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Jain
Architecture …
            By:
            Azizur Khan.
            Nikhil Mehta.
            Swapnil Kanse.
        ...
Introduction .
 Jain architecture is an offshoot
  of Hindu and Buddhist styles.
 In the initial years, many Jain
  temp...
Elements Of Jain
              Architecture.
 Jain temples have numerous
  pillars having a well
  designed structure, fo...
Elements Of Jain
   Temples. these temples
      The roofs of
         have pointy domes and
         wherever there is a...
Elements Of Jain
            Temples.
 The only variation in
  architecture specific to Jain
  temples is the frequently
...
Jain Temples.
Introduction
 The founder of Jainism is
  Vardamana or Mahavira (Great
  Hero). But it is said that he is t...
Jain Temples.
 In later years when Jains discovered the concept
  of mountains of immortality , they proceeded to
  devia...
The Temple
                Structure
 As mentioned earlier, the
  leading idea of the plan of the
  Jain temple is that o...
Interior Layout Of
                      Temple
 The exits of Jain temples
  lead into a series of
  columned chambers in...
Interior Layout Of
             Temple
 Simply put, these are temples within a temple,
   divided into sanctums and surro...
The Architecture Splendor Of
       Jain Temples.
 From the architectural
  perspective, Jain Temple-
  cities seem to be...
Adinath Temple,
            Ranakpur
 The Adinatha Temple of
  Ranakpur is also named
  Dharma Vihara temple after
  its ...
Adinath Temple,
            Ranakpur
 A large number of
  columns are carved
  elaborately, and it is said
  that no two ...
Adinath Temple,
            Ranakpur
 Light is abundantly coming
  inside through gaps between
  ceilings and from courty...
PLAN OF THE TEMPLE
 Central Main Shrine is called
   "Mula-prasada," its interior is
   Garbagriha" (sanctum).
•    A - A...
PLAN OF THE
           TEMPLE
 In addition to this, there are two "Bhadra-
  prasada" east and west sides, making the tot...
Comparison Between Hindu And
          Jain Temple.
   HINDU TEMPLE                     JAIN TEMPLE
 The basic form of a ...
Famous Jain Tmples.




Dilwara temple, Mount Abu.




                             Nasiyan temple, Ajmer.
Famous Jain Temples.




HATHEESING JAIN TEMPLE,
     AHMEDABAD


                          DIGAMBAR JAIN TEMPLE,
        ...
Overview.
                Overview
 These temple-cities were not built on a specific plan;
  instead they were the result...
Thank you.
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Jain architecture final 1

  1. 1. Jain Architecture … By: Azizur Khan. Nikhil Mehta. Swapnil Kanse. Akshata Hase. Tanvi Gujarathi.
  2. 2. Introduction .  Jain architecture is an offshoot of Hindu and Buddhist styles.  In the initial years, many Jain temples were made adjoining the Buddhist temples following the Buddhist rock-cut style.  Initially these temples were mainly carved out of rock faces and the use of bricks was almost negligible.  However, in later years Jains started building temple-cities on hills based on the concept of 'mountains of immortality.
  3. 3. Elements Of Jain Architecture.  Jain temples have numerous pillars having a well designed structure, forming squares.  The squares thus formed create chambers, used as small chapels and contains the image of a deity.  From these pillars, there are richly carved brackets that emerge at about two thirds of their height.
  4. 4. Elements Of Jain Temples. these temples  The roofs of have pointy domes and wherever there is a dome, the pillars are omitted to create an octagonal space within.
  5. 5. Elements Of Jain Temples.  The only variation in architecture specific to Jain temples is the frequently seen four-faced or chaumukh design.  In these four faced temples, the image of a Tirthankar faces back to back to face four cardinal directions.  Entry into these temples is also from four doors that face the cardinal directions.
  6. 6. Jain Temples. Introduction  The founder of Jainism is Vardamana or Mahavira (Great Hero). But it is said that he is the last Tirthankara or Jina.  (Victor) and the first one is Adinatha. All of Jain temples are dedicated to one of the 24 Tirthankaras.  In Jain style of architecture, bricks were hardly used, and the system of carving out temples from rock faces was adopted.
  7. 7. Jain Temples.  In later years when Jains discovered the concept of mountains of immortality , they proceeded to deviate from Hindu and Buddhist sites and build on their own.  An important aspect to be noted is that Hindus and Buddhists built temples, Jains built temple- cities on hills.  o put it in their own words, they "ornamented these holy hills with a crown of eternal Arhat chaityas (tabernacles of saints) shining with the splendor of jewels."
  8. 8. The Temple Structure  As mentioned earlier, the leading idea of the plan of the Jain temple is that of a number of columns arranged in squares. Wherever it was intended to have a dome, pillars were omitted, so as to leave spaces in the form of octagons.  By corbelling over the pendentives in level courses, the dome was gradually formed.
  9. 9. Interior Layout Of Temple  The exits of Jain temples lead into a series of columned chambers into the central halls of the temple.  These columns, standing around for no apparent purpose, might make the place seem like a mindless labyrinth, but on closer scrutiny it becomes evident that there is a style and method in it.
  10. 10. Interior Layout Of Temple  Simply put, these are temples within a temple, divided into sanctums and surrounded by a range of chapels and shrines, and the maze of columns act as a defense against plunderers.  The principle impression gathered from these temples is the variety of their sections but in harmony with each other.  The pointed spires above each dome is different, yet it signifies the position of a chapel, hall or any other chamber inside.
  11. 11. The Architecture Splendor Of Jain Temples.  From the architectural perspective, Jain Temple- cities seem to be rather cold compared to Hindu or Buddhist temples.  The Ranakpur temple is built in white marble and the main chamber is supported by finely carved columns, totaling 1,444 in all.
  12. 12. Adinath Temple, Ranakpur  The Adinatha Temple of Ranakpur is also named Dharma Vihara temple after its builder.  The temple is very large. It stands on a basement of 60m x 62m (*1) , which is like a stronghold.  On the top of a flight of stairs at the central entrance, there is a three-storied "Balanaka" (entrance hall), which has a dome roof.
  13. 13. Adinath Temple, Ranakpur  A large number of columns are carved elaborately, and it is said that no two pillars are alike in design.  At a space that penetrates through two to three stories, various heights of domes are placed, and their ceilings have sculptures that are unbelievably intricate.
  14. 14. Adinath Temple, Ranakpur  Light is abundantly coming inside through gaps between ceilings and from courtyards, highlighting the intertwined spaces and fine carvings all around.  The splendor of the space is so pure as the entire temple from the floors to the ceilings is made of white marble. It also might be described as the realization of the Pure Land.
  15. 15. PLAN OF THE TEMPLE  Central Main Shrine is called "Mula-prasada," its interior is Garbagriha" (sanctum). • A - Assembly hall in front. Of four portals of the main shrine. Each Ranga-mandapa connects with three storyed "Meghanada- mandapa" . • B - High hall in front.  Having four "Mahadara-prasada" (two-faced-shrine) diagonally in four directions of the main shrine, the temple type is "Panchayatana" (five-shrined- type).
  16. 16. PLAN OF THE TEMPLE  In addition to this, there are two "Bhadra- prasada" east and west sides, making the total composition much more intricate.  A line of "Deva-kulika" (small shrine) along "Bhamati" (cloister) surround the whole complex.  All these shrines hold a statue of Tirthankara or Jina (four in Chaturmukha, two in Mahadara- prasada), there are more than 100 statues in total.
  17. 17. Comparison Between Hindu And Jain Temple. HINDU TEMPLE JAIN TEMPLE  The basic form of a Hindu  The basic form of Jain temple is [garbhagriha + temple is "Four faced open mandapa]. form" in the temple design.  The garbhagriha at Hindu  On the other hand, a Jaina temple is not a house of God, temples means the "house but a place where a of God"  and accordingly "Tirthankara" (Jina) gives it should be locked teachings. It is called securely as a human "Samavasarana," and the residence. doctrine of Jina should be preached in all directions. 
  18. 18. Famous Jain Tmples. Dilwara temple, Mount Abu. Nasiyan temple, Ajmer.
  19. 19. Famous Jain Temples. HATHEESING JAIN TEMPLE, AHMEDABAD DIGAMBAR JAIN TEMPLE, DELHI.
  20. 20. Overview. Overview  These temple-cities were not built on a specific plan; instead they were the results of sporadic construction. Natural levels of the hill on which the city was being built accommodated various levels so that as one goes higher so does the architecture and grandeur increases.  Each temple, though, followed a set pattern, styles, designed on principles of architecture in use during the period.  Compared to the number of Hindu temples in India, Jain ones are few and spaced out.  Jain temples are said to be the richest temples in the world, surpassing even Mughal buildings in terms of grandeur and material wealth.
  21. 21. Thank you.
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