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Tissues ppt

Tissue for IX Biology

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Tissues ppt

  1. 1. Tissue An aggregation of similarly specialized cells which together perform specialized functions are called tissues
  2. 2. Cell Tissue
  3. 3. Meristematic tissue • Meristematic tissues are composed of cells that divide continuously. • The cells are spherical, oval, polygonal or rectangular • The cell wall is thin and made up of cellulose • The cells are closely arranged without inter- cellular spaces • Cytoplasm is abundant and nuclei are large • Vacuoles are absent and if present, very few
  4. 4. Classification of Meristems
  5. 5. Classification of meristems • 1. Apical meristem Position: At the root tip and shoot tip. Function: To increase in length of the axis. • 2. Lateral meristem Position: On the lateral side of stem and root. Function: To increase in diameter of plant. • 3. Intercalary meristem Position:At the base of the leaf/internodes/ leaf. Function:To increase the length of the plant or its organs.
  6. 6. Function of the merestematic tissues • The main function of meristematic tissue is to continuously form a number of new cells and help in growth • Forms permanent tissues
  7. 7. Permanent tissues • When the cells formed by meristematic tissue take up a specific role and lose the ability to divide. As a result, they form a permanent tissue. This process of taking up a permanent shape, size, and a function is called differentiation. Cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to form different types of permanent tissue.
  8. 8. Simple permanent tissue • A simple tissue is made up of one type of cells that form a homogeneous or uniform mass. Simple plant tissues include parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
  9. 9. Parenchyma • Cells are isodiametric i.e. equally expanded on all sides. • They may be oval, round, polygonal or elongated. • Nucleus is present and hence living. • The cell walls are thin and made of cellulose. • Cytoplasm is dense with a single large vacuole. • Intercellular spaces may be present. • May contain chlorophyll. Parenchyma which contain chlorophyll are called chlorenchyma.
  10. 10. Aerenchyma Chlorenchyma Types of Parenchyma
  11. 11. Occurrence • Found in the cortex of root, ground tissue in stems and mesophyll of leaves.
  12. 12. Function • Store and assimilate food • Give mechanical strength by maintaining turgidity • Prepare food if chlorophyll is present • Store waste products like tanin, gum, crystals and resins
  13. 13. Collenchyma • The cells are elongated and are circular, oval or polygonal in cross-section. • Cell wall is unevenly thickened with cellulose at the corners against the intercellular spaces. • Nucleus is present and hence the tissue is living. • Vacuoles are small. • Intercellular spaces are generally absent. • If they contain chlorophyll they are known as chlorenchyma.
  14. 14. Occurrence • Found under the skin i.e. below the epidermis in dicot stems
  15. 15. Function • Provide mechanical support to the stem. • Being extensible, these cells readily adapt themselves to the rapid elongation of the stem.
  16. 16. Sclerenchyma Nature • The cells are long, narrow, thick and lignified, usually pointed at both ends. • The cell wall is evenly thickened with lignin and sometimes is so thick that the cell cavity or lumen is absent. • Nucleus is absent and hence the tissue is made up of dead cells. • They have simple often, oblique pits in the walls. • The middle lamella i.e. the wall between adjacent cells is conspicuous.
  17. 17. Occurence • Found abundantly in stems of plants like hemp, jute and coconut. • It is present in stems, around vascular plants , in the leaves, hard covering of seeds&nuts Monocot stem Leaf
  18. 18. Function • Gives mechanical support to the plant by giving rigidity, flexibility and elasticity to the plant body.
  19. 19. Fibres Sclerids The sclerenchyma cells are usually elongated, with tapering ends. Such cells are commonly described as sclerenchyma fibres cells are shorter and irregular in shape. Such cells are commonly described as sclereids or stone cells.
  20. 20. Sclerides • Sclereids ( Also known as stone cells or sclerotic cells) • Occurrence : Most common in fruits and seeds • • A) Structure • Cells are short, isodiametric, spherical, oval, t shaped or cylindrical in shape. • Usually have thick lignified secondary cell wall. • Occur single or in loose groups. • B) Functions Protects the plant from stress and strains from environment. • Provide mechanical strength and rigidity. • Provide grittiness to the pulp of fruits.
  21. 21. COMPLEX PERMANENT TISSUES • These are made of more than one type of cells which combine together to work as a unit. • They transport water and food material to various parts of the plant body. • They are of two types- xylem and phloem. .
  22. 22. Vascular tissues
  23. 23. XYLEM This complex tissue helps in the transport of water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots to all the parts of the plant body. It also helps in replacing the water lost during transpiration and photosynthesis.
  24. 24. Components of xylem: • Tracheids • Vessels • Xylem parenchyma • Xylem fibre
  25. 25. PHLOEM • This tissue is found in the vascular plants. Its function is to transport sugars and other food materials from the leaves to the rest of the parts of the plant body. Xylem and Phloem together form the vascular bundle.
  26. 26. Components of phloem • Sieve tube element • Companion cell • Phloem parenchyma • Phloem fibre
  27. 27. Vascular bundle • Xylem and Phloem together form the vascular bundle.
  29. 29. Monocot root Dicot root
  30. 30. DICOT STEM Monocot stem
  31. 31. Animal tissues
  32. 32. Different tissues in stomach
  33. 33. Tissue Types • Although our body parts are diverse in both structure and function, they are all constructed from four basic tissue types: • 1. Epithelial tissue: Covers the body, lines the cavities of the body and composes the glands. • 2. Connective tissue: Connects and supports the structures of the body, providing structural support and binding organs together. • 3. Muscular tissue: Has the unique capability to contract or shorten, provides movement and heat for the body. • 4. Nervous tissue: Composed of specialized cells that respond to the environment by detecting, processing and coordinating information
  34. 34. Classification of animal tissues Epethelial tissues Connective tissues Muscular tissues Nervous tissue 1)Squamosal 2) cuboidal 3) Columnar 4) stratified 1) cartilage 2) Bone 3) Tendon 4) Ligament 5) Blood 6) Adipose 7) Areolar 1) striated muscles 2) Smooth muscles 3) Cardiac muscles
  35. 35. The covering or protective tissues in the animal body are called epithelial tissues
  36. 36. Characters of epithelial tissues • 1. cells are tightly packed without intercellular spaces • 2.epethelium is usually separated from the underlying tissue by an extra cellular fibrous basement membrane BASEMENT MEMBRANE
  37. 37. Epethelial tissues • Different epithelia show differing structures that correlate with their unique functions. • For example, in cells lining blood vessels or lung alveoli, where transportation of substances occurs through a selectively permeable surface, there is a simple flat kind of epithelium. This is called the simple squamosal epethelium • Where absorption and secretion occur, as in the inner lining of the intestine, tall epithelial cells are present. This columnar (meaning ‘pillar-like’) epithelium facilitates movement across the epithelial barrier • Cuboidal epithelium (with cube-shaped cells) forms the lining of kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands, where it provides mechanical support.
  38. 38. CHARECTERS OF SQUAMOSAL EPETHELIUM Cells are thin & flat & form a delicate lining Cells are like tiles on the floor
  39. 39. Squasomal epethelial tissue
  40. 40. Location of squamosal epethelium • 1.Inner lining of blood vessels • 2. Inner lining of lung alveoli • 3,Inner lining of mouth • 4.Inner lining of oesophagus
  42. 42. Squamosal epethelium
  43. 43. Cells are cube shaped
  45. 45. COLUMNAR EPETHELIUM It has tall epithelial cells. Cells may have celia or without celia
  46. 46. Simple columnar epithelium without Celia Simple columnar epithelium with Celia
  47. 47. LOCATION OF COLUMNAR EPETHELIUM 1.Innerlining of the respiratory tract Celia pushes the mucus forward to clear the respiratory tract
  48. 48. 2. Interlining of the oviduct Celia push the zygote towards the uterus
  49. 49. The skin, which protects the body, is also made of squamous epithelium. Skin epithelial cells are arranged in many layers to prevent wear and tear. Since they are arranged in a pattern of layers, the epithelium is called stratified squamous epithelium.
  50. 50. Location of stratified epethelium • Skin
  51. 51. Oesophagus
  52. 52. Connective tissues 1. cartilage 2. Bone 3. Tendon 4.Blood 5.Ligament 6.Adipose 7.Areolar
  53. 53. Blood has a fluid (liquid) matrix called plasma, in which red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets are suspended. The plasma contains proteins, salts and hormones. Blood flows and transports gases, digested food, hormones and waste materials to different parts of the body.
  54. 54. Different types of blood cells
  55. 55. Bone • It is a strong and nonflexible tissue • Bone cells are embedded in a hard matrix that is composed of calcium and phosphorus compounds • Bone cells are called Osteocytes
  56. 56. Functions of bone • It forms the framework that supports the body. • It also anchors the muscles and supports the main organs of the body.
  57. 57. Cartilage • It has widely spaced cells. • The solid matrix is composed of proteins and sugars. • Cells are called chondrocytes
  58. 58. 1. Between the bones at the joints.It smoothens bone surfaces at joints 2. in the nose, ear, trachea and larynx.
  59. 59. Areolar tissue • It consists of a jelly-like matrix in which there are several kinds of cells and interlacing bundles of fibers. • The fibers are of two kinds, white and yellow. The white fibers are very resistant to stretching but the yellow fibers can be stretched and are called yellow elastic fibers. • Some of the cells are able to consume and destroy germs and so play a valuable part in the body's defensive system against disease.
  60. 60. Areolar tissue-Location • Areolar connective tissue is found between • the skin and muscles, around blood vessels and nerves and in the bone marrow. • It fills the space inside the organs, supports internal • organs and helps in repair of tissues.
  61. 61. Adipose tissue • Adipose Tissue is a loose fibrous connective tissue packed with many cells (called "adipocytes") that are specialized for storage of triglycerides more commonly referred to as "fats". • Each adipocyte cell is filled with a single large droplet of triglyceride (fat). As this occupies most of the volume of the cell, its cytoplasm, nucleus, and other components are pushed towards the edges of the cell - which is bounded by the plasma membrane
  62. 62. Adipose tissue is found below the skin and between internal organs. Adipose tissue -location
  63. 63. FUNTIONS OF ADIPOSE TISSUE • 1. Storage of fat • 2. Acts as insulator (prevents the heat loss from the body)
  64. 64. Tendon • Tendons connect muscles to bone
  65. 65. Ligament Ligaments connect bone to bone
  66. 66. Muscular tissue • Muscular tissue consists of elongated cells,also called muscle fibres. This tissue is responsible for movement in our body. • Muscles contain special proteins called contractile proteins, which contract and relax to cause movement
  67. 67. Characters of striated muscles • 1. Cylindrical, unbranched • 2. Striations • 3. Many nuclei • 4. Attached to bones (skeletal muscles) • 5. Voluntory muscles(under our control)
  69. 69. Characters of smooth muscles • 1.Unbranched, spindle shaped • 2. No strations( Unstraite d muscle) • 3.single nucleus • 4. Involuntary muscle • 5. Found in the walls of the visceral organs
  70. 70. Cardiac muscle • 1.Branched, cylindrical • Straiations are there, but they are not prominent • 3.Many nuclei • 4. Involuntary muscle • 5.Found in the walls of heart
  71. 71. Location of the different types of muscles
  72. 72. Nervous tissue • All cells possess the ability to respond to stimuli However, cells of the nervous tissue are highly specialised for being stimulated and then transmitting the stimulus very rapidly from one place to another within the body. • The brain, spinal cord and nerves are all composed of the nervous tissue. The cells of this tissue are called nerve cells or neurons.
  73. 73. Structure of the neuron • Cell bodyCell body – main part– main part • DendriteDendrite – receives action– receives action potential (stimulation) frompotential (stimulation) from other neuronsother neurons • AxonAxon – branches from cell– branches from cell body, where the actionbody, where the action potential occurspotential occurs • Axon terminalAxon terminal – end of an– end of an axonaxon • Myelin sheathMyelin sheath – lipid layer– lipid layer for protection over neuronsfor protection over neurons • Nodes of RanvierNodes of Ranvier – gaps in– gaps in myelin sheathmyelin sheath
  74. 74. Types of tissues & their location