Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

S de0882 new-generation-tiering-edge2015-v3

IBM offers a variety of storage optimization technologies that balance performance and cost. This session covers Easy Tier, Storage Analytics, and Spectrum Scale.

  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

S de0882 new-generation-tiering-edge2015-v3

  1. 1. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Technical University/Symposia materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. sDE0882 New Generation of Storage Tiering – Less Management, Lower Costs and Increased Performance Tony Pearson Master Inventor and Senior IT Specialist IBM Corporation
  2. 2. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Abstract Confused on how to implement storage tiering between Flash, Disk, Tape storage system resources? This session will cover the various techniques and technologies available. 1
  3. 3. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 This week with Tony Pearson 2 Day Time Topic Monday 10:30am Software Defined Storage -- Why? What? How? (repeats Tuesday) 03:00pm IBM's Cloud Storage Options (repeats Wednesday) 04:30pm Data Footprint Reduction – Understanding IBM Storage Efficiency Options Tuesday 10:30am Software Defined Storage -- Why? What? How? 12:30pm What Is Big Data? Architectures and Practical Use Cases 01:45pm IBM Smarter Storage Strategy (repeats Wednesday) Wednesday 09:00am New Generation of Storage Tiering: Less Management Lower Investment and Increased Performance 10:30am IBM Smarter Storage Strategy 12:30pm IBM's Cloud Storage Options 01:45pm IBM Spectrum Scale (Elastic Storage) Offerings Thursday 12:30pm The Pendulum Swings Back -- Understanding Converged and Hyperconverged Environments Friday 09:00am IBM Spectrum Storage Integration with OpenStack
  4. 4. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 3 Is your data on the right storage tier? • Requirements change over time • Data owners are risk averse • Users don’t see the total cost • Rationing resources is unpopular … but the biggest challenge has been: • No objective way to determine what the ‘right tier’should be! …so data stays on top tier storage (expensive) • Resources that should be spent on innovation are wasted on infrastructure inefficiencies 50-60% Optimal Storage Tier Distribution Tier 0 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1 20-25% 15-20% 1-5% -0 -1% Typical Storage Tier Distribution 70% Tier 0 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1
  5. 5. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 4 Too Many Critical Storage Projects and… No Budget to Implement Top Storage Pain Points Top Storage Projects How do I fix these problems? How do I fund these projects?
  6. 6. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Storage Tiers – A trade-off between performance and cost 5 Server Cache, Flash and Solid-State Drives Hard Disk Drives Automated Tape Manual Tape Faster Performance Lower Cost Technologies allow us to place and move data to the appropriate storage tier to balance between performance and cost
  7. 7. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 6 Four Fundamental Truths of Storage Tiering • All data is not created equal • Information changes in business value and in service level requirements over time • IT resources should be allocated according to the value of information • Information must be managed throughout its entire lifespan … data outlives media 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 w 2 w 3 w 4 w 3 m 6 m 9 m 1 yr 2 yr 5 yr 10 yr DataValue Age of Data Machine data Email EMR Database Surveillance Video
  8. 8. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 7 Tiered Information Environment A tiered information environment aligns IT resources with Business Value and Service Levels required Best Practices 1. Align information with business requirements to determine 3-5 Information Classes 2. Establish policies to map information to a Class of Service • Initial placement • Subsequent movement • Backups, archives, mirroring • Disposal, destruction, deletion 3. Establish well differentiated tiers of information infrastructure associated with each service level Mission Critical Business Critical Business Operational General Business app/ data type Platinum Gold Silver Bronze Infrastructure Classes of Service Information Management Characteristics Client SW: Backup, Compliance, SRM, Storage Access, Replication Device Mgmt SW: SAN hardware, Storage Arrays Storage Virtualization Storage Hardware: Disk, Tape, Storage Networking Infrastructure / Tactical Components Policies & Governance app/ data type app/ data type app/ data type app/ data type app/ data type Policies / ISSC / Information Management
  9. 9. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Introducing I/O Density – Performance measurement 8 • For each LUN, the amount of IOPS is divided by the amount of resident data • IOPS = I/O (read/write) per second • IO Density = IOPS per Terabyte of data for a given volume • What is IO Density? • IO Density (IOPS/TB) provides a level-set view of performance regardless of volume size allowing a uniform unit of measurement for analysis • IOPS and TB tend to grow at similar rates, keeping IO Density constant for each application • The IO Density value is the peak value of the averages taken for the hour or day, depending on the sampling chosen (Daily, Hourly or Sample Average). • Daily Average has thus far proven the most reliable indicator of future re-tiering results • Hourly Average useful for brief but intense high-demand workloads *
  10. 10. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 The Many Forms of Tiering – Single System Optimization Low-latency DRAM and Flash Solid State Drives (SSD) Enterprise Disk (15K and 10K) Nearline Disk (7200 RPM) Automated Tape Libraries 9 Single System Optimization $$$ FlashSystem V9000 with External Disk DS8000 Disk System SAN Volume Controller Storwize
  11. 11. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 10 I/O Density for Different Disk Technologies 1000 700 500 100 10 0 146GB 15K 300GB 15K 600GB 10K 900GB 10K 3 TB 7200 4 TB 7200 73GB 15K I/O Density (IOPS / TB) Spinning disks get larger in capacity, but the overall IOPS per spindle remains constant, causing lower I/O density * Typical values, drives may vary
  12. 12. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Automated Sub-LUN Tiering within Storage Array Flash and Solid-State Drives Enterprise HDD 15K and 10K rpm Nearline HDD 7200 rpm Problem: SSDs appear more expensive than traditional disks (per GB) Without optimization tools, clients have been over-provisioning them Administrators spend too much time monitoring, reporting, and tuning tiers Solution: Three data relocation functions that enable smart data placement and movement to optimize SSD deployments with minimal costs – Entire-LUN Relocation – Sub-LUN Automatic Movement – Re-balancing Intra-Tier Extent Pool 11
  13. 13. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Easy Tier® Flash and SSD Enterprise HDD Nearline HDD • Pools can have mixed media 1. Flash (including SSD) 2. Enterprise HDD (15K and 10K RPM) 3. Nearline HDD (7200 RPM) • Easy Tier measures and manages activity • 24 hour learning period • Every five minutes: up to 8 extents moved • Hottest Extents moved up to Flash tier • Coldest Extents moved down to slowest Disk • New allocations placed initially on fastest HDD • A small amount of Flash (as little as 2-3%) can dramatically reduce response times and increase IOPS throughput • Storage Tier Advisory Tool can estimate benefits of adding Flash before purchase! 12
  14. 14. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 13 Workload skew from different client environments 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage of extents ComulativePercentageofActivity Mainframe1 - Small IOs Mainframe1 - MB Mainframe2 - Small IOs Mainframe2 - MB Mainframe 3 - Small IOs Mainframe3 - MB Open1 - Small IOs Open1 - MB Open2 - Small IOs Open2 - MB Open3 - Small IOs Open3 - MB Nearline Enterprise SSD Source: Internal IBM lab tests
  15. 15. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Easy Tier Application Transaction Improvement 14 14 Application Transactions Easy Tier Learning Easy Tier In Action 240% from Original brokerage transaction No change to the database or application No work required to identify active indexes or I/O profiles No manual movement of files or volumes Just turn it on and let it work!
  16. 16. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 15 IBM Easy Tier features Easy Tier Application direct data placement based on business and application knowledge Easy Tier Server cooperative caching between host-based Flash cache and Easy Tier algorithms on disk system • AIX on POWER systems with EXP30 Ultra SSD had 5x performance boost for File net ECM application workload • Supports IBM FlashAdapter90 cards SAN Easy Tier Heat Map Transfer analysis of optimal data placement sent to remote mirrored systems to optimize in case of fail-over/hyperswap Metro Mirror / Global Mirror / Global Copy
  17. 17. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 The Many Forms of Tiering – Datacenter Optimization Low-latency DRAM and Flash Solid State Drives (SSD) Enterprise Disk (15K and 10K) Nearline Disk (7200 RPM) Automated Tape Libraries 16 Datacenter Optimization $$ $$$ Spectrum Control Spectrum Virtualize
  18. 18. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 17 Realize Cost-Savings through Right-Tiering of Data Storage Problem: High-end disk arrays are expensive Difficult to identify which data should be moved Manually re-locating LUNs is time- consuming and disruptive
  19. 19. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Intelligent ILM Implementation Phases 18 1. Understand Client Data 2. Implement Tiering & Lifecycle Policies TapeArchiveTier 3Tier 2Tier 1 3. Automate Lifecycle Management • Analyze your data usage patterns and provides recommendations on how to cost-effectively store your data using storage tiers • Define and implement storage tiers with policies on where to place your data initially and when to move it based on its changing business value • Automate the movement of your data, without disruption or downtime, to lower cost storage tiers based on pre-defined policies and your business priorities
  20. 20. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Where Does Your Data Belong? 1000 700 500 100 10 0 I/O Density (IOPS / TB) Different data have different I/O densities Intelligent Storage Tiering Analysis (ISTA) Identifies the I/O density of your existing data to help relocate data to more cost effective storage 4% Tier 0 >1000 2% Tier 1A 700-1000 3% Tier 1B 500-700 20% Tier 2 100-500 42% Tier 3 10-100 24% Archive <10 5% Inactive * Typical percentages, client data may vary 19
  21. 21. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 20 1. Understand Your Data – Intelligent Storage Tiering Analysis (ISTA) services Intelligent Storage Tiering Analysis (ISTA) - simulates savings by analyzing historical data usage patterns in existing environment •Using IBM Spectrum Control or similar tools, the ISTA team can identify the volumes and TB that will be analyzed over period of 30 days • IOPS average will be based on calculations using 96-288 samples taken for each volume throughout a 24-hour period. • Often, ISTA finds volumes of data that were totally inactive during the analyzed period. This is not unknown access, but known zero access •Based on this performance data collected from the storage environment, the analysis determines the average Indicative Tier Distribution for the volumes Tier IOPS/ TB Daily TB Daily % Hourly TB Hourly % Tier 0 > 1000 17.61 1% 102.25 4% Tier 1a 700-1000 11.31 0% 40.75 2% Tier 1b 550-700 19.08 1% 61.87 3% Tier 2 100-500 225.95 10% 473.55 20% Tier 3 10-100 1147.23 50% 1010.86 42% Archive <10 763.10 33% 579.83 24% Inactive 0 120.42 5% 123.65 5% Indicative Tier Distribution Tier 0 Tier 1a Tier 1b Tier 2 Tier 3 Nearline Inactive
  22. 22. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 21 2. Implement Tiering & Lifecycle Policies Purchase additional Tier 0 (Cache, Flash, SSD) for most demanding I/O densities Purchase additional Tier 2 and 3 for less demanding I/O densities
  23. 23. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Spectrum Virtualize with Spectrum Control 22 Optimize Your ResourcesOptimize Your Resources Automate Your WorkloadsAutomate Your Workloads Simplified Management Simplified Management ComputeCompute StorageStorage NetworkNetwork APIs Orchestration Service Levels Standard Interfaces Provisioning Virtualization Control Plane Data Plane SAN Storage Virtualization IBM Spectrum Virtualize •IBM SAN Volume Controller •IBM Storwize V7000 / V5000 •IBM FlashSystem V9000 Snapshot Data Protection Storage Optimization, Provisioning and Transformation Infrastructure Resource Management IBM Spectrum Control •Data and storage management •Storage analytics One or more
  24. 24. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 3. Automate Lifecycle Policies SSD Ent HDD NL HDD SSD Ent HDD NL HDD NL HDD SAN Solution: IBM Storage Hypervisors can manage hundreds of arrays (IBM and non-IBM) Storage Analytics Engine recommends and performs up-tier and down-tier moves based on I/O Density and Age of the data Move LUNs non-disruptively within and across arrays 23
  25. 25. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 24 IBM Global Account (IGA) As part of a technology refresh, IBM internally transformed its heavily Tier 1 environment to a 4-tier cost-effective infrastructure – IGA realized $17 million in USD cost savings in 2012, primarily through CAPEX avoidance – On track to realize $90 million in savings over five years – “We were able to reduce a multi-day complex process to a matter of 2-3 hours!” — Kris Myers. Dir. Information Technology IBM Global Account Division SmartCloud VSC managing the following tiers: – Tier 1A = DS8000 w/ 15K RPM and SSD – Tier 1B = XIV w/ 7200 RPM disk – Tier 3 = V7000 w/ 2TB 7200 RPM Data that is most active remains on Tier 1, while data with lower activity is moved down to lower tiers, consuming less costly storage capacity on Tier 3 Case Study: IBM Global Account USD $17M cost savings in 2012 • Final estimated costs savings over $90M
  26. 26. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 25 IBM Sweden Shared Environment Sweden has begun transforming its Tier 1 only environment to a 3-tier cost-effective infrastructure to deliver tiered solution to its existing and prospective clients Customer #1: IBM Sweden Internal Data – Savings of 15M Swedish Krona (SEK) in estimated cost savings over next 5 years Customer #2: Large Fertilizer Business – Savings of SEK 12M in estimated cost savings over next 5 years Estimated cost savings for existing shared clients – Savings of SEK 50M in estimated cost savings over next 5 years for 12 existing shared clients IBM Sweden Shared Tiered Architecture – Tier 1A = DS8K w/ 300GB 15K RPM drives – Tier 1B = DS8K w/ 600GB 10K RPM – Tier 3 = V7000 w/ 3TB 7.5K RPM SEK 50M cost savings estimated over 5 years Case Study #2: IBM Sweden Shared Environment
  27. 27. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 The Many Forms of Tiering – Global Optimization Low-latency DRAM and Flash Solid State Drives (SSD) Enterprise Disk (15K and 10K) Nearline Disk (7200 RPM) Automated Tape Libraries 26 Global Optimization $$$ $$ $ Spectrum Scale Spectrum Archive
  28. 28. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 The Problem: Islands of Block, File and Object level data SAN-Level Storage OS-specific file systems on block-based devices Sharing requires file transfers Provides “Context” for Analytics of Social and Mobile transactions File-level Storage NAS encourages sharing across social networks Desire for file sync-and- share across desktops and mobile HDFS requires transfer (ingest) from other sourcesJFS2 EXT4 NTFS CIFS HDFS NFS Object-level Storage New Web and Mobile apps prefer Object-level access Amazon S3 OpenStack Swift 27
  29. 29. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Spectrum Scale – Flexible File and Object Storage FS1 FS256. . .Exabyte-Scale, Global Namespace One big file system or divide into as many as 256 smaller file systems Each file system can be further divided into fileset containers Flash and Disk LUNs are called Network Shared Disks (NSD) Metadata can be separated to its own Pool or intermixed with data Files can be migrated to Tape 28
  30. 30. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Spectrum Scale™ – Supported Topologies Twin-tailed SAN Internal, Direct-Attach Shared PoolsFPO Pools NSD Servers Access files on direct, twin-tailed or SAN attached disk Can export files to application nodes File Placement Optimization (FPO) Servers Access files on direct attached disk Exports files to other FPO servers External Clients Access files via file and object protocols over IP network TCP/IP 29 NSD Clients Access files via SAN, TCP/IP or RDMA TCP/IP or RDMA network
  31. 31. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Spectrum Scale™ -- More than just a file system! 30 ROBO Other NFS Other Datacenters Scale Cloud Active File Management (AFM) caches data to where it is needed, can be used to migrate from other NFS Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) moves data across tiers of flash and disk Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) migrates infrequently accessed files to tape, automatically recalls back when accessed Local Read-Only Cache (LROC) caches the busiest blocks of files on local flash Disaster Recovery (DR) asynchronously mirrors data to remote locations Migrate/Recall Tape NSD Client
  32. 32. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Spectrum Scale™ solves “Dropbox problem” for File Sync-and-Share SAN Internal, Direct-Attach No IT Control: • Servers and storage • Security • Access control • User provisioning • Sensitive data 31 TCP/IP or RDMA Network Twin-tailed
  33. 33. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 32 I/O Density for Different Disk Technologies 0 I/O Density (IOPS / TB) * Typical values, drives may vary Automated Tape library Shelf Tape (on-premise) Shelf Tape (off-premise) As data ages, it is accessed less frequently It can be cost-effective to move older data to physical tape media
  34. 34. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Spectrum Scale – Tape options 33 • For Spectrum Protect or HPSS • HSM client is installed on Spectrum Scale cluster • Spectrum Scale sends migrations copy to HSM sever • HSM Server stores data in proprietary format IBM Spectrum Protect IBM Spectrum Archive Spectrum Archive is installed on select NSD servers of Spectrum Scale cluster Spectrum Archive migrates data directly to LTFS-format tape Spectrum Scale Cluster SAN Spectrum Scale Cluster SAN HSM Client HSM Server IBM Spectrum Protect (and HPSS) support a variety of flash, disk, virtual and physical tape libraries, and even optical libraries IBM Spectrum Archive eliminates a need for a TSM server, but is limited to LTFS-enabled tape libraries DB LTFS HSM Spectrum Archive
  35. 35. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Library Edition Linux or Windows Server Tape Library NFS / CIFS Linux Etc.Archive Management Solutions Application file access to tape IBM Spectrum Scale File system Single Drive Edition LTFS Format Enablement Single Drive Support Library Edition Digital Archive Enablement Tape Automation Support Enterprise Edition Integrated Tiered Storage Solutions Application file access to tiered storage Tape Library 1 Tape Library n Spectrum Archive – Implementations … NSD NFS/CIFS Object POSIX Hadoop 34
  36. 36. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Spectrum Archive™ Overview 35 IBM Spectrum Archive enables IBM tape libraries to read/write LTFS-format tapes in an IBM Spectrum Scale™ environment • Based on the integration of Spectrum Scale™ and LTFS format • Supports LTFS-enabled libraries and drives •TS4500 and TS3500 Enterprise libraries •TS3310, TS3200, TS3100, TS2900 libraries •TS1140 (or higher) Enterprise Drive •LTO5 (or higher) Ultrium drive • Integrated functionality with Spectrum Scale •Supports Policy based migrations •Seamless DMAPI usage •Data replication to multiple pools • Supports scale-out for capacity and I/O •Seamless cache controls between Spectrum Archive nodes •Tape drive performance balancing •Multiple node performance balancing Los Angeles London Tokyo Clients Wide Area Network (WAN) Global Namespace LTFS LTFS LTFS LTFS
  37. 37. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 The Solution: IBM Spectrum Scale™ brings it all together Global Name Space IBM Spectrum Scale™ replaces SAN-based file systems Replaces NTFS, EXT4, JFS2 and other POSIX file systems Used by over 200 of the top 500 supercomputers No file transfers required between different OS Can be used with everything from databases to video streaming For x86, POWER and z System servers Secure with Data-at-rest encryption IBM Spectrum Scale™ replaces HDFS and NAS file storage Full Hadoop interfaces for Map/Reduce analytics processing No transfer or ingest required as the data is already there Fully protected with Backup Software File-level access support for NFS, CIFS, FTP, SCP and HTTPS Supports File Sync-and-Share via OwnCloud or Funambol IBM Spectrum Scale™ offers Object access Object-level access based on OpenStack Swift and Amazon S3 interfaces IBM Spectrum Scale™ supports all media Spans flash, disk and tape media 36
  38. 38. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 The Many Forms of Tiering Low-latency DRAM and Flash Solid State Drives (SSD) Enterprise Disk (15K and 10K) Nearline Disk (7200 RPM) Automated Tape Libraries 37 Single System Optimization $$$ Datacenter Optimization $$ $$$ $$$ $$ $ Global Optimization
  39. 39. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Session summary • Tiered storage helps to balance between performance and costs • IBM Easy Tier can help optimize data placement within a single system of flash, enterprise and nearline disk • IBM Spectrum Control and Storage Spectrum Virtualize can help optimize data placement across many different flash and disk arrays in the datacenter • IBM Spectrum Scale and Spectrum Archive can optimize data placement globally, across multiple datacenter locations, for data stored on flash, disk and tape 38
  40. 40. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 39 Some great prizes to be won! Please fill out an evaluation Session: sDE0882
  41. 41. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 40
  42. 42. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 IBM Tucson Executive Briefing Center • Tucson, Arizona is home for storage hardware and software design and development • IBM Tucson Executive Briefing Center offers: • Technology briefings • Product demonstrations • Solution workshops • Take a video tour! • 41
  43. 43. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 About the Speaker Tony Pearson is a Master Inventor and Senior managing consultant for the IBM System Storage™ product line. Tony joined IBM Corporation in 1986 in Tucson, Arizona, USA, and has lived there ever since. In his current role, Tony presents briefings on storage topics covering the entire System Storage product line, Tivoli storage software products, and topics related to Cloud Computing. He interacts with clients, speaks at conferences and events, and leads client workshops to help clients with strategic planning for IBM’s integrated set of storage management software, hardware, and virtualization products. Tony writes the “Inside System Storage” blog, which is read by hundreds of clients, IBM sales reps and IBM Business Partners every week. This blog was rated one of the top 10 blogs for the IT storage industry by “Networking World” magazine, and #1 most read IBM blog on IBM’s developerWorks. The blog has been published in series of books, Inside System Storage: Volume I through V. Over the past years, Tony has worked in development, marketing and customer care positions for various storage hardware and software products. Tony has a Bachelor of Science degree in Software Engineering, and a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering, both from the University of Arizona. Tony holds 19 IBM patents for inventions on storage hardware and software products. 9000 S. Rita Road Bldg 9032 Floor 1 Tucson, AZ 85744 +1 520-799-4309 (Office) Tony Pearson Master Inventor, Senior IT Specialist IBM System Storage™ 42
  44. 44. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Email: Twitter:Øtony Blog: Books:Ø_tony IBM Expert Network on Slideshare:Øtony Facebook: Linkedin: Additional Resources from Tony Pearson 43
  45. 45. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Continue growing your IBM skills provides a comprehensive portfolio of skills and career accelerators that are designed to meet all your training needs. • Training in cities local to you - where and when you need it, and in the format you want • Use IBM Training Search to locate public training classes near to you with our five Global Training Providers • Private training is also available with our Global Training Providers • Demanding a high standard of quality – view the paths to success • Browse Training Paths and Certifications to find the course that is right for you • If you can’t find the training that is right for you with our Global Training Providers, we can help. • Contact IBM Training at 44 Global Skills Initiative
  46. 46. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2015 Trademarks and Disclaimers Adobe, the Adobe logo, PostScript, and the PostScript logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States, and/or other countries. IT Infrastructure Library is a registered trademark of the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency which is now part of the Office of Government Commerce. Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside, Intel Inside logo, Intel Centrino, Intel Centrino logo, Celeron, Intel Xeon, Intel SpeedStep, Itanium, and Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. ITIL is a registered trademark, and a registered community trademark of the Office of Government Commerce, and is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both and is used under license therefrom. Linear Tape-Open, LTO, the LTO Logo, Ultrium, and the Ultrium logo are trademarks of HP, IBM Corp. and Quantum in the U.S. and other countries. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. Information is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind. The customer examples described are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics may vary by customer. Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from a supplier of these products, published announcement material, or other publicly available sources and does not constitute an endorsement of such products by IBM. Sources for non-IBM list prices and performance numbers are taken from publicly available information, including vendor announcements and vendor worldwide homepages. IBM has not tested these products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, capability, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capability of non-IBM products should be addressed to the supplier of those products. All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. Some information addresses anticipated future capabilities. Such information is not intended as a definitive statement of a commitment to specific levels of performance, function or delivery schedules with respect to any future products. Such commitments are only made in IBM product announcements. The information is presented here to communicate IBM's current investment and development activities as a good faith effort to help with our customers' future planning. Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput or performance improvements equivalent to the ratios stated here. Prices are suggested U.S. list prices and are subject to change without notice. Starting price may not include a hard drive, operating system or other features. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for the most current pricing in your geography. Photographs shown may be engineering prototypes. Changes may be incorporated in production models. © IBM Corporation 2015. All rights reserved. References in this document to IBM products or services do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in every country. Trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both can be found on the World Wide Web at ZSP03490-USEN-00 45