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MESOPOTAMIAN
CIVILIZATION
MESOPOTAMIA”MEANS LAND
BETWEEN THE RIVERS




LOCATION:
    Located between two rivers – Tigris &
    Euphrates
    Both r...
The southern part of Mesopotamia formed by
  the river deposits is flat lowland.

  Tigris and Euphrates created fertile r...
CITY-STATES
  Always in constant conflict over water rights
  and land

  Created walls for protection

  Farms were locat...
Religion was Polytheistic – worshipping
   many gods & goddesses

   Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the
   main ...
RECONSTRUCTION OF ZIGGURAT AT UR:




MYTHS:
  Believed that the world was a flat disc,
  surrounded by a huge, holed spac...
Needed for religion, government & trade.




CUNEIFORM:
  Over 20,000 books were found at a library in
  the city of Ninev...
Traders




AGRICULTURE
  Agriculture is possible only with irrigation

  Need for irrigation led the Sumerians, and
  lat...
Trade




   Writing and Mathematics


SOCIETY:
   Commerce & trade helped determine social
   position in Mesopotamian so...
WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN MESOPOTAMIA:
     Owned property

     Operated businesses

     Get divorce (if had good reason)

     ...
FESTIVALS:
   Ancient Mesopotamians had ceremonies each
   month. The theme of the rituals and festivals
   for each month...
HUNTING – POPULAR AMONG ASSYRIAN
  KINGS

  BOXING

  WRESTLING




AKKADIANS:
  Spoke a Semitic Language related to moder...
PERSIANS:
  Present day Iran

  Spoke an Indo-European Language

  Zoroastrianism
    o Belief in final judgment and train...
BABYLONIANS:
  Chief god: Marduk
    o Prayed for good harvest and success in
      business.

  King Hammurabi

  Hammura...
Laws were varied for the wealthy and
   powerful.
HITTITES:
   Iron Weapons




LYDIANS:
   First to use a money economy.
...
Invented the art of glassblowing.

  Alphabet
    o Then adopted by Greeks and Romans




ASSYRIANS:
  Chief god Assur

  ...
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Mesopotamian civilization

  1. 1. MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATION
  2. 2. MESOPOTAMIA”MEANS LAND BETWEEN THE RIVERS LOCATION: Located between two rivers – Tigris & Euphrates Both rivers flow into Persian Gulf Located in present day Iraq GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES: Abundant amount of clay was available. Few natural resources. 2
  3. 3. The southern part of Mesopotamia formed by the river deposits is flat lowland. Tigris and Euphrates created fertile river basins. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS: The climate of the region is semi-arid. Pouring rains - during the short winter. During spring – the snow in the mountains melts and rivers overflow resulting floods. Hot & dry climate Little rainfall ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION: Believed to be settled in 3000 b.c. Divided into city-states Helped to develop the first form of organized religion Created one of the earliest form of writing 3
  4. 4. CITY-STATES Always in constant conflict over water rights and land Created walls for protection Farms were located outside of the city SUMERIANS INVENTED: Wheel Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute 12 month lunar calendar arch ramp RELIGION IN MESOPOTAMIA: Mesopotamian religion was the first to be recorded. 4
  5. 5. Religion was Polytheistic – worshipping many gods & goddesses Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods. o Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses o Sun god – most important. Life after death was an extension of life. “ZIGGURATS” – HOLY MOUNTAINS: Gods were worshipped at huge temples called Ziggurats. 5
  6. 6. RECONSTRUCTION OF ZIGGURAT AT UR: MYTHS: Believed that the world was a flat disc, surrounded by a huge, holed space and heaven is above that. Believed that water was everywhere, the top, bottom and sides, and that the universe was born from this enormous sea. WRITING – “CUNEIFORM”: Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet. 6
  7. 7. Needed for religion, government & trade. CUNEIFORM: Over 20,000 books were found at a library in the city of Nineveh The books were made out of clay. Papyrus was not available so they used clay to make tablets for writing. Hammurabi’s code was also carved on stone in cuneiform. ECONOMY: RICH POOR Government Officials Farmers Religious Leaders Craftsmen 7
  8. 8. Traders AGRICULTURE Agriculture is possible only with irrigation Need for irrigation led the Sumerians, and later the Akkadians, to build their cities along the Tigris and Euphrates The rivers provided the further benefits of fish (used both for food and fertilizer), reeds, and clay (for building materials). THE INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE CHANGED THE WAY PEOPLE LIVED: Agriculture (Farming) Growth of Cities Division of Labor (Specialization) 8
  9. 9. Trade Writing and Mathematics SOCIETY: Commerce & trade helped determine social position in Mesopotamian society (occupations inc. builders, judges, & surgeons) Ownership of land & attempts to maintain ownership also helped define social position Most importantly FAMILY defined social position & a network of support FAMILY LIFE: Patriarchal society Elders were respected Only royal offspring’s went to schools Boys were taught their father’s trade Girls stayed at home and learnt household chores 9
  10. 10. WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN MESOPOTAMIA: Owned property Operated businesses Get divorce (if had good reason) Could recover their dowry if seeking divorce HOUSES: Materials used – mud bricks & mud plaster Square center room with other rooms attached to it Poor people used reed for building houses GOVERNMENT: Sumerians were ruled by monarchs. The government & temples owned & cultivated large areas of land o Manual work done by low class labourers o Exported wool & textiles for metals Frequent wars led to the emergence of warriors as leaders. 10
  11. 11. FESTIVALS: Ancient Mesopotamians had ceremonies each month. The theme of the rituals and festivals for each month is determined by six important factors: The phase of the Moon The phase of the annual agricultural cycle Equinoxes and solstices The local myths and its divine Patrons The success of the reigning Monarch Commemoration of specific historical events. MUSIC: Songs were written for the gods and also to describe important events Oud is a small, stringed musical instrument used by the Mesopotamians. GAMES: 11
  12. 12. HUNTING – POPULAR AMONG ASSYRIAN KINGS BOXING WRESTLING AKKADIANS: Spoke a Semitic Language related to modern Hebrew and Arabic 12
  13. 13. PERSIANS: Present day Iran Spoke an Indo-European Language Zoroastrianism o Belief in final judgment and training for it. CHALDEANS: Skilled astronomers Hanging Gardens of Babylon King Nebuchadnezzar built them for his wife o One of the Ancient Wonders of the World 13
  14. 14. BABYLONIANS: Chief god: Marduk o Prayed for good harvest and success in business. King Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code o Earliest code of law o Based on equal retaliation. HAMMURABI’S CODE: 282 laws. Harsh punishment for crimes. Based on equal retaliation. 14
  15. 15. Laws were varied for the wealthy and powerful. HITTITES: Iron Weapons LYDIANS: First to use a money economy. o An economic system based in the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account. PHOENICIANS: Major natural resource: lumber from cedar forests. 15
  16. 16. Invented the art of glassblowing. Alphabet o Then adopted by Greeks and Romans ASSYRIANS: Chief god Assur Chariots used First Cavalry THE END 16
  • muhammadajab

    Oct. 3, 2021
  • kritikamra

    Sep. 13, 2014

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