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DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MULTI-
STORY COMMERCIAL BUILDING USING ACI-318
MUHAMMAD ABDUL AZEEM BAIG
IMBIA AB...
ii
I hereby declare that the work in this project report is my own except for quotations
and summaries, which have been du...
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For my beloved mother and Father
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First, I would like to thank Almighty Allah for giving me faith, health and
intellectual capacity to ca...
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ABSTRACT
All the building structures have to design based on the relevant code of practice of standard.
The choice of th...
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CONTENTS
DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MULTI-STORY
COMMERCIAL BUILDING USING ACI-318 i
OATH ii
DEDICATION ii...
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CHAPTER 1 -
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Problem statement 2
1.3 Objectives 3
1.4 Scope of Study 3
1.5...
viii
3.1.16 Maximum Reinforcement Ratio 31
3.1.17 Shrinkage Reinforcement Ratio 31
3.1.18 Loads assigned to slabs 32
3.2.1...
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CHAPTER 6 -
6 . Design of Columns 90
6.1 Introduction 90
6.1.1 Types of reinforced concrete columns 90
6.1.2 Axial Load...
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7.11 Bearing Stregth of column and footing 141
7.12 Development length in dowels 142
CHAPTER 8 -
8. CONCLUSION AND FUTUR...
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Design input detail of building 13
Table 2.2: Initial Sizes and Specification of building 14
...
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LIST OF FIGURES & FLOW –CHARTS
Figure 1.1: Front view of building 3
Figure 1.2: Side view –A of Buiding 4
Figure 1.3: S...
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Figure 6.1: Shows interior and exterior columns 94
Figure 6.3: Different kinds of column reinforcements 99
Figure 6.4: ...
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LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX TITLE PAGE
A Charts 145
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Prayer
Room
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4.40m
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19.60m
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‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻧدﺳ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯾ‬
‫ﻧﻰ‬‫ﻟﻠﻣﺑ‬‫ﺎﻧﻲ‬‫اﻟﺛ‬‫و‬‫اﻻول‬‫دور‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻻﻓﻘ‬‫ﻘط‬‫اﻟﻣﺳ‬
‫د‬ ‫وﻟﯾ‬ ‫ﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬
‫ك‬‫ﺑﯾ‬‫م‬‫ﻧﻌﯾ‬...
Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building
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Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis an...
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Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis and by manual method

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Design of multistory building by solving a sample manually ans rest of the building by solving on autodesk robot analysis, complete detailing of r.c members,final year project,complete ,how to design slabs, how to design beams, how to design rc column, how to make final year project, design of stairs,how to design foundations , how to prepare a project before using it in software for analysis,

Publicado en: Ingeniería
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Design and analysis of reinforced concrete multistory commercial building using ACI 318-08 by robot structural analysis and by manual method

  1. 1. DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MULTI- STORY COMMERCIAL BUILDING USING ACI-318 MUHAMMAD ABDUL AZEEM BAIG IMBIA ABD-EL-SALAM IMBIA AMMAR A Thesis submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the requirement for the award Of the Degree of Bachelors of Civil Engineering Faculty of Civil Engineering University Of Bani-Walid Libya SEPT 2016
  2. 2. ii I hereby declare that the work in this project report is my own except for quotations and summaries, which have been duly acknowledged Student : MUHAMMAD ABDUL AZEEM BAIG : IMBIA ABD-EL-SALAM IMBIA AMMAR Date : SEPTEMBER 2016 Supervisor : Prof Dr Ibrahim Mohamed Elhaj
  3. 3. iii For my beloved mother and Father
  4. 4. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First, I would like to thank Almighty Allah for giving me faith, health and intellectual capacity to carry out this project work. Then, I fully appreciate the moral support and encouragement from my parents and other family members towards the course of this study, thank you and may ALLAH (S.W.A) bless you with his infinite mercy. It has been a good fortune for me to have Dr Ibrahim Mohamed Elhaj as my research supervisor, thank you sir; actually, there is no amount of words that i could use to describe my profound gratitude to you. I am also grateful to all the teaching staff who offered their contribution during the conduct of this project. Finally, I am grateful to all my friends and colleagues, those that were at University of Bani walid & at University of sirte, students and others that were schooling at other universities.
  5. 5. v ABSTRACT All the building structures have to design based on the relevant code of practice of standard. The choice of the standard code to be applied varies and sometimes depends on the requirement of the local authority or familiarity of the designers. Standard code is essential in the reinforced concrete structures design to provide a safety and economic design. Currently, BS 8110 and ACI-318 are the most widely used standards in designing reinforced concrete structures based on limit state principle. However, some of the design requirements such as partial safety factors, material properties, load combinations, etc. Are made to be different between BS 8110 and ACI-318. This may affect the cost of building structures that were designed using these two standards. The aim of this study is to design the reinforced concrete structures for a three-storey commercial building, which will be designed using ACI-318. The material properties such as characteristics strength of reinforcements and concrete, and dimensions of the structure elements are fixed. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis is the reinforced concrete structure design package that will be used to design and produce the structural detailing for the three-storey building based on ACI-318. So then, generally, the study found out that the correctly designed structure may result in economical output while ensuring safety.
  6. 6. vi CONTENTS DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MULTI-STORY COMMERCIAL BUILDING USING ACI-318 i OATH ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv ABSTRACT v CONTENTS vi LIST OF TABLES xi LIST OF FIGURES xv LIST OF APPENDICES xi v
  7. 7. vii CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Research Background 1 1.2 Problem statement 2 1.3 Objectives 3 1.4 Scope of Study 3 1.5 Outline of Thesis 3 CHAPTER 2 - 2.LITERATURE REVIEW 4 2.1 Introduction 4 2.2 Building Codes & Standards 4 2.3 Optimum Cost of Reinforced Concrete Building 8 2.4 Factors Contributing To the Cost of Building Construction 9 2.5 Construction Cost 9 2.6 Research Methodology 10 2.7 Model OF Design 11 2.8 Design Specifications And properties of the structure 14 2.8.1 Materials and Design Parameters 14 2.9 Design Loading 15 2.9. Partial Safety Factors 16 2.9.3 Factors of Safety Loads And Strength Of Section By Strength 17 2.10 Design Methods 18 2.10.1 Object of Structural Design 18 2.10.2 Philosophy of Limit State Design 19 2.11 Project Flow Chart 21 2.11. Expected Results 22 CHAPTER 3 - 3. Design Of Slabs 23 3.1.1 Definition 23 3.1.2 Introduction 23 3.1.3 DesignConcepts 23 3.1.4 Types of slabs 24 3.1.5 One & two way slabs outlined 25 3.1.6 Econlomical Choice According to size and loading 26 3.1.7 Calculation of thickness for one way slab 27 3.1.8 Design procedure for one way slab 28 3.1.9 ACI Code specified method for two-way slabs 29 3.1.10 Two-way slab design procedure 29 3.1.11 Classification of slabs 29 3.1.12 Purpose of main steel in slabs 29 3.1.13 Analysis methods for slabs 30 3.1.14 Slabs direction in ribbed slab 30 3.1.15 Design concept 31
  8. 8. viii 3.1.16 Maximum Reinforcement Ratio 31 3.1.17 Shrinkage Reinforcement Ratio 31 3.1.18 Loads assigned to slabs 32 3.2.1 Elevation Plans of slabs 33 3.2.2 Design procedure for one-way slab 35 3.2.3 Design procedure for two-way slab 37 3.2.4 Data for Design 38 3.3 Design of two-way slab 39 3.5 Design of one -way slab 45 CHAPTER 4 - 4. Design of Beams 50 4.1 Introduction 50 4.2 Struvtural theory of beams 50 4.2.1 Types of a beam 50 4.2.2 Scope of usage of beam 51 4.2.3 Relation of reinforcement with section 51 4.3 Assumptions 54 4.4 Loading data 54 4.5 Design Procedure 55 4.6 Flow charts 56 4.7 Information about Sample of design 58 4.7. Desing assumptions 59 4.7.2 Check Deflection 59 4.7.3 Sizing the cross-section 59 4.8 Design of Flexure 60 4.8.1 Actual Depth 60 4.8.2 Minimum Ratio of steel required 60 4.8.3 Design Reinforcement for every moment in beam 60-68 4.9 Design of shear 69 4.10 Development length 75 CHAPTER 5 - 5. Design of Stairs 78 5.1 Geometrical design of stairs 78 5.1.2 Check for reliabilty 78 5.1.3 Check for angle 79 5.2 Detailed design of stair 81 5.3 No. of steps in each flight 82 5.4 Structural design of stairs 83 5.5 Design for flight no.1 & 3 86 5.6 Data for design for flight no 2 87 5.6.2 Design for flexure for flight no 2 88 5.7 Reinforcement details 71
  9. 9. ix CHAPTER 6 - 6 . Design of Columns 90 6.1 Introduction 90 6.1.1 Types of reinforced concrete columns 90 6.1.2 Axial Load capacity of column 91 6.1.3 ACI code requirements for cast in place columns 92 6.1.4 General Configuration of moments with in columns 93 6.1.5 Classification of columns 94 6.1.6 Effective length 95 6.1.7 Design of axially loaded column 96 6.1.8 Types of reinforcements and their use 96 6.1.9 Safety provisions for columns 99 6.1.10 Design formula 101 6.2 Sample for Design 102 6.3 Design in detail 105 6.3.1 Design of moments 105 6.4 Buckling analysis for long column by moment magnification factor 109 6.6 Splices for columns 116 6.7 Usage of dowels 118 CHAPTER 7 - 7. Design of Foundations 120 7.1 Foundation design parameters 120 7.1.2 Allowable Settelment 121 7.2.1 General 122 7.2.2 Area of the footing 122 7.2.3 Depth of the footing 122 7.2.4 Depth from punching and shear consideration 122 7.3 General procedure of design of footing 122 7.4 Steps for structural Design 124 7.5 Data for design 125 7.6 Detailed Steps & formulas for design 127 7.7 Design of sample foundation 131 7.7.1 Area of footing 131 7.7.2 Footing Stability 132 7.7.3 Stregth of design 133 7.7.4 Check one way shear 133 7.7.5 Actual & allowable shear stress 133 7.7.6 Check two way shear 134 7.7.4 Check one way shear 133 7.8 Desing of flexure in long direction 136 7.9 Desing of flexure in short direction 137 7.10 Development length in footing 140
  10. 10. x 7.11 Bearing Stregth of column and footing 141 7.12 Development length in dowels 142 CHAPTER 8 - 8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 143 8.1 Conclusion 143 6.2 Suggestion of Further Works 144 REFERENCES
  11. 11. xi LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Design input detail of building 13 Table 2.2: Initial Sizes and Specification of building 14 Table 2.3: Areas of groups of bars 15 Table 2.4:Detail Dead load 15 Table 2.5: Detail of Self weight of slab 16 Table 2.6: partial Safety factors according to ACI 318-02 17 Table 2.7: Live Loads from ASCE 17 Table 3.1 : Minimum thickness of beam & slabs 27 Table 3.2: Reinforcement of one-way slab 49 Table 4.1: Design for Shear by stirrups under ACI 318-08 69 Table 4.2: Beam Reinforcement tables 77 Table 5.1: Data for design of stairs 79 Table 6.1 : Preliminary assumed sections of columns 104 Table 6.2: Design Value Obtained from Robot -Analysis 105 Table 6.3: Columns Reinforcements - Table 7.1: Servicbilty load for foundations 131 Table 7.2: Reinforcement table for foundations 142
  12. 12. xv LIST OF FIGURES & FLOW –CHARTS Figure 1.1: Front view of building 3 Figure 1.2: Side view –A of Buiding 4 Figure 1.3: Side view –B 5 Figure 1.4: perespective view 5 Figure 2.1:Design /Cost Relation Ship 10 Figure 2.2: Model of R.A for design 11 Figure 3.2 : Axis –Plan 11 Figure 2.4: First and Second floor plan 12 Figure 2.5: Ground Floor plan 13 Flow-chart1 : Desing Procedure 21 Figure 3.1 : Typical types of slabs 25 Figure 3.1.1:Elevation plans for ground floor showing assigned slab names 33 Figure 3.1.2:Elevation plans for first floor showing assigned slab names 33 Figure 3.1.3 :Elevation plans for Second floor showing assigned slab names 34 Figure 3.3: Slab S2 , two way slab as design sample 39 Figure 3.4: One way slab S8 for design 45 Figure 4.1: Types of beams 50 Flow-chart4.1 : Design procedure for singly reinforced rectangular section 56 Flow-chart4.2 : Design procedure for Doubly reinforced rectangular section 57 Figure 4.2: B.M.D for beam 59 from robot structural analysis 58 Figure 4.3: Spans and sections of beam 59 for design 59 Flow-chart4.3 : Design procedure for Shear of beams 70 Figure 4.4: S.F.D for beam 59 from robot structural analysis 71 Figure 4.5 : Reinforced concrete beams reinforcement model 77 Figure 5.1 : Dimensions of stairs 78 Figure 5.3 :plan for stairs 80 Figure 5.4 :vertical cut section of stairs 80 Figure 5.5 :Loading diagram for flight 1 & 3 83 Figure 5.6 :B.M.D for flight 1 & 3 83 Figure 5.8-5.10 :Loading -B.M.D and S.F.D or flight 2 86 Figure 5.7: Reinforcment for stairs 88
  13. 13. xv Figure 6.1: Shows interior and exterior columns 94 Figure 6.3: Different kinds of column reinforcements 99 Figure 6.4: Elevation plans showing assigned names to coloumns of different stories of the building 88 Figure 6.7: Shows governing case of column 59 with axial load and moments 99 Figure 6.8: shows section of column 59 115 Figure 6.9: shows minimum requirements for splices 116 Figure 6.10: Reinforcment detail of columns 118 Figure 6.11: Naming of columns from R.S.A 118 Figure 7.2: Foundation plans showing assined names to foundations 125 Figure 7.3: Shows load on foundation by 3d structural model on R.S.A 126 Figure 7.4: Showing dead and live load on foundation 33 under column 59 126 Figure 7.5: Typical reinforcment of foundation 139
  14. 14. xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Charts 145
  15. 15. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 1 INTRODUCTION To Design & Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Building Under ACI Code . 1.1 Research Background Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting in-depth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe, economic and functional building. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site. (Chan Chee, 2007) One of the important things to be considered in any construction is the cost effectiveness (i.e. how economical the construction will be at the end of construction). Often a times, constructions become uneconomical (too expensive) when too much emphasis is laid on the quality alone. Therefore there should be a balance between quality control and cost effectiveness. The codes and standards that impact modern building construction are constantly in flux and changing, and it is difficult to keep up with copious changes and how they will impact building design. In the structural design of concrete structures, Refereeing to standard code is essential. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. These details include the basis and concept of design, specification to be followed, design methods, safety factors, loading values and etc. These codes and standards define the parameters in the reinforced concrete design process that affect the cost of materials. This would include the dimensions(X, Y, Z) of the different reinforced concrete elements, the area of reinforcements and ratio of reinforcement limit values. 1.2 Problem statement. Accurately Analyzed structures are important during the design phase to minimize the construction cost. Excellent designers must have the ability to organize and manage the process of design so with special consideration to cost effectiveness during the design process.
  16. 16. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 2 In today’s construction industry, the commonest codes of practice used are the ACI and BS codes. However the problem of cost ineffectiveness is becoming so rampant. Although lack of experience from the engineers also affects the design which eventually affect the cost. For this reason this research is dedicated to find out the process of assembling different building components under strictly followed recommendations of one of the aforementioned code i.e ACI- 318-08. 1.3 Objectives. The main objectives of this study are: 1- To make analysis by ACI code in order to obtain the most safe and sound solution. 2- To ascertain the accuracy of the analysis and the design using software (Robot Analysis) 3- To achieve an ultimate design in terms of quality at minimal cost. 1.4 Scope of study. The project focuses mainly design of concrete and reinforcement, the structure is a three storey building. This structure is intended to serve as a commercial building. The main reason why a three-storey structure is being adopted is that it does not involve calculation for the wind load, The code used is ACI 318-08 And the selected software to used is Robot Analysis.
  17. 17. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 3 1.5 Architectural model of Building : ALL of the Architectural work is done by author,
  18. 18. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 4
  19. 19. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 5 + Fig 1.3 Right Side view Fig1.4 perspective view
  20. 20. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 6 1.6 Outline of Thesis The thesis is organized into five chapters. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction of what to be encountered. Chapter 1 is a brief overview of the research background and the objectives of the study followed by the outline of thesis. Chapter 2, which discusses the research methodology that was adopted for the research. The chapter deals with the definition of model for designing multi stories reinforced concrete multi-purpose building, which had built and consists of three floors. The properties of design model are shown in the first part of its chapter such as the dimensions, the properties of materials (concrete, steel), the unit weight of concrete and blocks, and the values of loads (dead load and live load) which depends on the type of building. Chapter 3 presents the general literature about slabs and proceeds with results of analysis of slabs by designing a sample element. Chapter 4 presents the general literature about beams and proceeds with results of analysis of beams by designing a sample. Chapter 5 presents the general literature about Stairs and proceeds with results of analysis of stairs by designing in detail. Chapter 6 presents the general literature about Columns and proceeds with results of analysis of Columns by designing a sample element. Chapter 7 presents the general literature about Foundations and proceeds with results of analysis of foundations by designing a sample. Chapter 8 summarizes the project results that have been carried out. The finding of the study is described. A future recommendation to extend the study is also proposed.
  21. 21. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 7 2. LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 Introduction: The term “Design of reinforced concrete building” consists of two main elements, which includes the concrete design and the design of reinforcement. 2.2.1 BUILDING CODES AND STANDARDS. The codes and standards that impact modern building construction are constantly in flux, and it is difficult at best to keep up with copious changes and how they will impact building design. For engineers and architects who is working with structural design. 2.2.2 BS 8110 BUILDING CODE: PART 1:1997. BS 8110 part 1 gives recommendations for the structural use of concrete building and structures, excluding bridges and structural concrete made with high alumina cement. The aim of design is the achievements of an acceptable probability that structures being design will perform satisfactory during their intended life. With an appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformation of normal construction and use and have adequate durability and resistance to the effects of misuse and fire. The structure should be so designed that adequate means exist to transmit the design ultimate dead, wind and imposed loads safely from the highest supported level to the foundations (British code, 1997). The design strengths of materials and design loads should be based on the loads and material properties as in the BS 8110 and as appropriate for the serviceability limit state (SLS). The design should satisfy the requirement that no SLS is reached by rupture of any section, by overturning or by buckling under the worst combination of ultimate loads.
  22. 22. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 8 2.2.3 ACI 318 BUILDING CODE (ACI 318-02). The American concrete institute standard 318, building code requirements for reinforced concrete, has permitted the design of reinforced concrete structure in accordance with limit state principles using load and resistance factors since1963. A probabilistic assessment of these factors and implied safety levels is made, along with consideration of alternate factors values and formats. (A discussion of issues related to construction safety of existing structure is included). Working stress principles and linear elastic theory formed the basis for reinforced concrete design prior to 1983, when the concept of ultimate strength design was incorporated in the ACI building code (ACI318- 02), (Edward cohen, 1971). Because of the highly nonlinear nature of reinforced concrete behavior, the linear approach was unable to provide a realistic assessment of true safety levels (Andrew Scanlon, 1992). The developers of ACI 318-02, who introduced the idea of load and resistance factors to account for uncertainties in both load and resistance .Probabilistic methods were developed and refined during the late 1960s in response to the need to consider variability and uncertainty, explicitly and rationally. Proposed formulations include code incorporation of explicit second moment probabilistic procedures. In such an approach, the designer would select a desired safety index “B” and carry out the design utilizing the means standard deviations of the load and resistance variables. The safety index positions the mean load effect to ensure attainment of the target reliability (American code). The explicit second moment approach was not considered by ACI38 or other major code writing organizations. (Edward Cohen, 1971). 2.3 OPTIMUM COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING. The meaning of the optimum cost of reinforced concrete building with some studies, which it is minimum quantity of concrete and steel in any construction or it is the minimum cost of the construction but the most studies explains the optimum cost by minimum quantity of concrete and steel in any construction. Hence, the primary objective of economic analysis is to secure cost-effectiveness for the client. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to identify and to evaluate the probable economic
  23. 23. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 9 outcome of a proposed construction project. An analysis is required from the viewpoint of the owner of the project when doing the proposal, the analysis can be evaluated the followings (Ashworth A., 1994) to achieve maximum profitability from the project concerned, to minimize construction costs within the criteria set for design, quality and space, to maximize any social benefits, to minimize risk and uncertainty and to maximize safety, quality and public image. Cost and safety are one of the important factors that will affect method of construction, quality of work, period of the construction and most of all, the success of a project. It seeks to ensure the efficient use of all available sources to construction. Client’s requirements, possible effect on the surrounding areas, relationship of space and shape, assessment of the initial cost, the reason for, and method of, controlling costs, the estimation of the life of buildings and material need to be studied so as to improve the efficiency of control in construction (Flanagan R. and Tate B., 1997). 2.4 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DESIGN OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. Implementation of a construction projects is a complicated and complex process (Neap H.S and Celik T., 2001). Phases of construction are divided into categories such as material, labor, plant, supervision, All disturbances regarding the cost must be detected periodically (Popescu, 1977). The collection, analysis, publication and retrieval of designed information are very important to the construction industry. Contractors and surveyors will tend, wherever possible, to use their own generated data in preference to commercially published data, since the former incorporate those factors which are relevant to them. Published data will therefore be used for backup purpose. The existence of a wide variety of published data leads one to suppose, that it is much more greatly relied on than is sometimes admitted (Ashworth A., 1994) 2.5 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COST Most decision makers recognize that there are only a few variables that have a large influence on a building’s costs. Brandon has classified these variables into two categories decisions
  24. 24. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 10 concerning the size of the buildings and decisions concerning material specifications and building configuration (Figure 2.1). Figure 2.1 Design / Costs relationships 2.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. The proposed methodology is based on designing the building by software program (Robot Structural Analysis) with ACI Code, each code has different properties of concrete and steel ,such as the concrete compressive strength (fc), the yield strength of steel (fy) ,the various combinations of the load, the allowable ratio for minimum and maximum reinforcement and other properties , in practice ,design of the elements are governed by various architectural requirements. If the height and width of the beam are located ,the designs allocates the right amount of steel but, in this study ,we assumed that the dimension of the beams and columns are not given .hence ,during the design by R.S.A software, we will start with small dimensions ,in this case the program will check if the dimensions were acceptable or not ,here if the dimensions are small the message from program report will come out “please note: max/min reinforcement sizes do not permit acceptable bar spacing ,increase member size” .so, we will increase the member size till we get the first acceptable dimensions that have the first acceptable amount of steel. Specificatio n and shape Area Cost
  25. 25. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 11 2.7 MODEL OF DESIGN. The model that will be designed is a multi-stories reinforced concrete commercial building which has length of 20.00 m x 21 m width and the building consists of three stories, two stories upon the ground with height 4m. Figure 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 shows the plan of the building. Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Axis Plan.
  26. 26. Prayer Room 6.00m 3.50m 4.40m 7.00m 7.00m 6.00m 6.20m 19.60m 21.20m 7.00m 7.00m 4.20m 1.40m 2.30m 3.50m 0.30m 6.20m 3.50m 1.5 3.60m 2.40m 2.40m CLEANERS ROOM Shop Shop Shop Toilet WOMENSTOILET MENSTOILET ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻧدﺳ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯾ‬ ‫ﻧﻰ‬‫ﻟﻠﻣﺑ‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻻرﺿ‬‫دور‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻻﻓﻘ‬‫ﻘط‬‫اﻟﻣﺳ‬ ‫د‬ ‫وﻟﯾ‬ ‫ﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ Area=405.5m² ‫ك‬‫ﺑﯾ‬‫م‬‫ﻧﻌﯾ‬‫م‬‫اﻟﻌظﯾ‬‫د‬‫ﻋﺑ‬ ‫اﻋداد‬ ‫م‬‫اﻟرﺳ‬ 2016™ ‫د‬‫وﻟﯾ‬‫ﻧﻲ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻟﮭﻧدﺳ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻛﻠﯾ‬Date:2/8/2016 3.00m 1.00m 1.20m 1.70m ‫ﺎري‬‫ﺗﺟ‬‫ﻧﻲ‬‫ﻣﺑ‬‫ﻣﯾم‬‫ﺗﺻ‬‫روع‬‫ﻣﺷ‬ ArchitecturalLayoutofElevationplan 1.40 Shop
  27. 27. ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻧدﺳ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯾ‬ ‫ﻧﻰ‬‫ﻟﻠﻣﺑ‬‫ﺎﻧﻲ‬‫اﻟﺛ‬‫و‬‫اﻻول‬‫دور‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻻﻓﻘ‬‫ﻘط‬‫اﻟﻣﺳ‬ ‫د‬ ‫وﻟﯾ‬ ‫ﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ك‬‫ﺑﯾ‬‫م‬‫ﻧﻌﯾ‬‫م‬‫اﻟﻌظﯾ‬‫د‬‫م.ﻋﺑ‬‫اﻋداد‬ ‫م‬‫اﻟرﺳ‬ 2016™: Area=405.5m² Prayer Room 6.00m 3.50m 4.40m 7.00m 7.00m 6.00m 6.20m 19.60m 21.20m 7.00m 7.00m 2.30m 3.50m 0.30m 6.20m 3.50m 1.5 3.60m 2.40m 2.40m CLEANERS ROOM Shop Shop Shop Toilet WOMENSTOILET MENSTOILET 3.00m 1.00m 1.20m 1.70m Shop 6.20m 4.20m 1.40m 1.5 Shop ‫د‬‫وﻟﯾ‬‫ﻧﻲ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻟﮭﻧدﺳ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻛﻠﯾ‬ ‫ﺎري‬‫ﺗﺟ‬‫ﻧﻲ‬‫ﻣﺑ‬‫ﻣﯾم‬‫ﺗﺻ‬‫روع‬‫ﻣﺷ‬ ArchitecturalLayoutofElevationplan 2.30 2.80m
  28. 28. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 14 Table 2.1 Design input detail of the building 2.8 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS AND PROPERTIES OF THE STRUCTURE The initial sizing of members and specifications of the frame building are shown in Table 3.2. The initial sizes of member were checked against the conditions according to serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state. The sizes were adjusted until the conditions of serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state stated in ACI318-08 were satisfied. Structural Elements Dimensions(exterior) Dimensions(Interior) Columns Ground floor 500x250 mm 600x250 mm 1th to 2th 400x250 mm 500x250 mm Beams Tie Beam(plinth) 250x600 mm 250x600 mm 1th to 2th 250x400 mm 250x500 mm Slab 200 mm THK. No. of stories 3 stories Beam to column connection = fixed Column to base connection = fixed Table 2.2 Initial sizes and specification of the building according to ACI318 code 2.8.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES. Every material has different properties that are simply of their own. Similarly, the material used in the design of the structure in this research also has different properties and strength. Table 3.4, 3.5 lists the material properties applied in the preliminary analysis of the design of the structural Building usage Shops Story height Ground floor 4 m 1th & 2th 4 m Length of building 21.00 m Width of building 20.00 m Height of building 13.8 m
  29. 29. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 15 members (beams, slabs and columns, etc.) The values of compressive strength of concrete, yield stress of reinforcement, concrete density and modulus of elasticity conforms to ACI 318. Structure Elements Parameters Compressive strength; fcu. Beams, Slabs, Columns 25N/mm Density of concrete 24 kN/m Modulus of elasticity; E 21.718 KN/mm Yield stress fy 420 N/mm Table 2.3 Material Properties conform to ACI318 code 2.9 PROCEDURES OF DETERMINATION OF LOADING. The simulation of load determination on members of the structure on three dimensional structural frames was used; the procedure utilizes load analysis to find the dimension of members to be used later on finding the optimal design. Dead load and live load were applied to the structure. 2.9.1 Determination Dead Load. All of the dead loads are according to the (ACI318) Code. It is defined as the sum of all constant and continuous loads occurred on the building Which represents:  Own weight of structure  Floor covering  Wall loads  Flooring cover Flooring cover represents the weight of finishing materials on floor, such as sand, bitumen, mortar and marble. Table 3.8 shows the details of dead load on floor and surface slabs. DEAD LOAD (FLOORING COVERING ) FROM TYPE MAGNITUDE UNIT floor slab Area pressure 1.00 KN/m2 Surface slab( Roof) Area pressure 2 KN/m2 Table 2.4 Details of dead load on surfaces as component of concrete slab
  30. 30. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 16  Own weight of structure Own weight of structure represents the weight of the main elements of the building, such as slabs, beams and columns. Table 3.3 shows the details of slabs weight according to ACI318-08 codes. DEAD LOAD FROM TYPE MAGNITUDE UNIT Slab self weight of 200 mm thickness (without finishes) Area pressure 4.2 KN/m2 Table 2.5 Details of slab self-weight according to ACI318 Code  Wall loads: The wall in the building is from concrete blocks, the thickness of wall is 0.25m for exterior wall and 0.2m for interior wall, therefore, the load of wall on beam will be:  For exterior walls: H = 4m W= 0.25 X 4 X18 + 0.02 X 4 X 24 =19.92 KN/m  For interior walls: H = 4m W= 0.2 X 4 X18+ 0.02 X 4 X 24 = 16.32 KN/m 2.9.2 Partial Safety Factors According To ACI 318-02 CODE The strength reduction factors ,φ,are applied to specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member .the φ factors for flexure ,shear ,and torsion are as shown in Table 2.6.
  31. 31. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 17 Φ=0.9 for flexure (tension controlled) Φ=0.75 For shear and torsion. Φ=0.65 For axial compression (columns) Table2.6: Partial safety factor according to ACI318-02 2.9.2.2 Determination Live Load It is defined as the sum of all variable movable loads occurring in the building. This represents:  Human weights  Furniture weights Type of building (office building) LOAD (KN/m2 ) Catwalks for maintenance access 1.92 Access floor system Office use 2.4 Computer use 4.79 File and computer rooms shall be designed for heavier loads based on anticipated occupancy Lobbies and first-floor corridors 4.79 Offices 2.40 corridors above first floor 3.83 Balconies (exterior) 4.79 Catwalks for maintenance access 1.92 Private rooms and corridors serving them 1.92 Public rooms and corridors serving them 4.79 Table 2.7 American standard Design Minimum Loads for Building. Note: Refer to ASCE 7-05 Section 4.9 (pg 12), Table 4.1
  32. 32. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 18 2.9.3 Design load combinations:-  Load factors according to ACI Code. The design load combinations are the various combination of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. For ACI 318-08 if a structure is subjected to dead load (D), live load (L), the required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall not be less than Combination factors (LRFD):  U = 1.4D  U = 1.2D + 1.6L Where: o D = dead load; o L = live lopad. 2.10 Design Methods There are two acceptable methods to design concrete: the working stress method and the ultimate strength method (Wight & jamesr, 2005) (Mehdi & Robert, 2007). The ultimate stress method is the one most commonly used. The reasons for this are the ultimate strength method will require substantially less concrete and rebar, and the design calculations are easier. Working stress design model assumes that as the concrete beam bends due to induced moments the strain relationship between the rebar in tension and the concrete in compression remain constant. Ultimate strength design places the rebar in full yield so the strain relationship between reinforcement and concrete is ignored and a rectangular concrete compression block stressed at design strength is formed. 2.10.1 Object of Structural Design The permissible stress and ultimate strength methods have served their purpose over the years. However, the engineers have always realized the shortcutting of these methods and been on the outlook for improvements in the process of design. The purpose of design may be stated the provision of a safe and economical structure complying with the clients’ requirements (Rowe et al., 1995). In other words, the process
  33. 33. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 19 of design should ensure a balance between total cost of the structure and an acceptable probability of the structure becoming unserviceable during its life. Limit state design is based on this philosophy. It recognizes the need to provide a safe and efficient structure at an economical price. Simultaneously, it gives clear idea of actual factors of safety used to take into account elements of uncertainty and ignorance. 2.10.2 Philosophy of Limit State Design Limit state design takes account of the variations and uncertainties that may occur in the design and construction of structures. Different safety factors are provided for those variations in design and construction. Safety and serviceability are expressed in terms of the probability that the structure will not beware unfit for its intended pur-pose during its life. Limit state for use may arise in various ways, the principal ones being as (Mehdi & Robert, 2007) (Wight & jamesr, 2005): (1) Ultimate limit states: the usual collapse limit. States including collapse due to fire, explosive pressure etc. (2) Serviceability limit state: focal damage and deflection limit states, durability, vibration, ere penetration and heat trans-mission etc. Limits states of collapse may be defined as occurring when a part or the whole of the structure fails under extreme loads. It may be due to rupture of one or more critical sections, loss of overall stability or buck-ling owing to elastic or plastic instability. Limit states due to local damage may occur, when cracking or spalling of concrete impairs the appearance or usefulness of the structure or adversely affects finishes, partitions etc. For example, a check on the limit state of crack width may be necessary in water retaining structures or structures situated in severe environments. Similarly, it may be necessary to check the limit state of crack formation in compression to ensure that no initial microcracking, which could be harmful to the durability of the member, is produced at any stage of construction in zones subject to high compressive stresses. Limit states of deflection or deformation may be defined as occurring when it becomes excessive to impair the appearuruce or usefulness of the structure and may cause discomfort to users. In certain cases limit states of other effects such as vibration, fatigue, impact, durability of
  34. 34. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 20 fire damage may also have to be considered: For example, the limit states design of bridges requires the investigation of limit states of vibration and fatigue in addition to collapse, cracking and deflection (Mehdi & Robert, 2007). Similarly, the consideration of limit states of impact resistance is essential for structures, which may be subjected to impact, explosions or earthquakes. The usual approach is to design the structure because of limit states for collapse and then check that the criteria governing remaining limit states are satisfied. The limit state of collapse under extreme loads is investigated by ultimate strength theory of reinforced concrete, while the limit states of deflection and local damage both utilize the elastic theory (Mehdi & Robert, 2007).
  35. 35. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 21 2.11 Project flow chart. Error Flow chart 1 : Design procedures START Generate Plan in AutoCAD Software Assigning Of Elements Based On assumed Structure Plan General a 3D Model Correct any errors, Recheck Properties of Elements Assign Loads and Load Cases Acting On the Structure Decrease Spacing between members or add new members(such as column ) Run Analysis Run R.C member Required Reinforcement Calculations Run Provided Reinforcement wizard & Check The Steel Ratio ρ. Change the dimensions of section Ρmax< ρ< ρmin Ρmax< ρ< ρmin Report Design Results Import the 2d plan to 3d software to process architectural visualization and establish ensuring it compliance with structural midel Import Structure Plan into (Autodesk Robot Structure Analysis) Architectural output Drawings
  36. 36. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــ‬ 22 2.10.1 EXPECTED RESULT. 1- The most economical alternative solution would be identified. 2- The required quantity of material would be evaluated.
  37. 37. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 23‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3. Design of Slabs 3.1.1 Definition: - A slab is structural element whose thickness is small compared to its own length and width. Slabs are usually used in floor and roof construction. According to the way loads are transferred to supporting beams and columns, slabs are classified into two types; one-way and two- way 3.1.2 Introduction The slab provides a horizontal surface and is usually supported by columns, beams or walls. One-way slab is the most basic and common type of slab. One-way slabs are supported by two opposite sides and bending occurs in one direction only. Two-way slabs are supported on four sides and bending occurs in two directions. One-way slabs are designed as rectangular beams placed side by side. 3.1.3 DESIGN CONCEPTS: An exact analysis of forces and displacements in a two-way slab is complex, due to its highly indeterminate nature; this is true even when the effects of creep and nonlinear behavior of the concrete are neglected. Numerical methods such as finite elements can be used, but simplified methods such as those presented by the ACI Code are more suitable for practical design. The ACI Code, Chapter 8, assumes that the slabs behave as wide, shallow beams that form, with the columns above and below them, a rigid frame. The validity of this assumption of dividing the structure into equivalent frames has been verified by analytical and experimental research. It is also established that factored load capacity of two- way slabs with restrained boundaries is about twice that calculated by theoretical analysis because a great deal of moment redistribution occurs in the slab before failure. At high loads, large deformations and deflections are expected; thus, a minimum slab thickness is required to maintain adequate deflection and cracking conditions under service loads. However, slabs supported by four sides may be assumed as two-way slab when the ratio of lengths to width of two perpendicular sides exceeds 2. Although, while such slabs transfer their loading in four directions, nearly all load is transferred in the short direction. Two-way slabs carry the load to two directions, and the bending moment in each direction is less than the bending moment of one-way slabs. Also two-way slabs have less deflection than one-way slabs.
  38. 38. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 24‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs Compared to one-way slabs, Calculation of two-way slabs is more complex. Methods for two-way slab design include Direct Design Method (DDM), Equivalent frame method (EFM), Finite element approach, and Yield line theory. However, the ACI Code specifies two simplified methods, DDM and EFM. Slabs maybe solid of uniform thickness or ribbed with ribs running in one or two directions. Slabs with varying depth are generally not used. Slab are horizontal plate elements forming floor and roof in building and normally carry lateral actions. 3.1.4 Types of Slabs  Ribbed slabs: Slab cast integrally with a series of closely spaced joist which in turn are supported by a set of beams. Designed as a series of parallel T-beams and economical for medium spans with light to medium live loads.  Waffle slabs: A two-way slab reinforced by ribs in two-dimensions. Able to carry heavier loads and span longer than ribbed slabs.  Flat slabs: Slabs of uniform thickness bending and reinforced in two directions and supported directly by columns without beams.  Flat slabs with drop panel: Flat slab thickness at its column supports with column capitals or drop panels to increase strength and moment-resisting capacity. Suitable for heavily loaded span 3.1.5 One & two way slabs outlined:  One-way slabs 1. One-way Beam and slab / One-way flat slab: These slabs are supported on two opposite sides and all bending moment And deflections are resisted in the short direction. A slab supported on Two sides with length to width ratio greater than two, should be designed As one-way slab. 2. One-way joist floor system: This type of slab, also called ribbed slab, is supported by reinforced Concrete ribs or joists. The ribs are usually tapered and uniformly spaced And supported on girders that rest on columns.  Two-way slab 1. Two-way beam and slab: If the slab is supported by beams on all four sides, the loads are transferred to all four beams, assuming rebar in both directions. 2. Two-way flat slab: A flat slab usually does not have beams or girders but is supported by Drop panels or column capitals directly. All loads are
  39. 39. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 25‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs transferred to the Supporting column, with punching shear resisted by drop panels. 3. Two-way waffle slab: This type of slab consists of a floor slab with a length-to-width ratio less Than 2, supported by waffles in two directions. Fig. 3-1: Typical type of slabs (ACI,1994)
  40. 40. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 26‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.1.6 ECONOMICAL CHOICE OF CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS ACCORDING TO SIZE, DIMENSIONS AND LOADINGS REQUIRED: Various types of floor systems can be used for general buildings, such as residential, office, and in institutional buildings. The choice of an adequate and economic floor system depends on the type of building, architectural layout, aesthetic features, and the span length between columns. In general, the superimposed live load on buildings varies between 5 and 10 KN/m. A general guide for the economical use of floor systems can be summarized as follows: 1. Flat plates: Flat plates are most suitable for spans of 6m to 7.5m and live loads between 4 and 6.5 KN/m. The advantages of adopting flat plates include low-cost formwork, exposed flat ceilings, and fast construction. Flat plates have low shear capacity and relatively low stiffness, which may cause noticeable deflection. Flat plates are widely used in buildings either as reinforced or prestressed concrete slabs. 2. Flat slabs: Flat slabs are most suitable for spans of 6mto 9m and for live loads of 5.5 to 10 KN/m they need more formwork than flat plates, especially for column capitals. In most cases, only drop panels without column capitals are used. 3. Waffle slabs: Waffle slabs are suitable for spans of 9m to 14.5m and live loads of 5.5 to 10 KN/they carry, heavier loads than flat plates and have attractive exposed ceilings. Formwork, including the use of pans, is quite expensive. 4. Slabs on beams: Slabs on beams are suitable for spans between 6m and 9m and live loads of 4 to 8 KN/m. The beams increase the stiffness of the slabs, producing relatively low deflection. Additional formwork for the beams is needed. 5. One-way slabs on beams: One-way slabs on beams are most suitable for spans of 0.9 to 1.8m and a live load of 4 to 7KN/m. They can be used for larger spans with relatively higher cost and higher slab deflection. Additional formwork for the beams is needed. 6. One-way joist floor system: A one-way joist floor system is most suitable for spans of 6 to 9 m and live loads of 5.5 to 8.2 KN/m, Because of the deep ribs, the concrete and steel quantities are relatively low, but expensive formwork is expected. The exposed ceiling of the slabs may look attractive.
  41. 41. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 27‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.1.7 Calculation of thickness for one way slab: Table 3.1 Minimum thickness of beams Table 3.2 Minimum thickness of beams for exterior panels
  42. 42. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 28‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.1.8 Design Procedure:  One-way slab design 1. Decide the type of slab according to aspect ratio of long and short side Lengths. 2. Compute the minimum thickness based on ACI Code. 3. Compute the slab self-weight and total design load. 4. Compute factored loads (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL). 5. Compute the design moment. 6. Assume the effective slab depth. 7. Check the shear. 8. Find or compute the required steel ratio. 9. Compute the required steel area. 10. Design the reinforcement (main and temperature steel). 11. Check the deflection. 3.1.9 The ACI Code specifies two methods for the design of two-way slabs: 1. The direct design method, DDM (ACI Code, Section 8.10), is an approximate procedure for the analysis and design of two-way slabs. It is limited to slab systems subjected to uniformly distributed loads and supported on equally or nearly equally spaced columns. The method uses a set of coefficients to determine the design moments at critical sections. Two-way slab systems that do not meet the limitations of the ACI Code, Section 8.10.1.1, must be analyzed by more accurate procedures. 2. The equivalent frame method, EFM (ACI Code, Section 8.11), is one in which three-dimensional building is divided into a series of two dimensional equivalent frames by cutting the building along lines midway between columns. The resulting frames are considered separately in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the building and treated floor by floor.
  43. 43. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 29‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.1.10 Two-way slab design procedure by the Direct Design Method 1. Decide the type of slab according to aspect ratio of long and short side Lengths. 2. Check the limitation to use the DDM in ACI Code. If limitations are not met, the DDM cannot be used. 3. Determine and assume the thickness of slab to control deflection. 4. Compute the slab self-weight and total design load. 5. Compute factored loads (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL). 6. Check the slab thickness against one-way shear and two-way shear. 7. Compute the design moment. 8. Determine the distribution factor for the positive and negative moments using ACI Code. 9. Determine the steel reinforcement of the column and middle strips. 3.1.11Classification of slabs: Slabs are plate elements forming floors and roofs in buildings which normally carry uniformly distributed loads. Slabs may be simply supported or continuous over one or more supports and are classified according to the method of support as follows:  One-end continuous  Both-End continuous 3.1.12 Purpose of main and secondary steel: The distribution steel should be tied above the main steel, otherwise the lever arm which is measure up to the center of the main steel shall be reduced resulting in the reduction of the moment of the resistance  Purpose of Main steel:  It takes up all the tensile stresses developed in the structure  It increase the strength of concrete sections  Purpose of distribution steel:  It distribute the concentrated load on the slab  It guards against shrinkage and temperature stress  It also keeps the main reinforcement in the position
  44. 44. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 30‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.1.13 Types of analysis-methods for slabs:  Elastic analysis covers three techniques: (a) Idealization in to strips or beams spanning one way or a grid with the strips spanning two ways (b) Elastic plate analysis (c) Finite element analysis: (Used By the software Robot analysis in this project) The best method for irregularly shaped slabs or slabs with non-uniform loads  Method of design coefficients use is made of the moment and shear coefficients given in the code, which have been obtained from yield line analysis.  The yield line and Hillerborg strip methods are limit design or collapse loads methods 3.1.14 Slabs direction In Ribbed Slab Direction of one way slab: In one-way ribbed slabs ribs may be arranged in any of the two principal directions. Two options are possible; the first is by providing ribs in the shorter direction as shown in Figure a, which leads to smaller amounts of reinforcement in the ribs, while large amounts of reinforcement are required in the supporting beams, associated with large deflections. `
  45. 45. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 31‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs The second option is by providing ribs in the longer direction as shown in Figure b, which leads to larger amount of reinforcement in the ribs, while smaller amounts of reinforcement are required in the supporting beams associated with smaller deflections compared to the first option. The designer has to make up his mind regarding the option he prefers. Some designers opt to run the ribs in a direction that leads to smaller moments and shears in the supporting beams which means much more reinforcement in the ribs. Other designers opt to run the ribs in the shorter direction which leads to much more reinforcement in the supporting beams. The later option leads to more economical design. 3.1.15 Design Concept: One-way solid slabs are designed as a number of independent 1 m wide strips which span in the short direction and supported on crossing beams.  Practical rules:  THE overall thickness of a slab shall not be less than 7.5 cm, the top surface of centering shall be given a camber of 7mm per meter span subject to maximum of 4.5 cm.  Reinforcements: the minimum reinforcement in slabs in either direction shall be not less than 0.15 percent of the gross sectional area of the concrete and which may be 0.12 percent where high yield strength deformed bars . 3.1.16 Maximum Reinforcement Ratio: One-way solid slabs are designed as rectangular sections subjected to shear and moment. Thus, the maximum reinforcement ratio corresponds to a net stain in the reinforcement, e of 0.004. 3.2.17 Shrinkage Reinforcement Ratio According to ACI Code 7.12.2.1 and for steels yielding at f 4200 kg / cm2 y = ,the Shrinkage reinforcement is taken not less than 0.0018 of the gross concrete area, or A=  b h ;  shrinkage = 0.0018. Where, b = width of strip, and h = slab thickness.
  46. 46. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 32‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.2.18 Loads Assigned to Slabs (1) Own weight of slab: The weight of the slab per unit area is estimated by multiplying the thickness of the slab h by the density of the reinforced concrete. (2) Weight of slab covering materials: This weight per unit area depends on the type of finishing which is usually made of - Sand fill with a thickness of about 5 cm, 0.05 × 1.80 t/m2 - Cement mortar, 2.5 cm thick. 0.025 × 2.10 t/m2 - Tiling 0.025 × 2.30 t/m2 - A layer of plaster about 2 cm in thickness. 0.02 × 2.10 t/m2 (3) Live Load: It depends on the purpose for which the floor is constructed. Shows typical values used by the Uniform Building Code (UBC). Note: During the analysis of the 3d frame of the building in this project, we assumed a uniformly distributed planar live load of 5kN per meter square (as the building falls in the whole sale stores category.
  47. 47. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 33‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.2.1 Plans showing the assigned slab names and direction for different stories:- Fig 3.1.1 Elevation plan for slab of ground floor Fig 3.1.2 Elevation plan for slab on first floor
  48. 48. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 34‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs Fig 3.1.3 Elevation plan for slabs on second floor
  49. 49. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 35‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs
  50. 50. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 36‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs
  51. 51. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 37‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.2 Steps for design of two way solid slab:  Find the moment coefficients in each slab:  For continuous edges ( -Ve moments ): 2 2 bL.utW.)aC(b)ve-M( aL.utW.)aC(a)ve-M( neg neg    Span moments ( +Ve moments ): 2 2 bL]uW.)bC(W.)b(C[b)veM( aL]uW.)aC(W.)a(C[a)veM( LLLuddL LLLuddL    For discontinuous edges ( -Ve moments ): 3/b)veM(b)ve-M( 3/a)veM(a)ve-M(    Effective Depth (d): st dc.c u hd   Percentage of steel (ρ): mm1000b,dbρsA minρ yf ωρ 0.113 yf ρFor mm450 s2h dρ )s(A barsbetweenSpacingS 0.113 yf ρCheck d sh 0.002minρ dyf840 uM ρ ' c ' c ' c f f f barone 2               OK: M(-Ve) + -- M(+Ve)
  52. 52. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 38‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.2 Data for design:- Firstly: Defining the sample slab for design illustration Secondly: structural analysis design of the Unit 3.2.1 The slabs S2 and S8 are taken as design samples which are assumed to be solid slab , as shown in fig given below: 3.2.1.2 Design Concept: One-way solid slabs are designed as a number of independent 1 m wide strips which span in the short direction and supported on crossing beams.  Practical rules:  THE overall thickness of a slab shall not be less than 7.5 cm, the top surface of centering shall be given a camber of 7mm per meter span subject to maximum of 4.5 cm.  Reinforcements: the minimum reinforcement in slabs in either direction shall be not less than 0.15 percent of the gross sectional area of the concrete and which may be 0.12 percent where high yield strength deformed bars .
  53. 53. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 39‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.3 Firstly, let’s consider Slab S2 (Two-Way Slab) : Fig 3.3 shows Slab S2 which is a two-way slab 3.3.1 Determine the thickness of the solid slab S2 : mm. ) . ( . uh slab)way solid-(two.. 7.50 6.50 mifelse way slab)-(onethen. Lb La mif mm ) M ( lb sh 03183 860 6 34 1000507 50850 50 100 6 34          USE hs =200mm _________________________eq 3.1 169 2 12 25200   d stdc.cuhd 3.3.1.2 Calculation of loads on slabs S2: 2KN/m17.67uW .77741m/KNW LL1.7DL.uW 27.77KN/m2.9724W LL D flooring h W c s D      47124 41 1000 200 1000 
  54. 54. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 40‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.3.2 Moments at short direction:  For Discontinuous edge m.KN. . M a)veM( M M 238 3 724 1 3 1 3 2 1    For mid-span m.KN..]....[ La] ul W ll )Ca(UDW Dl [(Ca) 2 M 724250686040078100290 2    For Continuous Edge m.KN...).(M aLutWneg)Ca( 3 M 5836250667170490 3 2   Slab Case m DL LL -Ve S2 8 0.85 Ca=0.029 Ca=0.040 Ca=0.049 Cb=0.017 Cb=0.022 Cb=0.046 Table (3-4) moment coefficients 3.3.3 Moments at Long direction: - d=200-25-1.5*12=157mm  For continuous edge m.KN...).(M aLutWneg)Cb(M4 7245250767170460 2 4    For Mid-span m.KN..]....[M La] ul W ll )Cb( uD W Dl [(Cb)M 5 5 7218250786022078100170 2    For continuous edge 46 MM 
  55. 55. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 41‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.4 Design for flexure:- 3.4.1 Reinforcement At Short direction: A . (La-discontinuous): (-ve) M1 '12/320mm/mUse 320mmSUse hsmm. . S 2D sb A 450mm 2hs d sb A S mm.dbstA valuenewforneed)(NOO.K... minFy Fc usethen . fc yf for minUse reqmin control.. d sh .min . . dFy uM :check                                        29377 13000240 113 113 4 212 4 2299130100000230 1130030 25 420 00230 1130 00230 169 200 00200020 00080 2169420840 610238 2840 610
  56. 56. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 42‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs B. At Short direction (La-middle) : (+ve) M2 12/270mmUse 270mmUse mm. .d /d S 450mm 2hs d barones A S O.K... . fc yf requse,minreq .. d sh .min .req 2 :check .         59278 16900240 1134 1130040 25 420 00240 1130 00230 169 200 00200020 00240 2169420840 6 10724                     C. At short direction (La right-edge continuous): M3 (-ve) 12/180mmUse 7.185 1690036.0 113 113.0060.0 25 420 0036.0 use, min 0023.0 min 0036.0 2169420840 : 6 1058.36     mmS reqreq req check          
  57. 57. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 43‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.4.2 Reinforcement At long direction A. (Lb-edge) continuous: M6-ve 12/100mmUse 82.102 157005.0 113 O.K113.0084.0 25 420 005.0 : 0025.0 157 200002.0002.0 min 005.0 2157420840 61072.45    mmS check d hs req            B. At long direction (Lb-mid span): M5+ve 12/280mmUse 287 1570025.0 113 0025.0 min use min ,0025.0 min 0021.0 2157420840 61072.18      mmS req req           C. At long direction (Lb-cont edge): M4-ve 12/100mmUse useHence MM  64 
  58. 58. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 44‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs Direction sec )/( u M mKN d(mm) min  req use (req)S used S short 1 8.23 169 0.0023 0.0008 0.0023 377 320 2 24.7 0.0023 0.0024 0.0024 278.5 270 3 36.58 0.0023 0.0036 0.0036 185.7 180 long 4 45.72 157 0.0025 0.005 0.005 102.8 100 5 18.72 0.0025 0.0021 0.0025 287 280 6 45.72 0.0025 0.005 0.005 102.8 100 Table (3-4) two- way slabs reinforcement
  59. 59. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 45‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.5 Design of one-way slab : 3.5.1.1 Minimum Reinforcement Ratio According to ACI Code 10.5.4, the minimum flexural reinforcement is not to be less than the shrinkage reinforcement, or A b h s 0.0018 min ³ . 3.5.1.2 Spacing of Flexural Reinforcement Bars Based on ACI 10.5.4, flexural reinforcement is to be spaced not farther than three times the slab thickness, nor farther apart than 45 cm, center-to-center. 3.5.1.3 Spacing of Shrinkage Reinforcement Bars Based on ACI 7.12.2.2, shrinkage reinforcement is to be spaced not farther than five times the slab thickness, nor farther apart than 45 cm, center-to- center. 3.5.1.4 Now Let’s consider Slab S8 (One-Way Slab) Fig 3.5 shows one –way slab named S8  Determine the thickness of the solid slab : mm. ) . ( . sh slab)way solidone(.. m. m. m . b L aL m mm ) m 6 (34 b L sh 8116 3010 6 34 1000306 503010 306 901 50 100           Use slab thickness from largest span hs= 200mm ( Eq 3.1 )
  60. 60. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 46‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.5.2 Calculation of loads on slabs S8: 2KN/m17.67uW .77141uW m/KNW LL1.7DL.uW 2m7.77KN/2.9724W LL D floowing h W c s D       471 24 41 1000 200 1000   3.5.3 Moments at short direction: -  For continuous edge m.KN. .. 2 9 nLuW M 087 9 29167172 7     For Mid-span m.KN. ..nLuW M 54 14 2916717 14 2 8      For continuous edge m.KN. ..nLuW M 652 24 2916717 24 2 9     Reinforcement:3.5.4 Minimum Steel 002350 310372 170 200 0020 0020 170 2 10 25200 .min .min )(.min ) d sh (.min mmd         
  61. 61. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 47‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs A . Reinforcement For edge-moment M7: 002350 000640 420 25 01080 01090 181 0108036211 01080 217010002590 610087 087 7 1000 .min min.. fy ' cf f . . ).(. . . . uK d' cf u M uK m.KN.M Use 2                 190/m'/5Ues mmmm. . reqS mm. 2D S A S A bA S m mm.. S A db S A S    1904196 4 1000578 2578 4 210 4 1000 2 53991000170002350           B. Reinforcement for Mid-span:   0.00235min min0.00041. yf ' cf ρ 0.0070 1.18 1 ω 0.0089 951000200.9 101.45 uK kN.m. 8 M Ues ).(. 2 6              420 25 00700 54 006903621
  62. 62. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 48‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs dbsA 10/190/m'5Use mmmm. . . S A bA S 'm mm..A S S S   1904196 5399 1000578 1000 53991000170002350 2        C . Reinforcement For edge-moment M9 : 10/200/m'5Use mmmm.S 'm mm..db S A .minUse min.. fy ' cf . . ).(. . . . uK m.KN. 9 * M      2004196 2 53991000170002350 002350 00020 420 25 00410 00410 181 0040036211 00400 217010002590 610652 652            
  63. 63. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 49‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Slabs 3.5.5 Secondary reinforcement: mm/m'120/10SUse mm120SUse 67.125 400 100027.50 S 27.50 4 814.3 4 D 1000 S m' 2mm40020010000.002sA sbh0.002sA 2 22              mm mmbsA t s A b s A t t Section 1 2 3 uM 7.08 4.5 2.65 uK 0.0108 0.0069 0.0040 ω 0.0109 0.0070 0.0049 ρ 0.00235 0.00235 0.00235 /msA 399.5 399.5 399.5 (req)S 196.4 196.4 196.4 (used) S 190 190 190 Table (3-5) reinforcement of one-way solid slab
  64. 64. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 50‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Beams 4. Design of Beams 4.1 Introduction The beams are a basic component of reinforced concrete structures , the beams carries and transfers the loads from the slabs and walls to the columns and then to the foundations. The beams should be correctly restrained and appropriate studies and analysis should be done to overcome and resist the moments and shrinkage and other deformations resulted upon loading. The explanation of design is shown firstly through formulas and then a sample (continuous beam) is taken and is designed, the related moments and shears forces acting upon it is calculated through Autodesk Robot structural analysis 4.2 Structural Theory of beams: 4.2.1 Types of beams: There are many ways in which the beams may be supported, some of the more common methods are given below , Fig. 4.1 The first beam in Fig is called a simply supported, or simple beam. It has Supports near its ends, which restrain it only against vertical movement. The ends of the beam are free to rotate. When the loads have a horizontal component, or when change in length of the beam due to temperature may be important, the Supports may also have to prevent horizontal motion. In that case, horizontal restraint at one support is generally sufficient. The distance between the supports is called the span. The load carried by each support is called a reaction.
  65. 65. Design of Reinforced Concrete Multi-story Commercial building ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـ‬ 51‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Design Of Beams The beam which is a cantilever. It has only one support, which restrains it from rotating or moving horizontally or vertically at that end. Such a support is called a fixed end. When a beam extends over several supports, it is called a continuous beam For flexural design of R/C rectangular section beams, there is a number of steps procedure and equations provided by ultimate strength design method according to ACI-code. The large number of equations and fork of solution steps causes a lot of confusion and boredom for student or designer 4.2.2 Scope of Usage: Concrete beams are widely used as a primary members to con-struct buildings. Robot Structural analysis is widely used as a structural analysis and design program. Sometimes, to give design more confidently, we need to compare the results of program with the results of manual calculations. Most common beams, which are rectangular section and T-section, apply vertical loads (dead and live loads). Beams, like that, will be subjected to the bending moment, shear force and torsional moment. This study focuses on beams of rectangular section considering bending moment only. Flexural created by bending moment, makes the beam in case of tension or com-precision failure. 4.2.3 Relation of Reinforcement place with section properties on loading:  In case of tension failure, provided reinforcement ratio (ρ) at tension zone is less than balanced reinforcement ratio ρbal . So that, steel will reach to the yield stress ( ) and strain ( ). While, concrete at compression zone has not yet reached to the ultimate strain ( =0.003).  In case of compression failure, provided (ρ) at tension zone is greater than ρbal . Concrete at compression zone will reach ultimate stress ( ult) and strain ( ult), While steel has not yet reached . For each case, there is a number of design equations derived. To identify those equations, textbooks can be reviewed for the principles of the design of reinforced concrete.

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