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Kcb102 blogging and web2.0

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Kcb102 blogging and web2.0

  1. 1. Blogging, citizen journalism and web 2.0 Barry Saunders KCB102 [email_address]
  2. 2. Me <ul><li>QUT CI PhD student, ARC Linkage Citizen Journalism project - </li></ul><ul><li>Founding member Brisbane Indymedia (now defunct) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Director Convergent Community Newsroom – </li></ul><ul><li>Background in activism and media production: , , </li></ul>
  3. 3. Current affairs <ul><li>Of little interest to younger audience </li></ul><ul><li>Often demonises ‘da youf’ </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive format </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Citizen Journalism <ul><li>Notion of citizenship more in line with DIY citizenship than the traditional legal notion </li></ul><ul><li>(it’s what you do, not where you were born) </li></ul><ul><li>Used to refer to media produced by non-professionals, or in a non-professional capacity: media made by non-journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Includes things like: blogs, podcasts, Youtube </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other terms <ul><li>Userled production: </li></ul><ul><li>Production is driven by users: examples include Youtube, blogs, video game mods </li></ul><ul><li>read-write web / web2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Internet sites that allow readers to contribute, edit: examples include blogs, wikis </li></ul><ul><li>produsers /produsage </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of producers and users - used to describe the complex ways people interact with media online </li></ul><ul><li>(Bruns, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlocal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Criticisms of citizen journalism <ul><li>Is it journalism? (well, what is journalism?) </li></ul><ul><li>Is journalism: about writing? About research? About doing interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>Are bloggers journalists? </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly a better question: does it contribute to the practice of journalism? </li></ul><ul><li>Does journalism need help? </li></ul><ul><li>Who determines what is news? Journalism? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Models of citizen journalism <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Opening articles up to feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Citizen add-on reporter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Open-source or participatory reporting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. The citizen bloghouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Newsroom citizen 'transparency' blogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. The stand-alone citizen-journalism site: Edited version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. The stand-alone citizen-journalism site: Unedited version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. Add a print edition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9. pro-am hybrid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10. integrating citizen and professional journalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11. wiki journalism, or readers as editors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Opening articles up to feedback <ul><li>ABC news / Fairfax / News Corp </li></ul><ul><li>Need for new workers - ‘user generated content producer’ - comments moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Question of how much moderation is appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Limited form of interaction, can still be worthwhile </li></ul>
  9. 9. Open-source or participatory journalism <ul><li>Wikinews </li></ul><ul><li>Indymedia </li></ul>
  10. 10. indymedia <ul><li>Politically focused </li></ul><ul><li>Completely open access </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with quality control and access </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first fully open news sites </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. The citizen bloghouse <ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Standalone citizen reporter <ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jimmy Justice <ul><li>http: //youtube .com/user/JimmyJustice4753 </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontational style </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t conform to traditional news presentation, gonzo style </li></ul><ul><li>Still newsworthy </li></ul>
  14. 14. integrating citizen and professional journalism <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http: //qlddecides .com </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals working alongside citizen journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Professional articles drew eyeballs but citizen articles drew comments </li></ul><ul><li>http: //ohmynews .com </li></ul>
  15. 15. pro-am hybrid <ul><li>Pro-am, or pro-pro </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly working with professionals from outside of journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Wired magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Wikileaks </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Pollbludger, Possum’s Pollytics </li></ul>
  16. 16. Redactive journalism, or cut ‘n paste ‘n comment <ul><li>Redative journalism - journalism that is made of editing - making sense of information that is publicly available </li></ul><ul><li>We now live in a world where we have too much info rather than not enough - simply adding more information to public discourse is no longer the most important function of journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with the Narrative of Decline - assumes a perfect form of journalism, without recognizing that journalism changes as society changes </li></ul><ul><li>… the continuing trend in journalism away from investigative reporting and toward pundit commentary also makes blog-based commentary on the news highly compatible with mainstream news content. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Bruns, 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>All of the information necessary to understand the massive fraud at Enron was publicly available </li></ul><ul><li>Changing forms of journalism - Wired magazine database mashup of Myspace and public sex offender registries </li></ul><ul><li>Science blogs that check pop-science publications and business against scientific findings - often more accurate than mainstream journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition that journalism needs skill sets not ordinarily associated with journalists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bloggers may not do interviews - but an entry about medical quackery may have 200 commenters offering their perspective - many of whom are doctors, biologists, scientists, etc </li></ul>
  18. 18. News blogging <ul><li>Participatory form of journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Expands the coverage of news </li></ul><ul><li>Allows non-experts to take depart in discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Also allows experts to explain issues in detail - economists, scientists, doctors, etc </li></ul><ul><li>a scarcity of quality economic analysis and a conservative political climate in the US has restricted the economic coverage of major media to supply-side ‘voodoo economics’. This has led numerous economists to publish their work online. (Quiggin, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs like and take apart pseudo-science, creationism, quackery </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream news doesn’t deal with youth issues well either - youth need their own voice </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gatewatching <ul><li>Differs from gatekeeping - </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeepers only publish what they think is relevant/important </li></ul><ul><li>Gatewatchers point to all relevant information, with differing levels of emphasis - allows the reader more agency </li></ul>
  20. 20. Attitude - break down of the punditocracy <ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. Major source of news and media <ul><li>Voices not otherwise heard in mainstream media </li></ul><ul><li>Pushing the boundaries of debate (both left and right) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows misquoted/misrepresented people to have their say </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: biologists misrepresented by creationists </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of important stories outside of media’s coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Random acts of journalism: </li></ul><ul><li>Little Green Footballs: fake documents, Dan Rather </li></ul><ul><li>Left blogs, Trent Lott and Strom Thurmond </li></ul><ul><li>Often involves amplification, follow up reporting and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated reportage: </li></ul><ul><li>Indymedia: police violence, corruption </li></ul><ul><li>TPM Muckraker: firing of US attorneys </li></ul>
  22. 22. Random acts of journalism <ul><li>Can be blog posts, or increasingly on-the-ground footage from handicams and videophones </li></ul><ul><li>Even Twitter is used for journalism </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  23. 23. Low cost of entry <ul><li>Pioneered by Kevin Sites and Dateline - consumer handicams for current affairs / documentary </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing use of high end videophones </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 24. Business models <ul><li>Newspapers are worried about lost profits </li></ul><ul><li>Have traditionally been high profit industry </li></ul><ul><li>However, Fairfax has made some interesting moves in monetising articles </li></ul><ul><li>Also, bloggers are making reasonable money from advertising - some up to $1500 a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative journalism may be funded by philanthropy, public interest groups, donations and government broadcasters. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Web 2.0 <ul><li>The read-write web </li></ul><ul><li>The next generation of web-based services </li></ul><ul><li>Term coined by O’Reilly Media as name for a series of conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat misleading as implies discrete generations of the web </li></ul><ul><li>- Web 2.0 video from Youtube </li></ul>
  26. 26. Web 2.0 - technical <ul><li>A move from web made up of linked pages to a web made up of linked data sources </li></ul><ul><li>This means - formatting is not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Also means - data sources are not necessarily text - eg: http: //frappr .com / </li></ul><ul><li>Uses AJAX (asynchronous java and xml) </li></ul><ul><li>RSS (real simple syndication) </li></ul><ul><li>CSS (cascading style sheets) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Forms of citizen journalism <ul><li>Blogs /journals: Boingboing / LP / Troppo </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative news sites: Slashdot / digg </li></ul><ul><li>Vlogs/citizen video: Youtube / </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts: Rocketboom / NYUB </li></ul><ul><li>More traditional portal style: Vibewire </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations also using these formats: </li></ul><ul><li>SBS / ABC / QUT </li></ul><ul><li>Brisbane Times / News Corp </li></ul>
  28. 28. Early citizen journalism <ul><li>Indymedia </li></ul><ul><li>Slashdot </li></ul><ul><li>Kuro5hin </li></ul><ul><li>Gatewatching, collaborative sites </li></ul><ul><li>Many submitters </li></ul>
  29. 29. Social media <ul><li>Includes citizen media, blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Also includes social networks </li></ul><ul><li>http: //myspace .com / http: //linkedin .com </li></ul><ul><li>‘ folksonomies’ </li></ul><ul><li>Social linking </li></ul><ul><li>http://del. icio .us / http: //digg .com </li></ul>
  30. 30. Blogs <ul><li>Blog - shortened form of web - log </li></ul><ul><li>Usage: I have a blog, I blog, I’m a blogger. </li></ul><ul><li>Not: I wrote a blog today. (blog entry or blog post) </li></ul><ul><li>Often: one author </li></ul><ul><li>May be based on a single theme. </li></ul>
  31. 31. blogs <ul><li>Numerous forms </li></ul><ul><li>Personal blogs: </li></ul><ul><li>http: //livejournal .com / http: //dooce .com </li></ul><ul><li>Political blogs </li></ul><ul><li>http: //timblair .net / http: //johnquiggin .com / http: //dneiwert . blogspot .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate blogs </li></ul><ul><li>http: //scobleizer .com/ / http://www. blogmaverick .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Science blogs </li></ul><ul><li>http: //scienceblogs . com/pharyngula/ / http: //badscience .net </li></ul>
  32. 32. More blogs <ul><li>Randomness </li></ul><ul><li>http: //boingboing .net / http: //kottke .org </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism </li></ul><ul><li>http: //feministing .com / http: //pandagon .net </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>http: //megnut .com / http: //glutenfreegirl . blogspot .com </li></ul>
  33. 33. Even more blogs <ul><li>Gossip </li></ul><ul><li>http: //thesuperficial .com / http: //perezhilton .com </li></ul><ul><li>Tech </li></ul><ul><li>http: //gizmodo .com / http: //engadget .com </li></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul><ul><li>http: //kotaku .com / http: //joystiq .com </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>http: //whatswrongwiththejschool . blogspot .com/ </li></ul>
  34. 34. Characteristics of blogs <ul><li>Personal tone </li></ul><ul><li>Often short entries (notable exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of quotes and links </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Comments, trackback </li></ul>
  35. 35. Popular blog services <ul><li>Livejournal </li></ul><ul><li>Blogger </li></ul><ul><li>Typepad </li></ul><ul><li>Wordpress </li></ul>