Aspects A producer must be a creative individual – someone with a broad and varied background who is conscious of the world around him or her, sensitive to events, and able to undertake different responsibilities and varied program assignments. The producer must create a vision of the show – how it should look, how it should sound, and how it should communicate its message. To do this, the producer must move through a series of program-development steps. • To develop a program idea. • To begin background research. • To analyze its audience.
  17. 17. Producers - Organizational Aspects Television is a complicated and technical medium that demands an efficient organizer to coordinate hundreds of different details. • The Program Proposal This is a brief outline of the proposed program that is used by program executives in deciding whether or not to authorize you to begin production. – a description of the basic show idea (concept or premise) – format – Hook :some information which will help to sell the idea as unique
  18. 18. The Production Book The production book is a blueprint of the entire production process, and it offers in minute detail who, what, when, where, and how of a production. • treatment • shooting script • staff and crew (including contracts) • complete budget information • schedules • memos and meeting notes • lighting plot and set design plan
  19. 19. Producers - Business Aspects The producer organizes a creative idea within financial constraints. Among the business aspects of the producer’s role are (1) creating budgets, (2) selling the ideas, and (3) understanding contractual obligations. The producer’s roles • Developing an idea and analyzing audience. • Researching the idea and production feasibility. • Determining the production mode. • Developing the program outline. • Preparing the program budget.
  20. 20. Question to ask as a Producer • Who is target audience? • Why should audience watch? • When should audience watch? • How long should program be? • How should program be produced? • What are the production costs? • Is the idea doable? • Can you sell the idea? • How will you know if you’ve succeeded?

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