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Predicting gender disparities in attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women: a case study from Rwanda

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Master project by Mette Albèr, Ming Yu Wong, Urša Krenk & Stan deRuijter. Barcelona GSE Master's Program in Economics.

Publicado en: Economía y finanzas
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Predicting gender disparities in attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women: a case study from Rwanda

  1. 1. Predic'ng  Gender  Dispari'es  in  A1tudes  Towards   In'mate  Partner  Violence  Against  Women:   A  Case  Study  from  Rwanda METTE  ALBÈR,  MING  YU  WONG,  URŠA  KRENK  &  STAN  DERUIJTER
  2. 2. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Background • Implica(ons  of  In(mate-­‐Partner  Violence  Against  Women  (IPVAW):   ◦  Health  implica(ons   ◦  Millennium  Development  Goal:  Eradicate  Gender  Inequality   • Commonly  socially  and  culturally  acceptable  norm  in  Sub  Saharan   African  countries   • Data:  The  Demographic  Health  Survey  Program  -­‐  household  level  survey   • Mo(va(on   ◦  Magnitude   ◦  Gender  disparity   ◦  Rwanda:  31%  (absolute  disparity  in  jus(fica(on)   Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  3. 3. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Literature  Review  &  Contribu'on   Exis(ng  literature  has  largely  focused  on  three  areas:   1.  Predictors  of  women’s  acceptance  of  IPVAW   ◦  Yodanis  (2004)   ◦  Uthman  et  al.  (2010)   2.  Individual  percep(on  and  socio-­‐demographics   ◦  Rani  et  al.  (2005)   3.  Associa(on  between  the  incidence  of  violence  and   acceptance  of  violence   ◦  Mosavi  et  al.  (2005)     Household  and    Regional  dynamics  enable  policy  interven(on   Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  4. 4. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Theory No  clear  theore(cal  doctrine  due  to  complex  dynamics   Social-­‐Cogni#ve  Learning  Theory:   ◦ Bandura  (2001)   ◦ Observe  and  reenact  others  in  society   ◦ Social  norms  remain  for  genera(ons   ◦ Start  ques(oning  as  a  result  of  external  exposure     Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  5. 5. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Hypotheses Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Educa#on   • Higher  Educa(on  !  Less  dependence  on  husbands  !  Less  accep(ng  of   IPVAW   • Hypothesis:  Higher  Educa(on  !  Smaller  gap     Access  to  Media   • Diffuses  new  styles  of  behavior  !  Mo(vates  ques(oning  of  norms     • Hypothesis:  More  frequent  Access  !  Lower  gap     Religion   • Intra-­‐household  religious  discordance.     • Hypothesis:  Different  Religion  !  Higher  gap   Polygamy     • Patriarchal  ideologies  /  Male  superiority   • Hypothesis:  Increases  BOTH  men  and  women’s  acceptance  of  IPVAW   Effect  on  gap  !  ambiguous        
  6. 6. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   •  Binary  Outcome  Variable  Generated   Measuring  IPVAW  Acceptance
  7. 7. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Regional  Level Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  8. 8. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Regional  Level Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  9. 9. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Regional  Level Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Dependent  Variable:     •  District-­‐level  Absolute  Gap   (%  Women  Accep(ng  IPVAW  -­‐  %  Men  Accep(ng  IPVAW  within  district)         •  Predictors:  Wealth  Index,  %  Secondary  educa(on,  etc.     •  Method:  OLS   Variable   n   Mean   SD   Min   Max   Absolute  Gap     30   0.307   0.181   -­‐0.02   0.639  
  10. 10. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Household  Level Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Dependent  Variable:    IPVAW  Acceptance  for  the  woman  in  the  household   Predictors:  Men’s  /  Women’s  Educa(on  Level,  TV-­‐viewing  Frequency,  etc.     Method:  Mul(variate  Logis(c  Regression    
  11. 11. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion     Polygamy:  Significant  with  a   nega(ve  associa(on  of  -­‐3.1     Religion:  Posi(ve  associa(ons,   though  not  significant  at  low   levels     Educa9on:  No  consistent  pafern,   hard  to  interpret     No  other  significant  predictors   District  Level  Results >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  12. 12. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion     Women´s  Educa9on:  Nega(ve   associa(on  for  secondary,  MFX   -­‐0.225     Frequency  of  Watching  TV:  Not   consistent  across  categories  or   genders     Wealth  Index:  Nega(ve   associa(on     Polygamy:  Nega(ve,  MFX  of  -­‐.112   Household  Level  Results >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  13. 13. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion     Women´s  Educa9on:  Nega(ve   associa(ons,  MFX  of  -­‐.042,  -­‐.198,   -­‐.422     Frequency  of  Watching  TV:   Nega(ve  for  women,  MFX  of  -­‐. 042,  -­‐.166     Wealth  Index:  Nega(ve,  highly   significant     Employment:  Nega(ve,  but  small   MFX  of  -­‐.009,  -­‐.123,  not   significant   Household  Level  Results >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  14. 14. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Discussion From  the  results,  three  primary  conclusions  can  be  reached:   1)  Many  factors  beyond  na(onal-­‐  or  district-­‐level  characteris(cs   account  for  varia(on  in  IPVAW  acceptance  across  genders   2)  This  is  evidenced  by  discrepancies  in  results  from  district  and   household  level  analyses   3)  The  above  analyses  provide  new  insights  into  household  level   dynamics  which  are  significant  correlates  of  IPVAW  acceptance   dispari(es  across  genders   >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  15. 15. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   1)  More  granular  predictors  of  IPVAW  acceptance  rates •  IPVAW  is  fundamentally  a  household  level  issue   •  Higher  order  analyses  may  aggregate  out  granular  effects     •  This  may  obscure  true  rela(onships  between  IPVAW  jus(fica(on  and   explanatory  variables   •  One  novel  mode  of  analysis,  is  presented  here:   •  Seek  to  uncover  the  nature  of  intra-­‐household  level  dynamics  which   predict  gaps  in  IPVAW  acceptance   •  Further  stra(fying  the  analysis  can  help  befer  contextualize  the  predictors   of  IPVAW  jus(fica(on  for  women   >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  16. 16. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   2)  Discrepancies  between  household  and  district  level  analyses •  Evidence  from  this  paper  reflects  that  household  level  analyses  can  provide   significant  insights  into  the  predictors  of  IPVAW  acceptance  gaps   •  One  example  is  educa(on:   o Educa(on  levels  were  not  found  to  be  a  significant  predictor  of  the  gap  at   the  district  level   o Significant  predictor  of  intra-­‐household  differences  in  IPVAW  acceptance   o Women’s  educa(on  has  greater  associa(on  with  decreased  IPVAW   acceptance  when  men  do  not  jus(fy  IPVAW   >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  17. 17. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   3)  Household  level  predictors  of  the  IPVAW  gap •  Women’s  educa(on  especially  was  found  to  be  among  the  most  significant   predictors  of  a  decrease  in  women’s  acceptance  of  IPVAW   •  Other  examples:  frequency  of  watching  TV  and  household  asset  levels   •  Could  be  interpreted  as  indicators  of  a  women’s  empowerment   •  Frequency  of  TV  watching  could  be  proxy  for  access  to  outside  media   sources   •  Household  asset  level  could  be  indicator  of  women’s  intra-­‐household   decision  making  power   >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  18. 18. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Limita'ons •  Limited  causal  inference  due  to  endogeneity  issues:   ◦  Omifed  variable  bias   ◦  Two-­‐direc(onal  rela(onship  between  predictors  and  the   dependent  variable   •  Response  Bias:  Phrasing  of  Ques(ons  Mafers  (e.g.  Yount  &  Li,  2009)   •  Recent  legisla(ve  changes  might  not  fully  be  taken  into  account  by   the  survey   >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion  
  19. 19. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Further  Research >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   •  Collec(on  of  Panel  Data   •  Study  how  percep(on  of  violence  changes  over  (me   •  The  impacts  of  the  1994  Genocide  on  the  percep(on  of   violence    
  20. 20. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Conclusion •  Need  for  targeted  household-­‐level  research  into  the  correlates  of  the   IPVAW   •  Results  demonstrate  that  na(onal-­‐  and  region-­‐  level  results  do  not   fully  capture  household  and  inter-­‐personal  dynamics     •  Policy  interven(ons  based  on  household-­‐specific  characteris(cs   could  be  more  effec(ve  than  broader  interven(ons    
  21. 21. Mo#va#on  >  Hypotheses  &  Methodology  >  Results  &  Discussion  >  Further  Research  &  Conclusion   Ques'ons?

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