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MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

              Azizur Khan
              Tanvi
              Gujarathi
              Akshata
         ...
Introduction
• All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb
  were great builders.
• With the coming of the Mughals, India...
Introduction
     The main characteristic features of
    Mughal architecture are :
•   The bulbous domes
•   The slender ...
Introduction
• Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who
  showed his passion for building by planning and
  constructing ...
Humayun’s tomb
Humayun’s tomb was built by his
widow Haji Begum in 1565 A.D. in
Delhi in 1569A.D., fourteen years
after hi...
Agra Fort
A greater part of the fort at
Agra was constructed by Akbar
starting in 1565 AD and
completed it in 1574 A.D.
Si...
Fatehpur Sikri
Akbar’s greatest architectural
achievement was the
construction of Fatehpur Sikri,
his Capital City near Ag...
Buland Darwaza
A magnificent gateway was
added later in 1571-72 to
commemorate his conquest of
Gujarat. Built of red sand
...
Akbar’s Tomb - Sikandra
The Mausoleum of Akbar at
Sikandra near Agra was
started by Akbar and
completed by his son Jahangi...
Itmad-Ud-Daula’s Tomb
The Mausoleum of Itmad-ud-
Daula, the revenue minister of
Jahangir and Nur Jehan’s
father was built ...
Itmad-Ud-Daula’s Tomb
•Shah Jehan, the most famous of the Mughal builders had a
passion for building.
•His buildings are m...
Jama Masjid - Delhi
The Jama Masjid in Delhi is the
largest mosque in India and
was built between 1650-
1656A.D. It is con...
Red Fort - Delhi
 The fortress is in the shape
of a rectangle 900 metres by
550 metres. The rampart
walls are about 34 met...
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal in Agra, a dream
in white marble was built by
Shah Jehan as a memorial to
his beloved wife Mumtaz
...
Taj Mahal
An octagonal hall with an
exquisite perforated marble
screen contains the cenotaphs
of Mumtaz and Shah
Jehan. Th...
Bibi Ka Maqbara
Aurangzeb being a puritan
did not encourage art in any
form. Architecture and fine
Arts declined during hi...
The Mughal period in the Indian
history is one of the glorious
periods that have enriched India in
multifarious ways. Art ...
Thank You..
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Mughal architecture

  1. 1. MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE Azizur Khan Tanvi Gujarathi Akshata Hase Swapnil Kanse Nikhil Mehta
  2. 2. Introduction • All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great builders. • With the coming of the Mughals, Indian architecture was greatly influenced by Persian styles. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. • The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. • It had a time-span of 132 years, practically from 1526 to 1658, and Agra-Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore- Kashmir- Kabul, Delhi, Allahabad, Ajmer, Ahmedabad, Mandu and Burhanpur are its major centres.
  3. 3. Introduction The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are : • The bulbous domes • The slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners • Large halls • Massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation
  4. 4. Introduction • Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who showed his passion for building by planning and constructing splendid edifices. • During his reign Mughal architecture took on new forms. • Akbar made free use of both Hindu and Persian styles. • The use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling are the salient -features of Akbar's buildings. • Akbar constructed numerous forts, towers, palaces, mosques, mausoleums and gateways.
  5. 5. Humayun’s tomb Humayun’s tomb was built by his widow Haji Begum in 1565 A.D. in Delhi in 1569A.D., fourteen years after his death. The mausoleum stands in the centre of a square enclosed garden. The garden is divided and sub-divided into squares, typical of Mughal gardens. The lofty double storeyed structure is built on a huge high platform terrace which has a row of calls with arched openings. The central chamber is octagonal in shape and contains the tomb. Each side of the mausoleum has a large arched alcove in the centre with smaller ones on either side. It has a high marble double dome in the centre and pillared kiosks with cupolas surrounding it. Built of red sandstone with an inlay of black, white and yellow marble it presents an imposing picture. Planned by a Persian architect and constructed by Indian workers, it is a combination of both Persian and
  6. 6. Agra Fort A greater part of the fort at Agra was constructed by Akbar starting in 1565 AD and completed it in 1574 A.D. Situated on the bank of the river Jamuna, it is a massive and grand structure. The special feature of this fort is the 2.5 kms. long and 21 metres high circuitous wall of solid red sand stone. The stones are linked with iron rings so close that not even a hair can pass through. The entrance to the fort is through two gateways. The main entrance known as Delhi Gate was the ceremonial entrance to the fort. The other smaller gateway is called the Hathi Pol or Elephant Gate because of the two huge elephants on
  7. 7. Fatehpur Sikri Akbar’s greatest architectural achievement was the construction of Fatehpur Sikri, his Capital City near Agra. The construction of the walled city was started in 1569 A.D. and completed in 1574 A.D. contained some of the most beautiful buildings – both religious and secular which testify to the Emperor’s aim of achieving social, political and religious integration. The religious edifices worth mentioning are the Jami Masjid and Salim Chisti’s Tomb. The tomb built in 1571 A.D. in the corner of the mosque compound is a square marble chamber with a verandah. The cenotaph has an exquisitely designed lattice screen around
  8. 8. Buland Darwaza A magnificent gateway was added later in 1571-72 to commemorate his conquest of Gujarat. Built of red sand stone and marble it is said to be the “most perfect architectural achievement in the whole of India". A flight of steps lead to the gateway which is about 53 metres in height and 39 metres in width. Entrance is through a huge arched domed recess. A broad rectangular strip bordering the archway has calligraphic inscriptions on it. At the corners are slender turrets. The beautiful perforated parapet and the row of kiosks with cupolas add to the dignity of the monument.
  9. 9. Akbar’s Tomb - Sikandra The Mausoleum of Akbar at Sikandra near Agra was started by Akbar and completed by his son Jahangir in 1612 A.D. who changed the original design of his father. Designed on the model of a Buddhist Vihara, it is set in the centre of a square garden. The enclosure wall on each side has a gateway. The main gateway has four white marble minarets in the four corners. The Mausoleum has five terraces, rising from the basement, one above the other, diminishing in size as they ascend. The red sand- stone entrance gateway is the largest and is richly decorated with inlaid coloured stone work.
  10. 10. Itmad-Ud-Daula’s Tomb The Mausoleum of Itmad-ud- Daula, the revenue minister of Jahangir and Nur Jehan’s father was built in Agra on the banks of the Jumuna. Started by Jahangir it was completed by Nur Jehan in 1628 A.D. A small rectangular structure in white marble, inlaid with semi- precious stones and coloured glass, it is a delicate and beautiful piece of architecture. It is the first pure marble monument and differs from the typical massive, red sand-stone structures of earlier Mughals. Situated in a garden amidst fountains, it has a square lower storey with four minarets in the four corners. A traceried pavilion forms the second storey. A central chamber inside contains the
  11. 11. Itmad-Ud-Daula’s Tomb •Shah Jehan, the most famous of the Mughal builders had a passion for building. •His buildings are marked by the quality feminity, grace and elegance. • They do not show the masculinity of Akbar's solid red sand- stone constructions. •Mughal architecture reached the peaks of excellence during this reign. •The main characteristics of his buildings are – The use of delicately carved white marble richly decorated with pietra dura or inlay of coloured stones and calligraphy in black marble. •Some of his outstanding works are the Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque in Agra Fort and the Taj Mahal, the Red fort in Delhi with the Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas, the Jami Masjid in
  12. 12. Jama Masjid - Delhi The Jama Masjid in Delhi is the largest mosque in India and was built between 1650- 1656A.D. It is constructed on a high platform and approached by a flight of steps on three sides. The main entrance is a double storeyed gateway and leads to a vast square courtyard which is enclosed by pillared corridors. The prayer hall, rectangular in plan has a facade of eleven arches. The high central arch is flanked by tall slender minarets with cupolas. White marble panels with inscriptions frame the arches. Three domes with alternate black and white marble stripes surmount the prayer hall. On the eastern corners, stand two tapering
  13. 13. Red Fort - Delhi The fortress is in the shape of a rectangle 900 metres by 550 metres. The rampart walls are about 34 metres high. A moat surrounds the rampart. Two of the five gateways of the fort are three -storeyed structures flanked by octagonal towers. These are the Lahori Gate and the Delhi Gate. Figures of two huge elephants flank the Delhi Gate. The main entrance to the fort is through the Lahori Gate. A covered passage with shops on either side leads to the palaces inside the fort. Barracks for soldiers, audience halls, horse and elephant stables, and
  14. 14. Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal in Agra, a dream in white marble was built by Shah Jehan as a memorial to his beloved wife Mumtaz Begum. Built on the banks of the river Jumna, it was started in 1632 A.D. and took 22 years to complete. Marble from Makrana and precious stones from different parts of the world were used in its construction. Planned by Isa, a Persian architect it is a masterpiece of architecture. The Taj is situated in the centre of a high marble terrace. A marble minaret of four storeys stands on each of the four corners of the terrace. The minarets are crowned with domes. The main structure is a square. A huge, vaulted recess with smaller arched recesses in two
  15. 15. Taj Mahal An octagonal hall with an exquisite perforated marble screen contains the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shah Jehan. The vaulted ceiling is crowned in the centre by a large bulbous dome which tapers off into a foliated crest. Around the dome are four cupolas. The surface of the walls – exterior and interior and the cenotaphs are beautifully decorated with pietra dura, floral and geometrical designs. Borders of inscriptions decorate the main archways. A Mosque on the west and a corresponding structure on the east in red sand-stone complete the effect of symmetry. Situated in a large enclosed rectangular garden
  16. 16. Bibi Ka Maqbara Aurangzeb being a puritan did not encourage art in any form. Architecture and fine Arts declined during his reign never to come up again during Mughal rule. One of the very few buildings of this period worth mentioning is the mausoleum of his wife, Rabia-Ud-Daurani erected in 1679 A.D. in Aurangabad (Deccan) by her son. A poor replica of the Taj Mahal and half its size, it shows the extent to which art had declined. Its noteworthy features are the latticed octagonal white marble screen, which encloses the tombs and the beaten brass doors with floral panels and
  17. 17. The Mughal period in the Indian history is one of the glorious periods that have enriched India in multifarious ways. Art and architecture had received a great fillip during the Mughal period that had gifted us with architectural gems that have defied the passage of time in their appeal and
  18. 18. Thank You..
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