Más contenido relacionado


Más de Bureau of Agricultural Research(20)



Cacao Bean Processing / Dr. Fe Dimero

  1. Cacao Bean Processing Fe N. Dimero, PhD
  2. Cacao flower • has no distinct smell • hence, bees and other common pollinating insects do not fertilize cacao flowers. • Only one of a hundred cacao flowers will become fertilized and grow into cacao pod.
  3. • The flower opens at dawn, and the pollen is released from the anthers just before sunrise. • The stigma is receptive to pollination only from sunrise to sunset on the day that the flower opens. • If the flower is not pollinated, it usually falls off the next day.
  4. Cacao pod Only about 5% of the pollinated flowers receive enough pollen to begin flower development. It takes about 5-8 months for the flower to blossom into the fruit and become a pod. Both the fruit and the flowers are on the tree all year long which is an oddity in the world of fruit producing trees.
  5. • Each pod contains on average between 20-40 beans
  6. • It may be cylindrical to round in shape and green to green-white or maroon in color initially. • Color changes as the fruit mature, and the greenish pods typically turn bright yellow, while the maroon pods typically turn orange or yellowish orange upon ripening.
  7. Forastero cacao has purple-colored beans and is mainly used to give chocolate its full-bodied flavor. Its bitter taste has a short duration and is unsupported by secondary flavors, which is why it is often blended with superior cocoas.
  8. Criollo is prized as an ingredient in the very finest of chocolates.
  9. •Trinitario combines the best of the two other main varieties: the hardiness and high yield of Forastero and the refined taste of Criollo. •The quality of the cocoa varies between average and superior. •It is the predominant fine flavor cocoa.
  10. • Harvesting cocoa pods requires considerable skill because the pods grow on thick stems, very close to the trunk and branches. • The tree itself is highly vulnerable to damage, which can easily be caused by the blade used for harvesting. • For example, if a flower cushion is damaged, no flowers will develop from that spot in future years, while cuts on the tree's branches or trunk encourage fungal growth.
  11. • Freshly harvested cocoa pods are usually taken to a de-husking area, where the cocoa seeds (or "beans") are removed from the pods in preparation for fermentation. • If the beans are allowed to sit for too long in the harvested pods, the pulp can dry out, or uncontrolled fermentation can begin inside the pod - leading to a poor end result, with beans that are either under-fermented, or rotten.
  12. Pod breaking • May be done in the cacao farm right after harvest or within 7 days after harvest. • A pod splitter is used
  13. Pod breaking
  14. Removal of seeds • Wet beans attached to the placenta are removed manually using a scooping tool • Seeds must be separated to avoid clustering. • Damaged seeds like black seeds and insect- damaged seeds must be discarded.
  15. Pod breaking and removal of seeds
  16. Removal of seeds
  17. Cacao bean fermentation
  18. • Scooped beans must be placed in suitable containers to drain liquid from 16-18 hrs. • Batch labeling must be done for traceability purposes.
  19. Fermentation vessels • Fermentation boxes made of wood, perforated baskets • Should facilitate drainage of fermentation drippings, ease of turning, heat accumulation and air circulation • Fermentation boxes must be covered (with jute sacks or banana leaves) to avoid heat loss and to prevent contamination
  20. A box with dimensions of 75 cm x 75 cm x 45 cm can accommodate 200 g of wet cacao beans.
  21. Cacao fermentation in banana leaf lined box
  22. Turning the beans two days after the start of fermentation ensures uniform heating of the beans, allows air to circulate, breaks lumps and prevents formation of molds in the beans.
  23. Fermentation baskets .
  24. What is wrong with this?
  25. Factors which affect fermentation • Type of cacao • Ripeness of the pods • Quantity of beans • Air circulation • Contamiantion
  26. Proper fermentation • Brings out the best chocolate flavor • Too short fermentation (under fermentation) produces violet beans with weak flavor. • Over fermentation results to rotten beans which have a putrid taste and produces off- flavors.
  27. Beans with good brown coloration
  28. Fermentation • During fermentation, yeasts grow on the sweet pulp and convert the sugars to alcohol. The alcohol is oxidised by bacteria - a process that ultimately produces carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Hence, the pulp breaks down and drains away.
  29. • With correct fermentation the acetic acid and high temperatures produced kill the cocoa bean within 24 hours. • The bean's death causes its cell walls to break down, and allows previously separated substances to mix. • Chemical changes then take place within the bean. These changes include enzyme activity, oxidation, and the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.
  30. • The purple polyphenols are converted into insoluble substances which are oxidised, giving a well-fermented bean its characteristic chocolate-brown colour. • The chemical reactions caused by fermentation also begin to develop the bean's classic chocolate flavour. The length of fermentation varies depending on the bean type: Forastero beans require 5-6 days, while Criollo beans may need only 2-3 days.
  31. Drying • Moisture is reduced from 45% to 7%
  32. Sun drying of cacao on mats flat on cemented ground exposes the beans to contamination.
  33. Sun drying is done on elevated screen beds to let moving air to pass under, through and over the beds.
  34. Sun drying on elevated beds
  35. Sun drying on elevated beds minimizes contamination and enhances drying of cacao beans
  36. Sun drying of cacao on flat baskets or bilao is practiced with small-scale drying of cacao beans.
  37. Small-scale solar drying
  38. Protected sun drying
  39. Artificial dryers • 60 C for gradual removal of water • Layer of beans should not exceed 24 cm to facilitate mixing
  40. Dried cacao beans
  41. Cocoa dried by the traditional sun drying methods (7 & 8 days) compared to cocoa dried on a solar drier (5 & 6 days)
  42. Sorting • Cacao beans are sorted to remove the flat, slaty, black, moldy, small, double beans and beans with insect damage. • Manual sorting with hand gloves is practiced to remove defective beans.
  43. Grading • To grade a batch of beans, a random sample of one hundred beans is selected. • Each bean is cut in half lengthwise, and one half is placed shell down on a grid. Once the hundred samples have been arranged, they are examined for defects. • Defects include mould, slatiness, insect damage, signs of germination, and flatness. The number of defective beans is recorded as a per centage of the batch, and determines the final grade of the batch.
  44. • Grading of fermented and dried cocoa beans may be based on fungal contamination based on ergosterol index and ochratoxin A production
  45. Grading of cacao beans based on Philippine Standards GRADE BEAN COUNT % MOLDY % SLATY OTHER DEFECTS 1A < 100 3 3 2.5 1B 101-120 3 3 2.5 2A < 100 4 8 5.0 2B 101-120 4 8 5.0 Sub- standard >120 >4 >8 >5
  46. Packaging and Storage • Bags should be made of food grade or non- toxic materials such as jute bags or sacks.. • Label should be imprinted on the bag indicating the production batch number and date, the cooperative/farmer/area presented in codes and the grade of beans.
  47. Roasted cacao beans
  48. Labeled sacks of dried cacao
  49. Roasting • Long roasts have several benefits: a longer roast creates elasticity in the cellular walls of the cocoa allowing moisture and oils to escape; acidity (which can impart off flavors) breaks down; and the protective shell, or husk, of the bean loosens. • The last benefit is important as it facilitates winnowing, the process of separating the nib from the rest of the material of the cocoa seed.
  50. De-shelling and winnowing • With rollers
  51. De-shelling and winnowing • Loose grinder
  52. Cacao nibs
  53. • Cocoa beans are very nutritious; they consist mainly of fat (50%) and carbohydrates (25%). In addition, cocoa contains proteins, theobromine, niacin, minerals (including calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and phosphorus) and vitamins A, B1, B2 and B6.
  54. Grinding • Grinding • Refining
  55. Blending • At this stage of production, different types of beans are blended in different proportions according to particular recipes. These are “secret” recipes, the manufacturers’ proprietary formulas. Each producer desires to create a distinctive product that no competitor can copy.
  56. Blending • For milk chocolate, cocoa butter and chocolate liquor are combined in varying proportions; sugar and full cream milk (generally condensed milk) are added. • Dark chocolate uses the same process but without milk. • White chocolate is made with cocoa butter, milk and sugar and does not contain chocolate liquor.
  57. Refining • The second grinding produces a liquid, batter-like chocolate, but it is still gritty (hence, “crumb”). The goal of refining is to make the thick chocolate crumb into a silky chocolate. • It travels through a series of five heavy steel refining rollers set at different intervals and different speeds. • The gaps between the final rollers are so small that the chocolate components are ground into a thick fluid mass which is then run off.
  58. Refining • This step reduces the particle size to of the cocoa mass to 25 to 30 microns, both in the chocolate liquor and the sugar. In some cases, extra cocoa butter is added to the chocolate liquor for a smoother, more voluptuous mouthfeel. The smoother the chocolate desired, the more rolling!
  59. Conching • Conching is a process which removes moisture and acidity from the chocolate, eliminates undesirable odors, fully evolves the desirable flavors and aromas and further smoothes the particles.
  60. Conching • During conching, the cocoa mass is poured into a stirring and milling machine. It is rolled, turned and aired at a temperature of about 180°F. • The rollers can produce different degrees of agitation and aeration in order to develop and modify the chocolate flavors.
  61. Tempering • A delicate process that involves slowly heating and cooling the chocolate repeatedly to temperatures between 105°F and 85°F. This stabilizes the product and achieves the smooth, shiny texture, pleasant mouthfeel and a sharp “snap” when a piece is broken off.
  62. Tempering • Without tempering, large crystals would form; the chocolate would have a gritty texture and a dull appearance and/or the cocoa butter would separate out (as cream separates from milk) creating a greyish-white bloom on the surface.
  63. Tempering • Well-tempered chocolate melts better in the mouth and has a long shelf life. If not tempered properly the finished chocolate will be dull and streaky with a tendency to bloom. • In an industrial situation, this is done in large tempering machines.
  64. Tempering • The classic tempering method is to melt the chocolate until it is lump-free. • Then 1/3 of the chocolate is poured onto a marble slab, spread and worked back and forth with a metal spatula until it becomes thick and reaches a temperature of about 80°F. • This chocolate is then added back to the remaining 2/3 of the melted chocolate and stirred.
  65. • Dark chocolate bars can be kept for two years or more if stored properly: well wrapped in foil in a cool, dark, dry place. • Milk and white chocolate have a more limited storage time, but will stay fresh for a year or more under these conditions.
  66. • Filled chocolates, chocolates with nuts and other additives have less of a shelf life because the additives will break down or go rancid. • Commercial companies will use preservatives to extend the shelf-life, but most fine chocolates are made preservative-free.
  67. Molding
  68. Cacao products • Cacao nibs • Tablea • 70% dark chocolates
  69. Code of Practice for Philippine Cacao Beans
  70. Code of Practice • Developed by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards (BAFPS) • Requested by the Committee on Commercial Crops and the Cacao Industry Development Sub-Committee of the National Agriculture and Fishery Council (NAFC)
  71. Code of Practice • Recommends production practices which are economically sustainable and socially acceptable • Promotes food safety • Contributes to sustainable agriculture
  72. Code of Practice for Philippine Cacao • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) • Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) • Food safety applicable to primary production, post harvest and processing operations • To control microbial, chemical, and physical hazards in all stages of cacao production
  73. Cacao Farm Establishment • Cacao farm may be established as an intercrop to existing coconut farm, planting in open areas • Soil should be deep and well-drained but of sufficient water holding capacity. • Soil pH of 4.0-7.5 with organic matter.
  74. • The land to be used as cacao production area should be classified as agricultural land. • Planting of permanent and some temporary shade trees should be well arranged to shelter the young plants.
  76. Pruning • Increases cacao pod production • Reduces pest and diseases • Controls shape and height of the tree for easy access in harvesting and crop protection activities
  77. Pruning • Side shoots growing at the base of the stem should be removed regularly • Tools such as pruning saw, pruning shear, a chupon knife or long-handle pruner or chainsaw
  78. Weeding • Weeds are prefereably removed by hand or hand tools, or by mulching with available materials such as leaf litters.
  79. Good Sanitation Practices • Diseased or infested pods, branches and other plant materials should be regularly removed from the trees, and properly disposed of to prevent contamination. • Tools used should be for this purpose only and should be disinfected before and after each use.
  80. Use of Farm Wastes • Pod husks may be shredded and used as base materials in making compost or organic fertilizer. • Diseased pods or plant parts should be properly composted whereby organisms and pathogens are destroyed during composting. • Disease-free organic waste, such as pruned branches and leaf litter, are left in the field or used for composting.
  81. Rehabilitation of Trees • Old and less productive trees may undergo – Side grafting – Bark grafting – Chupon grafting • Scion or budwood should come from known/registered budwood garden of high productivity and resistance/tolerance from major pests and diseases.
  82. • A tree can have up to three side grafts but these must be made one month apart. • Side- grafting not lower than 3 inches from the ground is recommended
  83. Soil management and fertilization • Raw manure or human waste must not be used for cultivation. • Natural fertilizers must be fully decomposed (with no foul smell) • Soil must not be contaminated with heavy metals • Soil should be evaluated for microbiological and chemical hazards • Records of test results must be kept.
  84. Fertilization • Only registered agricultural chemicals must be used as prescribed by the manufacturer, in terms of dosage and timing. • Fertilizers must be always clearly labeled.
  85. Crop protection • Growers should only use registered pesticides and should use them according to manufacturer’s instructions. • Withholding period or pre-harvest intervals must be observed and warning signs may be placed during application. • Cocktails of agricultural chemicals must be avoided unless specified in the manuacturer label
  86. Crop protection • Farmers should only use biological controls for pests, mites, plant pathogens, etc, which are authorized for cultivation of cacao and should use them according to the manufacturer’s instructions for intended purposes
  87. Personnel hygiene • Agricultural workers who have direct contact with the cacao, specifically from pod opening, fermentation and processing should maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness. • Care must be taken to avoid contamination.
  89. Harvesting • Maturity is attained 160-180 days from flowering • Ripeness is indicated by a change in color when green pods turn to yellow, or dark red or purple pods turn to yellow or orange, and yellow lines on the skin appear
  90. Harvesting • Pods should be harvested at approximately 75% ripeness to avoid loss of mucilage which is the source of sugar needed during fermentation.
  91. Harvesting • The beans in overripe pods are likely to have germinated and contribute to defects such as germinated beans. • Beans of unripe cacao contribute to defects such as slaty beans.
  92. Harvesting • Should be done every week during peak season and every two weeks during non-peak season.
  93. • Use harvesting poles with knife instead of climbing the tree. • Diseased, rotten pods and dried or diseased cherelles (small fruits) should be removed every week using a machete, bolo, pruning shear or cacao hook on a stick designated to be used only to remove diseased material. • This is to avoid spread of fungi to healthy trees.
  94. • Care should be taken not to damage, wound or cut the pods during harvesting. Damage can lead to fungal infection and ochratoxin contamination of the beans. • Flower cushions should not be damaged to allow flowers to produce pods for several years.
  95. Cacao flower cushion
  96. • Harvested pods may be stored for 7 days in a shaded area. • Separate diseased from healthy pods right in the field to avoid contamination during transport and storage. • Wounded pods should not be stored
  97. Diseased cacao beans
  98. Healthy and diseased cacao pods
  99. Philippine Tablea Fe N. Dimero, PhD
  100. Philippine Tablea • Made from pure 100% cacao beans that has been fermented, roasted, ground and molded with no added ingredients and additives.
  101. Identity characteristics PARAMETER VALUE pH at 25 C 5.34 to 5.86 Moisture (%) max 3 Water activity, max 0.6 Crude fat 45-55
  102. Color, odor and taste PARAMETER PROPERTY Color Chocolate brown Odor Chocolate aroma Taste Distinct chocolate flavor, bitter taste
  103. • The Philippine tablea should conform with the maximum levels of the Codex General Standards for Contaminants (cadmium and lead) and Toxins in Food and Feed • Tablea shall comply with the maximum residue limits for pesticides established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
  104. Microbial standards TEST/MICROO RGANISM Number of samples Max. allowable no. of defective Acceptable level Min. level for rejection Molds, cfu/g 5 2 10 2 10 4 Salmonella/25g 10 0 0 Colliforms MPN/g 5 2 < 1.8 10 2 SPC/APC, cfu/g 5 2 10 4 10 8
  105. Labeling Name of Product Brand Name Net content Lot identification Name and address of manufacturer “Product of the Philippines” Date manufactured and best before Bar code Instructions for use Nutrition information (optional) Storage instructions