• has no distinct smell
• hence, bees and other
insects do not fertilize
• Only one of a hundred
cacao flowers will become
fertilized and grow into
• The flower opens at dawn, and the pollen is
released from the anthers just before sunrise.
• The stigma is receptive to pollination only
from sunrise to sunset on the day that the
• If the flower is not pollinated, it usually falls
off the next day.
Only about 5% of the pollinated
flowers receive enough pollen to
begin flower development.
It takes about 5-8 months for the
flower to blossom into the fruit and
become a pod.
Both the fruit and the flowers are on
the tree all year long which is an
oddity in the world of fruit producing
• It may be cylindrical to round in shape and
green to green-white or maroon in color
• Color changes as the fruit mature, and the
greenish pods typically turn bright yellow,
while the maroon pods typically turn orange
or yellowish orange upon ripening.
Forastero cacao has purple-colored beans and is mainly used
to give chocolate its full-bodied flavor. Its bitter taste has a
short duration and is unsupported by secondary flavors,
which is why it is often blended with superior cocoas.
•Trinitario combines the best of the two other main varieties:
the hardiness and high yield of Forastero and the refined taste of
•The quality of the cocoa varies between average and superior.
•It is the predominant fine flavor cocoa.
• Harvesting cocoa pods requires considerable skill
because the pods grow on thick stems, very close to
the trunk and branches.
• The tree itself is highly vulnerable to damage, which
can easily be caused by the blade used for harvesting.
• For example, if a flower cushion is damaged, no flowers
will develop from that spot in future years, while cuts
on the tree's branches or trunk encourage fungal
• Freshly harvested cocoa pods are usually taken to
a de-husking area, where the cocoa seeds (or
"beans") are removed from the pods in
preparation for fermentation.
• If the beans are allowed to sit for too long in the
harvested pods, the pulp can dry out, or
uncontrolled fermentation can begin inside the
pod - leading to a poor end result, with beans
that are either under-fermented, or rotten.
• May be done in the cacao farm right after
harvest or within 7 days after harvest.
• A pod splitter is used
Removal of seeds
• Wet beans attached to the placenta are
removed manually using a scooping tool
• Seeds must be separated to avoid clustering.
• Damaged seeds like black seeds and insect-
damaged seeds must be discarded.
• Scooped beans must be placed in suitable
containers to drain liquid from 16-18 hrs.
• Batch labeling must be done for traceability
• Fermentation boxes made of wood,
• Should facilitate drainage of fermentation
drippings, ease of turning, heat accumulation
and air circulation
• Fermentation boxes must be covered (with
jute sacks or banana leaves) to avoid heat loss
and to prevent contamination
A box with dimensions of 75 cm x 75 cm x 45 cm can accommodate 200 g
of wet cacao beans.
Factors which affect fermentation
• Type of cacao
• Ripeness of the pods
• Quantity of beans
• Air circulation
• Brings out the best chocolate flavor
• Too short fermentation (under fermentation)
produces violet beans with weak flavor.
• Over fermentation results to rotten beans
which have a putrid taste and produces off-
• During fermentation, yeasts grow on the
sweet pulp and convert the sugars to alcohol.
The alcohol is oxidised by bacteria - a process
that ultimately produces carbon dioxide,
water, and heat. Hence, the pulp breaks down
and drains away.
• With correct fermentation the acetic acid and
high temperatures produced kill the cocoa bean
within 24 hours.
• The bean's death causes its cell walls to break
down, and allows previously separated
substances to mix.
• Chemical changes then take place within the
bean. These changes include enzyme activity,
oxidation, and the breakdown of proteins into
• The purple polyphenols are converted into
insoluble substances which are
oxidised, giving a well-fermented bean its
characteristic chocolate-brown colour.
• The chemical reactions caused by
fermentation also begin to develop the bean's
classic chocolate flavour. The length of
fermentation varies depending on the bean
type: Forastero beans require 5-6 days, while
Criollo beans may need only 2-3 days.
Cocoa dried by the traditional sun drying methods (7 & 8
days) compared to cocoa dried on a solar drier (5 & 6 days)
• Cacao beans are sorted to remove the flat,
slaty, black, moldy, small, double beans and
beans with insect damage.
• Manual sorting with hand gloves is practiced
to remove defective beans.
• To grade a batch of beans, a random sample of one
hundred beans is selected.
• Each bean is cut in half lengthwise, and one half is
placed shell down on a grid. Once the hundred samples
have been arranged, they are examined for defects.
• Defects include mould, slatiness, insect damage, signs
of germination, and flatness. The number of defective
beans is recorded as a per centage of the batch, and
determines the final grade of the batch.
• Grading of fermented and dried cocoa beans
may be based on fungal contamination based
on ergosterol index and ochratoxin A
Grading of cacao beans based on
% MOLDY % SLATY OTHER
1A < 100 3 3 2.5
1B 101-120 3 3 2.5
2A < 100 4 8 5.0
2B 101-120 4 8 5.0
>120 >4 >8 >5
Packaging and Storage
• Bags should be made of food grade or non-
toxic materials such as jute bags or sacks..
• Label should be imprinted on the bag
indicating the production batch number and
date, the cooperative/farmer/area presented
in codes and the grade of beans.
• Long roasts have several benefits: a longer
roast creates elasticity in the cellular walls of
the cocoa allowing moisture and oils to
escape; acidity (which can impart off flavors)
breaks down; and the protective shell, or
husk, of the bean loosens.
• The last benefit is important as it facilitates
winnowing, the process of separating the nib
from the rest of the material of the cocoa
• Cocoa beans are very nutritious; they consist
mainly of fat (50%) and carbohydrates (25%).
In addition, cocoa contains proteins,
theobromine, niacin, minerals (including
calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium,
and phosphorus) and vitamins A, B1, B2 and
• At this stage of production, different types of
beans are blended in different proportions
according to particular recipes. These are
“secret” recipes, the manufacturers’
proprietary formulas. Each producer desires to
create a distinctive product that no
competitor can copy.
• For milk chocolate, cocoa butter and chocolate
liquor are combined in varying proportions; sugar
and full cream milk (generally condensed milk)
• Dark chocolate uses the same process but
• White chocolate is made with cocoa butter, milk
and sugar and does not contain chocolate liquor.
• The second grinding produces a liquid, batter-like
chocolate, but it is still gritty (hence, “crumb”). The
goal of refining is to make the thick chocolate crumb
into a silky chocolate.
• It travels through a series of five heavy steel refining
rollers set at different intervals and different speeds.
• The gaps between the final rollers are so small that
the chocolate components are ground into a thick
fluid mass which is then run off.
• This step reduces the particle size to of the
cocoa mass to 25 to 30 microns, both in the
chocolate liquor and the sugar. In some cases,
extra cocoa butter is added to the chocolate
liquor for a smoother, more voluptuous
mouthfeel. The smoother the chocolate
desired, the more rolling!
• Conching is a process which removes moisture
and acidity from the chocolate, eliminates
undesirable odors, fully evolves the desirable
flavors and aromas and further smoothes the
• During conching, the cocoa mass is poured
into a stirring and milling machine. It is rolled,
turned and aired at a temperature of about
• The rollers can produce different degrees of
agitation and aeration in order to develop and
modify the chocolate flavors.
• A delicate process that involves slowly heating
and cooling the chocolate repeatedly to
temperatures between 105°F and 85°F. This
stabilizes the product and achieves the
smooth, shiny texture, pleasant mouthfeel
and a sharp “snap” when a piece is broken off.
• Without tempering, large crystals would form;
the chocolate would have a gritty texture and
a dull appearance and/or the cocoa butter
would separate out (as cream separates from
milk) creating a greyish-white bloom on the
• Well-tempered chocolate melts better in the
mouth and has a long shelf life. If not
tempered properly the finished chocolate will
be dull and streaky with a tendency to bloom.
• In an industrial situation, this is done in large
• The classic tempering method is to melt the
chocolate until it is lump-free.
• Then 1/3 of the chocolate is poured onto a
marble slab, spread and worked back and forth
with a metal spatula until it becomes thick and
reaches a temperature of about 80°F.
• This chocolate is then added back to the
remaining 2/3 of the melted chocolate and
• Dark chocolate bars can be kept for two years
or more if stored properly: well wrapped in
foil in a cool, dark, dry place.
• Milk and white chocolate have a more limited
storage time, but will stay fresh for a year or
more under these conditions.
• Filled chocolates, chocolates with nuts and
other additives have less of a shelf life
because the additives will break down or go
• Commercial companies will use preservatives
to extend the shelf-life, but most fine
chocolates are made preservative-free.
Code of Practice
• Developed by the Bureau of Agriculture and
Fisheries Product Standards (BAFPS)
• Requested by the Committee on Commercial
Crops and the Cacao Industry Development
Sub-Committee of the National Agriculture
and Fishery Council (NAFC)
Code of Practice
• Recommends production practices which are
economically sustainable and socially
• Promotes food safety
• Contributes to sustainable agriculture
Code of Practice for Philippine Cacao
• Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
• Good Hygienic Practices (GHP)
• Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
• Food safety applicable to primary production,
post harvest and processing operations
• To control microbial, chemical, and physical
hazards in all stages of cacao production
Cacao Farm Establishment
• Cacao farm may be established as an intercrop
to existing coconut farm, planting in open
• Soil should be deep and well-drained but of
sufficient water holding capacity.
• Soil pH of 4.0-7.5 with organic matter.
• The land to be used as cacao production area should be classified as
• Planting of permanent and some temporary shade trees should be well
arranged to shelter the young plants.
• Increases cacao pod production
• Reduces pest and diseases
• Controls shape and height of the tree for easy
access in harvesting and crop protection
• Side shoots growing at the base of the stem
should be removed regularly
• Tools such as pruning saw, pruning shear, a
chupon knife or long-handle pruner or
• Weeds are prefereably removed by hand or
hand tools, or by mulching with available
materials such as leaf litters.
Good Sanitation Practices
• Diseased or infested pods, branches and other
plant materials should be regularly removed
from the trees, and properly disposed of to
• Tools used should be for this purpose only and
should be disinfected before and after each
Use of Farm Wastes
• Pod husks may be shredded and used as base
materials in making compost or organic
• Diseased pods or plant parts should be
properly composted whereby organisms and
pathogens are destroyed during composting.
• Disease-free organic waste, such as pruned
branches and leaf litter, are left in the field or
used for composting.
Rehabilitation of Trees
• Old and less productive trees may undergo
– Side grafting
– Bark grafting
– Chupon grafting
• Scion or budwood should come from
known/registered budwood garden of high
productivity and resistance/tolerance from
major pests and diseases.
• A tree can have up to three side grafts but
these must be made one month apart.
• Side- grafting not lower than 3 inches from
the ground is recommended
Soil management and fertilization
• Raw manure or human waste must not be
used for cultivation.
• Natural fertilizers must be fully decomposed
(with no foul smell)
• Soil must not be contaminated with heavy
• Soil should be evaluated for microbiological
and chemical hazards
• Records of test results must be kept.
• Only registered agricultural chemicals must be
used as prescribed by the manufacturer, in
terms of dosage and timing.
• Fertilizers must be always clearly labeled.
• Growers should only use registered pesticides
and should use them according to
• Withholding period or pre-harvest intervals
must be observed and warning signs may be
placed during application.
• Cocktails of agricultural chemicals must be
avoided unless specified in the manuacturer
• Farmers should only use biological controls for
pests, mites, plant pathogens, etc, which are
authorized for cultivation of cacao and should
use them according to the manufacturer’s
instructions for intended purposes
• Agricultural workers who have direct contact
with the cacao, specifically from pod opening,
fermentation and processing should maintain
a high degree of personal cleanliness.
• Care must be taken to avoid contamination.
• Maturity is attained 160-180 days from
• Ripeness is indicated by a change in color
when green pods turn to yellow, or dark red or
purple pods turn to yellow or orange, and
yellow lines on the skin appear
• Pods should be harvested at approximately
75% ripeness to avoid loss of mucilage which
is the source of sugar needed during
• The beans in overripe pods are likely to have
germinated and contribute to defects such as
• Beans of unripe cacao contribute to defects
such as slaty beans.
• Use harvesting poles with knife instead of
climbing the tree.
• Diseased, rotten pods and dried or diseased
cherelles (small fruits) should be removed
every week using a machete, bolo, pruning
shear or cacao hook on a stick designated to
be used only to remove diseased material.
• This is to avoid spread of fungi to healthy
• Care should be taken not to damage, wound
or cut the pods during harvesting. Damage
can lead to fungal infection and ochratoxin
contamination of the beans.
• Flower cushions should not be damaged to
allow flowers to produce pods for several
• Harvested pods may be stored for 7 days in a
• Separate diseased from healthy pods right in
the field to avoid contamination during
transport and storage.
• Wounded pods should not be stored
Color, odor and taste
Color Chocolate brown
Odor Chocolate aroma
Taste Distinct chocolate flavor, bitter
• The Philippine tablea should conform with the
maximum levels of the Codex General
Standards for Contaminants (cadmium and
lead) and Toxins in Food and Feed
• Tablea shall comply with the maximum
residue limits for pesticides established by the
Codex Alimentarius Commission.
Name of Product
Name and address of manufacturer
“Product of the Philippines”
Date manufactured and best before
Instructions for use
Nutrition information (optional)