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HOUSING PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI… -Submitted by Aziz khan. Tanvi gujarathi. Swapnil kanse. Akshata hase. Nikhil mehta.
MAIN REASONS FOR HOUSING PROBLEMS INCREASING POPULLATION INCREASING POLLUTION HIGH DEMAND OF HOUSES INCREASING LAND COST PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUES SANITATION PROBLEMS UNPLANNED HOUSIN SLUMS ETC…
WHAT ARE SLUMS??Slums in Mumbai have always existed.Even back in the time when the fort wasdeveloped, the native villages havealways been close to slums. They neverunderwent any planning, infrastructureconstruction or implementation offacilities such as water, sewage anddrainage. This has led to many problemswith Mumbais poor population.
WHY SLUMS ARE INCREASING?Slums have risen dramatically since 1950. Most of this isdue to the fact that Mumbais tripled since Indiasindependence in 1947. The island of Bombay is only 12miles long, and Greater Mumbai, including Salsette Island,occupies an area of 240 square miles and it has a density of16500 people per square mile, extremely dense.Housing in Mumbai is scarce and expensive. In 1976, theGovernment passed the Urban Land Act which was supposed toenlarge the area on which middle and lower class housing was tobe built, however the act has been used, once again in the elitistfashion, to build more upper class housing and to keep hold ofwealthy neighborhoods which has only worsened the slumproblem.
Slums are the products of failed policies, bad governance, corruption,inappropriate regulations, dysfunctional land markets, unresponsivefinancial systems and a fundamental lack of political will.Each of these failures adds to the toll of people already deeplyburdened with poverty. This frustrates the enormous potential for humandevelopment that opportunities in urban life offer.Urbanisation has created a number of problems like shortage ofdwelling units, mushrooming growth of jhuggis, encroachment of publicland and expansion of unauthorized residential colonies. The rapidgrowth of urbanization is creating a number of problems. Whenever abig project is commenced, a lot of workers migrate to towns in quest ofemployment. With no proper place to live, they usually encroach publicland and the sites earmarked for various developmental projects. Thiscauses expansion of jhuggis and unauthorized colonies.Thus buildingenormous pressure on civic services and creating major bottlenecks inthe proper development of cities.
Where are the slums in mumbai?In the 19th century slums grew around the mills andother places of employment. Now they grow in anyempty space. Although older slumsin Byculla, Dharavi,sakinaka,mahim and Khar wereinitially separate villages, with their own traditionalindustries, most people who live in slums workoutside them.
PROBLEMS DUE TO BAD HOUSING:LACK OF SANITORYCONDITIONS:`Poor sanitary conditions and poor quality of water lead to illnesseslike diarrhoea and other water borne diseases, affecting the lifeexpectancy of slum dwellers. According to a recent case study, waterand sanitation diseases are responsible for 60 per cent ofenvironmental health. Among water borne diseases, diarrhoeadisproportionately affects children under the age of five. Poor healthamong children adversely affects the attendance rate at schools.In dense, overcrowded urban conditions it is often difficult for peopleto find space to build latrines. Many have to defecate in the open orshare whatever limited facilities are available which tend to offer noprivacy, safety or hygiene.Because of human waste and refuse collecting in stagnant poolsspread disease and contaminate water sources. The problem is madeworse during the rainy season when rubbish and excrement arewashed into cramped living areas.
Social problems:The slum environment is the perfect breeding groundfor a wide range of social problems. Highunemployment often causes men to stay around thehome growing increasingly frustrated with theirpathetic situation and the worsening poverty.Cramped conditions mean that there is nowhere to gowhen tensions rise, a factor that regularly leads todomestic violence. Sometimes the situation goes tothe other extreme, where people abandon their homes,lured by the prospect of oblivion through alcohol ordrug abuse. Once people develop such problems theprospects of finding work diminish. They fall deeperinto poverty and the cycle continues.
Child labour:Many children in the slums start work at a very early agewith no prospect of getting any education. They makemoney by rag picking (trawling through rubbish dumps toretrieve anything that can be sold), selling newspapers intraffic jams, peddling drugs or begging. They are at risk ofexploitation as well as all the health problems thataccompany their lifestyles. Incest and abuse can occurand child marriages are still encouraged in some areas.
SolutionsProblems of the slum can be dealt by little initiative taken by thegovernment, NGOs and employers. Some of the possible solutions canbe…Countries need to recognize that the urban poor are activeagents and can contribute to national growth.Local authorities and national governments should collaborate with theorganizations of the urban poor in upgrading slums and providingalternatives to slum formation. Whenever a worker migrates to a cityfor work his employer must ensure that he is provided with appropriateaccommodation. This should be the responsibility of all big and smallemployers.Managing cities require local solutions. Local authorities need to beempowered with financial and human resources to deliver services andinfrastructure to the urban poor. Cities should draw up local long-termstrategies for improving the lives of slum dwellers.
Role of the government and the NGOs. In a usual scenario amigrated laborer secures a job with security agencies, wastemanagement service providers, contractors, householders etc.They usually employ slum dwellers as rag pickers, sweepers,construction labors, masons, carpenters, domestic helps etc. Forsuch migrating labors there should be acentralized laborregistration center where they can register themselves andsecure their labor ID number. These centers should have directcontact with prospective employers and they should try to findsuitable jobs for these workers according to their skills. Thesemigrated labors should also be allotted dwelling units and theaccommodation expenses should be borne by their respectiveemployers. The dwelling units should be located on the outskirtsof the town and transport facilities should be made available to theworkers in order to make commutation easy for them. Locatingproper dwelling units on the outskirts would minimize theproliferation of dingy slums in the city. Along with thesearrangements certain regulations should be made by thegovernment: