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What It Was<br />Mass genocide by the government of the Ottoman Empire targeting the Armenian people<br />Genocide: organized killing of any religious, ethnic, or political group of people with the aim of complete or partial extermination/destruction<br />General acts: expropriation (all of Armenian wealth), abduction and torture (largely women and children), starvation and dehydration (forced to march to Syria through the desert), deportation, massacre<br />
Dates<br />Conventional starting date: April 14th, 1915<br />Lasted from 1914—1918, largely during World War I<br />Period of calm after the war, then continuation of horrible acts during 1920—1923<br />1915—international community condemns the Armenian Genocide as a crime against humanity (33 years before UN Genocide Convention created)<br />
Responsible Parties<br />Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)—leading political party of the Ottoman Empire, also known as the Young Turks<br />Three controlling figures:<br />MehmetTalaat—Minister of the Interior (1915), Prime Minister (1917)<br />Ismail Enver—Minister of War<br />Ahmed Jemal—Minister of the Marine and Military Governor of Syria<br />Special Organization (convicts and irregular troops, responsible for carrying out massacres)<br />BehaeddinShakir—leader<br />
Responsible Parties (continued)<br />Ideologists<br />Zia Gokalp—promotion of Pan-Turanism (creation of new empire from Anatolia to into Central Asia with a Turkic-only population)<br />A look at the atrocities committed by the Special Organization<br />
Human Costs<br />1 ½ million perished<br />2 million lived in the Ottoman Empire before WWI<br />1+ million deported in 1915<br />Hundreds of thousands butchered outright<br />Others died of starvation, exhaustion, and diseases that ravaged concentration camps<br /> Torture and death was rampant <br />
Witnesses<br />Photograph restrictions existed but there were still tons of tourists<br />Mostly diplomatic representatives and missionaries from the US; they were the first to get the word to the outside community<br />Germans (on important military assignments in the Ottoman Empire since they were allies with them in the World War)<br />Russians (Russian Army occupied Anatolia)<br />Syrians (deportees were sent there in terrible condition)<br />
International Reaction<br />It was highly condemned, but no strong action was taken<br />Strong public outcry in US; Allies demanded reprimand for the CUP leaders after their victory in the war<br />Political cartoon criticizing the lack of action<br /> <br />