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BASIM ZWAIN LECTURES 
MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY 
CELL PHYSIOLOGY - 2 
Professor Dr. Basim Zwain 
Faculty of Medicine 
Jabir ibn H...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
Types of Cell Signaling 
1. Autocrine signaling – e.g. cytokine 
interleukin-1 in monocytes 
2. Paracrine...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
Cell Signaling Events 
A ligand or primary messenger binds a 
receptor associated with a target cell. 
Li...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
Types of Receptor Classes 
1. Intracellular receptors located in the 
cytoplasm or nucleus of the target ...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
Intracellular receptors are bound by lipophilic 
ligands, which diffuse through plasma membrane. 
Ligand ...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
There are four types of cell surface receptors: 
a. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are linked to ligand-...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
G-protein-linked receptors have an extracellular 
ligand-binding domain and an intracellular domain 
that...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
–Cholera toxin alters G-protein so that guanosine 
triphosphatase (GTPase) is un...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY 
CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
–Pertussis toxin blocks the activity of G1, 
allowing adenylate cyclase to stay ...
Basim Zwain Lectures - Cell Physiology-2
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A series of lectures on medical physiology

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Basim Zwain Lectures - Cell Physiology-2

  1. 1. BASIM ZWAIN LECTURES MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY CELL PHYSIOLOGY - 2 Professor Dr. Basim Zwain Faculty of Medicine Jabir ibn Hayyan Medical University basimzwain@jmu.edu.iq
  2. 2. CELL PHYSIOLOGY Types of Cell Signaling 1. Autocrine signaling – e.g. cytokine interleukin-1 in monocytes 2. Paracrine and juxtacrine signaling- e.g fibroblast growth factors 3. Endocrine signaling (various hormones)
  3. 3. CELL PHYSIOLOGY
  4. 4. CELL PHYSIOLOGY Cell Signaling Events A ligand or primary messenger binds a receptor associated with a target cell. Ligand binding results in conformational change and activation of the receptor. The activated receptor elicits a response in target cell, either directly or indirectly through production of second messenger. Target cell responses include alterations in cellular metabolism and in gene transcription.
  5. 5. CELL PHYSIOLOGY Types of Receptor Classes 1. Intracellular receptors located in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the target cell 1. Cell surface receptors
  6. 6. CELL PHYSIOLOGY Intracellular receptors are bound by lipophilic ligands, which diffuse through plasma membrane. Ligand binding alters the receptor’s conformation, exposing the receptor’s DNA-binding domain. Receptors bind specific gene promoter elements and activate transcription of specific genes that results in the synthesis of specific proteins. An example is estrogen receptor in uterine smooth muscle cells.
  7. 7. CELL PHYSIOLOGY There are four types of cell surface receptors: a. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are linked to ligand-gated ion channels (eg, nicotinic AchRs). b. Catalytic receptors are transmembrane proteins that have intrinsic enzymatic (eg, serine or tyrosine kinase) activity. c. Other receptors are linked to proteins with enzymatic activity. (eg, cytokine receptor signaling through cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase). d. G-protein-linked receptors
  8. 8. CELL PHYSIOLOGY G-protein-linked receptors have an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular domain that binds G-proteins. After ligand binding, receptors interact with G-proteins which are heterodimeric consist of α, β, and γ subunits that dissociate. G-proteins α-subunits bound to GTP interact with and activate specific membrane-bound enzymes, result in production of 2nd messengers that elicit responses in target cells. Adenylate cyclase & phospholipase systems are examples.
  9. 9. CELL PHYSIOLOGY CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS –Cholera toxin alters G-protein so that guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) is unable to hydrolyze GTP, resulting in increased production of cAMP. Elevated cAMP in intestinal epithelial cells results in massive gut secretion of water and electrolytes, resulting in severe diarrhea and dehydration. –Pseudohypoparathyroidism results from a defective G-protein causes decreased cAMP levels with symptoms of hypoparathyroidism with normal or slightly elevated parathyroid hormone levels.
  10. 10. CELL PHYSIOLOGY CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS –Pertussis toxin blocks the activity of G1, allowing adenylate cyclase to stay active and increase cAMP.
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    Sep. 16, 2015
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    Apr. 18, 2015
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    Apr. 18, 2015

A series of lectures on medical physiology

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