Financial Sector -
The financial sector is a section
of the economy made up of
firms and institutions that
provide financial services to
commercial and retail
customers. This sector
comprises a broad range of
industries including banks,
insurance companies, and real
Types of financial sector
There are different types of financial sectors are available in india-
2. Mutual Funds
4. Bank / FD
5. Public Provident Fund (PPF)
6. Real Estate
• A stock market, equity market, or share market is the
aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks (also called shares),
which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may
include securities listed on a public stock exchange, as well as
stock that is only traded privately, such as shares of private
companies which are sold to investors through equity
crowdfunding platforms. Investment is usually made with
an investment strategy in mind
• Mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools
money from many investors to purchase securities. The term is typically
used in the United States, Canada, and India, while similar structures
across the globe include the SICAV in Europe ('investment company with
variable capital') and open-ended investment company (OEIC) in the UK.
• Mutual funds are often classified by their principal investments: money
market funds, bond or fixed income funds, stock or equity funds, or hybrid
funds.Funds may also be categorized as index funds, which are passively
managed funds that track the performance of an index, such as a stock
market index or bond market index, or actively managed funds, which seek
to outperform stock market indices but generally charge higher fees.
Primary structures of mutual funds are open-end funds, closed-end
funds, unit investment trusts.
• Mutual Fund investments are subject to market risks, read all scheme
related documents carefully…
• A gold fund is a type of investment fund that holds assets
related to gold. The two most common types of gold funds are
those holding physical gold bullion, gold futures contracts, or
gold mining companies. Gold funds are popular investment
vehicles among investors who wish to hedge against perceived
• Gold funds are investment vehicles that offer exposure to gold.
• They come in a variety of forms, but three popular varieties are those
investing in physical gold, gold futures contracts, and gold mining
• Investors interested in hedging against inflation generally opt for gold
funds that hold gold bullion or futures, whereas investors who are
particularly bullish on gold tend to also incorporate gold mining companies.
• Gold funds are pooled investment vehicles which often take the form
of mutual funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs). In the case of mutual
funds, the gold fund may be accessible through a financial institution such
as a commercial bank, whereas ETFs can be bought directly on the stock
exchange. In either case, gold funds offer investors a convenient way to
gain exposure to gold without incurring the relatively high storage and
insurance costs associated with directly owning physical gold bullion.
BANK / FIXED DEPOSIT
• Bank - A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the
public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making
loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or
indirectly through capital markets.Bank, an institution that deals in
money and its substitutes and provides other money-related
services. In its role as a financial intermediary, a bank accepts
deposits and makes loans.
• FD - A fixed deposit, also known as an FD, is an investment
instrument offered by banks, as well as non-banking financial
companies (NBFC) to their customers to help them save money.
With an FD account, you can invest a sizeable amount of money at a
predetermined rate of interest for a fixed period.
Provident fund is a government-managed retirement savings scheme for employees who can
contribute a part of their pension fund every month. These monthly savings get accumulated
every month, easily accessible as a lump sum amount at retirement or the end of employment
There are 3 types of provident fund –
1. GPF 2. EPF 3. PPF
Public Provident Fund
• The Public Provident Fund (PPF) is a savings-cum-tax-saving instrument
in India, introduced by the National Savings Institute of the Ministry of
Finance in 1968. The main objective of the scheme is to mobilize small
savings by offering an investment with reasonable returns combined with
income tax benefits. The scheme is fully guaranteed by the Central
Government. Balance in the PPF account is not subject to attachment
under any order or decree of court under the Government Savings Banks
Act, 1873. However Income Tax & other Government authorities can
attach the account for recovering tax dues. The balance of a PPF account
is fully exempt from wealth tax.
• It covers residential housing, commercial offices, trading spaces such as
theatres, hotels and restaurants, retail outlets, industrial buildings such as
factories and government buildings. Real estate involves the purchase,
sale, and development of land, residential and non-residential
buildings. Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on
it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water;
immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item
of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. In terms
of law, real is in relation to land property and is different from personal
property while estate means the "interest" a person has in that land
• Real estate is different from personal property, which is not permanently
attached to the land, such as vehicles, boats, jewelry, furniture, tools and
the rolling stock of a farm.
The Post Office savings bank is the oldest and by far the
largest banking system in the country, serving the
investment need of both urban and rural clientele. These
services are offered as an agency service for the Ministry of
Finance, Government of India.
The Financial service offered by Post office includes Savings and
Postal Life Insurance (PLI) / Rural Postal Life Insurance (RPLI).
The Post Office small savings scheme provides a secure, risk
free and attractive investment option for the small investors and
offers the savings products across its 1,55,000 Post offices.
• Insurance is a legal agreement between two parties – the
insurer and the insured, also known as insurance coverage or
insurance policy. The insurer provides financial coverage for the
losses of the insured that s/he may bear under certain
• Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a
form of risk management, primarily used to hedge against the
risk of a contingent or uncertain loss
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