College of Finance, Management and Development
Department of Public Financial Management and Accounting
Advanced Research Methodology I
2. Learning Outcomes
• Upon completion of the module, students will be able to:
• Understand the role of research in the production of scientific
• Undertake a scientific inquiry using quantitative, qualitative or mixed
• Identify and develop a research problem and justify its relevance;
• Identify the purpose of a study and develop appropriate research
• Identify the combination of research skills which are relevant to a
specific research topic;
• Develop a research proposal;
• Build analytical skills, interpretetion and presentation; and
• Know how to write and present research reports.
4. Chapter 1
Introduction to Research Methods
• Concept and Definition of Research
• Nature and Scope of Business research
• Objective and Motivation of Research
• Characteristics of Good Research
• Types of research
• The Research Process
• Ethical issues in Research
5. Chapter 2
Formulation of the Research Problem and
• Choosing Research Topic
• Review of Literature
• Formulation of Research Problem
• Specification of Research Objective
• Operationalization of Research Objective
• Development of Research
6. Chapter 3
Research and Sampling Design
• Meaning of Research Design
• The Why of Research Design
• Features of a Good Design
• Types of Research Designs
• Census and Sample Survey
• Characteristics of Good Sample
• Types of Sampling: Probability vs Non-probability
8. Chapter 5
Measurement and Data Collection
• Measurement and Scaling: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
• Sources of Errors in Measurement
• Goodness of Measurement: Validity, reliability and practicality
• Types of data: Primary and Secondary
• Methods of Data Collection
9. Chapter 6
Data Processing, Analysis and Presentation
• Data Processing: Coding, Entry and Transformation
• Quantitative Data Analysis Preliminary analysis:
Frequency tables, cross tabulations, Bar charts,
Measuring Association, Hypothesis Testing, and
• Qualitative Data Analysis
10. Chapter 7
Scientific Report Writing and Presentation
• Meaning and Purpose of Interpretation
• Types of Scientific Research Report
• Parts of a Scientific Research Report
• Referencing Styles
• Publication Outlets for Accounting and Finance Researches
• Presenting a Scientific Research Paper
Chapter 8: Tutorial on Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS)- Optional
11. Course delivery
• Lectures shall be the principle delivery method.
• Case analysis
• Reflective activity
• Class works
12. Assessment and Evaluation
1. Formulate a research proposal - Individual……..30%
2. Thesis Review and Presentation-Teamwork ……30%
3. Final exam………………………………………40%
14. Chapter 1
Introduction to Research
Upon completion of this chapter, students will be able to:
• Elaborate the meaning, concepts, definition, characteristics, and
objectives of research.
• Explain the significance of research.
• Explain the research philosophy and alternative inquiry paradigms in
• Investigate the purposes of the different types of research.
• Explain of the research process.
• Explain the criteria of good research.
• Understand and explain the research ethics rules.
15. MEANING OF RESEARCH
Research in common parlance refers to a
search for knowledge.
Define research as a scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic.
In fact, research is an art of scientific
16. Concept of Research
•A systematic and scientific search for pertinent
information on a specific topic;
•The application of the scientific method in the study of
•A Voyage of discovery or search for new knowledge;
17. Sources of Knowledge
1. Everyday Experience.
other ways of knowing from our everyday
A. The Method of Tenacity
The term tenacity refers to the acceptance of a belief
based on the idea that “we have always known it to
be this way” . We accept those beliefs and customs as
true without exploring them and then behave with it.
B. The Method of Authority
Accept a new idea or information stated by
the authority figure.
18. C. The Priori Method
• First we develop general knowledge, opinion, or belief about the
world then we draw new and specific conclusion from this general
(it is also known as a deductive reasoning.)
D. Common sense
Common sense is based on our own past
experiences and our perceptions of the world.
19. Sources of Knowledge Cont…..
2. The Scientific Method as a Source of Knowledge
• Science is a body of systematized knowledge.
• The scientific method of knowing is the scientific
Scientific research follows logical steps, which
• defining the problem
• making tentative explanations 19
20. Scientific research logical steps Cont…
• Gathering information
• Testing the validity of the hypothesis
• Making conclusions as to whether the hypothesis can be
accepted or rejected
21. Definition of Research
• the systematic process of collecting, and analyzing information to
increase our understanding of the phenomenon under study.
• A systematic attempt to obtain answers to meaningful questions
about phenomena of events through the application of scientific
22. Define business and management research
Business and management research can be defined:
• as undertaking systematic research to find out things
• about business and management.
24. Basic Characteristics of Research
1. Research is directed towards the solution of problems.
2. Research emphasizes the development of generalizations,
principles, or theories what will be helpful in preceding future
3. Research is made upon observable experiences or empirical
4. Research demands accurate observation and description.
5. Research requires expertise.
6. Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity.
7. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
25. Research Philosophy
• A research philosophy is refers to a system of beliefs and
assumptions about the development of knowledge.
• which is shared by members of a scientific community,
• which acts as a guide or map, dictating the kinds of problems
scientists should address and the types of explanations that are
acceptable to them.
26. Research Philosophy …Cont’d
• At every stage in your research, you will make a number of types of
• These include assumptions about human knowledge
(epistemological assumptions), about the realities you encounter
in your research (ontological assumptions) and the extent and
ways your own values influence your research process (axiological
Ontology is defined by as the study of being or what is the
nature of reality?
Epistemology is a way of understanding and explaining how we
know what we know.
27. Ontological, epistemological and axiological
Assumption type Questions Positivism (objectivism) Interpretivism/
What is the nature of
What is the world like?
– What are
External: social reality is
independent of the
One true reality
28. Ontological, epistemological and axiological
Assumption type Questions Positivism (objectivism) Interpretivism/
What Constitutes Valid
Knowledge and How Can We
• What is considered
acceptable & legitimate
• What constitutes
• What kinds of
knowledge can be
• Adopt assumptions
of the natural
• Observable phenomena
• A Deductive or Theory-Testing
• Adopt the assumptions
of the arts and Humanities
• Attributed meanings
•An Inductive or Theory-Building
•Individuals and contexts,
29. Ontological, epistemological and axiological
Assumption type Questions Positivism (objectivism) Interpretivism/
• What is the role of
values in research? How
should we treat our
own values when we do
• How should we deal
with the values of
• Integral and reflexive
30. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
1. To gain knowledge with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it
2. To show accurately the characteristics of a particular individual,
situation or a group.
3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which
it is associated with something else.
4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.
32. MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH
Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits;
Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems,
i.e., concern over practical problems
Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work;
Desire to be of service to society;
Desire to get respectability.
33. Classification of Research
Research can be classified in terms of:
• goal of research,
• specific objectives of research,
• approaches of research,
• the type of data used in research, and
• fields of study.
34. 1. Based on the Goal of Research
A. BASIC RESEARCH
Basic research (also called fundamental or pure
research) has as its primary objective the advancement
of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the
relations among variables.
The major aims of basic research include:
Obtaining and using empirical data to formulate, expand,
or evaluate theory; and
Discovery of knowledge solely for the sake of knowledge.
35. B. APPLIED RESEARCH
• Applied research is designed to solve practical problems
of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for
• Applied scientists might look for answers to specific
questions that help humanity, for example medical research
or environmental studies.
36. 2. Based on the Specific Objectives of Research
A) Descriptive Research-sets out to describe and to interpret
• The methods that come under descriptive research are:
• Correlation studies
• Observation studies
• Case studies
37. B) Explanatory Research- aims at establishing the cause and
effect relationship between variables.
There are two types of explanatory research:
1. Experimental research
2. Ex post facto research(means after the fact or
exploratory research-is less formal, sometimes even
unstructured and focuses on gaining background
information and helps to better understand and clarify a
Exploratory research is conducted when there are few or
no earlier studies to which references can be made for
38. 3. Based on Approaches of Research
• It involves studies that do not attempt to quantify their results through
statistical summary or analysis.
• It is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and
• It is typically more flexible – that is, they allow greater spontaneity and
adaptation of the interaction between the researcher and the study participant.
• It is the systematic and scientific investigation of quantitative
properties and phenomena and their relationships.
• This approach can be further sub-classified into inferential,
experimental and simulation approaches to research. 38
40. Qualitative Research vs. Quantitative Research
Characteristics Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Typical Data Collection
Participant observation, semi-structured interviews,
Instruments use more flexible
Laboratory observations, questionnaire,
schedule or structured interviews.
Instruments use more rigid style
To describe variation
To describe and explain relationships
To describe individual experiences
To describe group norms
To quantify variation
To predict causal relationships
To describe characteristics of a Population
Question format Open-ended Closed-ended
Timing of Analysis Parallel with data collection After data collection
Application of Standard
Methods of Analysis
Are rarely used. Methods of analysis are formulated
during the data collection process. Standard statistical methods are frequently used
Nature of reality
There are no human characteristics and processes from
which generalizations can emerge.
There are human characteristics and processes
that constitute a form of reality in that they
occur under a wide variety of conditions
41. 4. Based on Designs
• quasi-experimental, and
42. 5. By Type of Data
• Primary research (also called field research) and
• Secondary research (also known as desk research).
43. 6. By Fields of Study
•natural science research,
•social science research,
• educational research,
• behavioral science research,
• health science research, etc.
44. Significance of Research
• Research has its special significance in solving various
operational and planning problems of business and industry.
• Research is equally important for social scientists in studying
social relationships and in seeking answers to various social
• Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies
in our economic system.
45. Significance of Research Cont…
In the context of government, research as a tool to
economic policy has three distinct phases of
(i) investigation of economic structure through
continual compilation of facts;
(ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and the
analysis of the forces underlying them; and
(iii)the prognosis/an opinion, i.e., the prediction of
46. Significance of Research Cont…
Others significance of research:
(a) To those students who are to write a master’s or Ph.D.
thesis, research may mean a careerism or a way to attain
a high position in the social structure;
(b) To professionals in research methodology, research
may mean a source of livelihood;
(c) To philosophers and thinkers, research may mean the
outlet for new ideas and insights;
(d) To literary men and women, research may mean the
development of new styles and creative work;
(e) To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the
generalizations of new theories.
48. Criteria of good research
• The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts
• The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit
another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping
the continuity of what has already been attained.
• The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield
results that are as objective as possible.
• The researcher should report with complete truthfulness, flaws in procedural
design and estimate their effects upon the findings.
• The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance
and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and
reliability of the data should be checked carefully.
• Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research
and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.
• Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced,
has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.
49. The Research Process
(1)Formulating the research problem
(2)Extensive literature survey
(3)Developing the hypothesis
(4)Preparing the research design
(5)Determining sample design
(6)Collecting the data
(7)Execution of the project
(8)Analysis of data
(10)Generalizations and interpretation, and
(11)Preparation of the report or presentation of the results, i.e.,
formal write-up of conclusions reached.
54. Review Questions
1. What do you mean by research? Explain its significance
in modern times.
2. What are the basic differences between Qualitative and
3. What is the difference between experimental research
and ex post facto research?
56. Chapter 2
Formulation of the Research Problem and Hypothesis, and
• Select a researchable topic;
• Formulation of the research problem and hypothesis;
• Comprehend the common concepts of review of related literature;
• Describe the principal characteristics of the related literature;
• Explain the functions of related literature;
• Explain why the need for critical reading for research,
• Demonstrate how to record the related review literature in text and referencing
57. The Research Process : Steps in Conducting Research
Data presentation, Analyzing and Interpreting
writing the research report.
58. Reflective Activity, 5 minutes
1) What is Business Research Problem?
2) Identify few examples of Business Problems.
59. Business Research Problem
• Business Research Problem is a situation or circumstance that requires a
solution to be described, explained, or predicted.
Some examples of Business Problems
• Training programs are perhaps not as effective as anticipated.
• Declining sales.
• Rising costs
• Inventory control is not effective
• Poor project performance
• Problems in Leadership
• Lack of employee commitment
60. Selection of Research Problem and Topic
Attributes of a good research topic
Capability: is it feasible?
• Is the topic something with which you are really fascinated?
• Do you have, or can you develop within the project time frame, the necessary research skills
to undertake the topic?
• Is the research topic achievable within the available time?
• Will the topic still be current when you finish your project?
• Is the topic achievable within the financial resources that are likely to be available?
• Are you reasonably certain of being able to gain access to data?
Appropriateness: is it worthwhile?
• Does the topic fit the specifications and meet the standards set by the examining institution?
• Are you able to state your research question(s), aim and objectives clearly?
• Does the topic match your career goals (field of study)?
61. Selecting a topic
• the researcher values, belief, interests, relevance, and personal experiences can
influence the choice of a research topic
• Find out the research interests of the potential supervisors; have a discussion with
them; read their publications
• researchers are sometimes restricted to particular topics because of access to or
lack of access to data in the specific field of study or time availability
62. Selecting a topic…Cont’d
• researchers can select a topic based on how important a particular issue is
perceived to be to society at that point in time
• researchers can also restricted by the sponsor or funding agency. Most
funding agencies have specific topics of interests which are based on their
goals and objectives.
• Discrepancies in existing research literature which need to be addressed or
areas of study where there are reasonable gaps in the existing literature. The
potential contribution to literature lies in the research gap.
63. Types of Research Gaps-in writing a research problem
A. Issue Gap
• An issue which is less discussed, or less represented in literature. Very little is known
about this issue. Ex: Corporate Governance, Think-tanks
B. Theory Gap
• A theory or theoretical framework which is less discussed, or less represented in
literature. Theory gap can also exist when current theories or conceptual models are
inadequate in addressing a particular research issue. –Evaluation model for distance
C. Method Gap
• A research method which is less discussed or less represented in literature in respect
to a particular research topic/issue. Sometimes researchers make a case for new
research methods or approaches to be used for a particular research issue.
Inconclusive/conflicting empirical results can also create method gaps.
D. Context Gap
• A research context – geographic region – which is less discussed or less represented
in literature, especially in respect to a particular research issue.
E. Level of Analysis Gap
• A level of analysis (meta, macro, and micro) – which is less discussed or less
represented in literature, especially in respect to a particular research issue.
64. The topic should be specific and realistic:
• Generally use the inverted pyramid
Broad introduction to topic
Your research question
Thus this research question must be
level of detail
67. Steps in formulating a research problem: (Kumar 2011:48-
1. Identifya broad area of interest in your academic /professional field
2. Dissect the broad area in to sub areas(brainstorm)
3. Select the sub area in which you have decided to conduct the research (process of elimination)
4. Raise research questions that you would like to answer through the study
68. 5. Formulate objectives for the study (one main aim/objective and three or four sub objectives)
• Objectives are more generally acceptable to the research community as evidence of the researcher’s
clear sense of purpose and direction.
6. Assess objectives to make sure that they can be attained in time
available, and with financial human resources and technical
7. Double check you are sufficiently interested in the study and
have adequate resources for doing it.
69. Step 1
1) Practices of audit
2) Determinants of audit quality
3) Challenges of audit quality
1) What is the effect of independence on audit
2) What are the effect of audit size on audit
3) What is the effect of objectivity on audit
- to analyze the determinates of audit quality
• To analyze the effect of independence on audit quality.
• To examine the effect of audit size on audit quality.
• To analyze the effect of objectivity on audit quality.
Assess these objectives in the
light of :
1.the work involved
2.the time available to you
3.the financial resources at your disposal
4.your technical expertise in the area
1. that you are really interested in the
2. that you agree with the objectives
3.that you have adequate resources
4.that you have the technical expertise
to undertake the study
Proposed Research Title: Determinates of audit quality
The word hypothesis consists of two words:
• Hypo + thesis = Hypothesis
• ‘Hypo’ means tentative or subject to the verification and
• ‘Thesis’ means statement about solution of a problem.
• It is a tentative statement about the solution of the problem.
• Hypothesis offers a solution of the problem that is to be verified empirically
and based on some rationale.
• It is a brilliant guess about the solution of a problem.
71. The Hypotheses
• It is a proposition that is stated in testable form and predicts a particular
relationship between two (or more) variables.
• By test we mean either to confirm it to our satisfaction or to prove it wrong.
• A clearly written hypothesis helps researchers to decide what data to collect and
how to analyze them.
• It typically implies that a change in one variable is caused by change in another variable.
Employees who perceive greater opportunities for participation in decision making would have a
higher level of commitment.
72. The Hypotheses- Cont’d
Two Types of Hypothesis:
For hypothesis testing: It is common to state research and null hypotheses
A null hypothesis (H0) is a statement about a status quo
Alternative hypothesis (H1) is the opposite of the null hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis is the research hypothesis- what a researcher wants to
H0 : There is no academic performance difference between men and women.
H1 : There is significant academic performance difference between men and women.
73. Individual Homework
• Identify broad researchable topic
• Dissect the broad area into sub areas
• Select one area & state research problem
• Indicate research question (s)
• Formulate Hypothesis of the study
• Indicate possible “Title” for your study
76. What is a Literature Review?
• “is a written summary of journal articles, books and other
documents (both published and unpublished) that
describes the past and current state of information,
organizes the literature into topics and documents a need
for a proposed study.”
• A discussion of your knowledge that is supported by the
78. Why Review Literature?/Purpose
• determine what has already been written on a topic
• identify previous approaches to the topic
• identify central issues in the field
• integrate what previous researchers have found
• identify important issues still unresolved.
79. Why Review Literature…Cont’d
In relation to your own study, the literature review can help
in four ways. It can:
• Bring clarity and focus to your research problem;
• Improve your research methodology;
• Broaden your knowledge base in your research areas; and
• Contextualize your findings.
81. Characteristics of a good literature review
• The survey materials must be as recent as possible.
• Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased.
• Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study.
• Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and
• data to make them valid and reliable.
• Review materials must not be too few nor too many.
83. i. Primary literature sources/grey literature-publications without commercial
purposes, difficult to trace/: are the first occurrence of a piece of work
They include published sources such as reports and some
central and local government publications such as planning
Unpublished manuscript such as letters, memos and
Literature sources available
84. Literature sources available...Cont’d
ii. Secondary literature sources: these are subsequent publication of
primary literature (books and journals)
Aimed at a wider audience
They are easier to locate than primary literature as they are
better covered by tertiary literature.
iii. Tertiary literature sources/search tools/: these are designed to
help to locate primary and secondary literature or to introduce a
Include: abstracts, indexes, and bibliographies
85. Conducting a Literature Review
• Evaluating the credibility of sources is one of the most
• The process of reviewing the related literature comprise,
among other things includes:
a) active reading,
b) careful record keeping
c) selective note- taking, and
d) critical evaluation of the information.
86. Literature review techniques
• using the ideas of an author, but not his or her exact
• “restating or rewording a passage from a text, giving the
same meaning in another form"
• If you use the ideas or opinions from someone else and
restate them in your own words, you still need to cite the
87. Literature review techniques…Cont’d
•It is writing a summary of what the author says.
•Summarizing means taking ideas from a larger passage and condensing them into
your own words.
• It is useful because to:
miss out unnecessary details, such as examples
Use less words than the author, and therefore the number of
words will be minimized in your writing.
88. 3. Direct Quote
• It means using the exact same words as the original author.
• If you use the exact words of an author, you need to include them in “quotation
Literature review techniques…Cont’d
89. During Quotation
• A short quotation (<= four lines) is placed within the text.
Quotation marks (“ ”) are used around the quote. The quote is
• Helmsing (2001:4) explains that “decentralization has ceased to
be a local government affair and has turned into a local
90. During Quotation...Cont’d
• If a quotation is longer than four lines of text, it should be
block-indented and single-spaced.
–Do not use quotation marks at the beginning or the end
of the block quotation.
• Exception: Quotation within a quotation
–The block quote should be separated from text by a
double space, above and below the block quotation.
–indenting the left margin is required.
91. Long Quotation, Example
• The argument that privatization would reduce corruption is also defective. Experiences
have shown that it has institutionalized corruption into the body politics more than
before. Turner rightly captures the real situation of things in theses words:
The process of privatization creates new possibilities for corruption in the
determination of the price paid for the enterprise, the terms of the privatization
agreement and the nature of bidding arrangements. The possibility exists that
favored individual and companies may acquire valuable assets at below-market
prices. The winners would be the public official who organized the deals and the new
owner (Turner 1998:1).
92. During Quotation
• Where a quotation has been changed or words are added, it should be
indicated as follows-by the use of round bracket [ ] and ellipsis/three
spaced dots …
1. “[…] it is clear that according to the current understanding of
governance, government is one among many societal players or
actors that are concerned with public issues.”
2. “ Development is […] a cumulative process.”
3. “ The change should be very well felt by [the community] and local
officials.”---this shows that the community is the author’s own
94. • Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and
ideas that you have used in your academic writing/scientific papers.
• The act of providing evidence for arguments and perspectives presented in literature
write up – article, long essay, report and et cetera.
1. References provided within the text or the body of the text /In-text citation
2. Compiled references at the end of the text /list of references/
Systems of Referencing
96. • The first method involves embedding details within the sentence structure of your text. For
Haas and Arnold (1995) found that in the workplace about one third of the characteristics
that people use to judge communication competence have to do with listening.
• The second method requires providing the author’s name and date following a phrase or
paragraph expressing an idea or concept proposed or identified by another author which
supports an argument that you are discussing. For example:
It is the perception of many managers that they are often under pressure to compromise
personal ethical standards to meet company goals (Cavanaugh, 1980).
Citing references within the text
97. Harvard VS. APA 7th Edition Systems of Referencing
Harvard System APA system Comment
Referencing in the text of Parenthetical Citation (source at the end of statement)
(Lewis 2001) (Lewis,2001) Note punctuation
(Saunders and Williams 2001) (Saunders & Williams, 2001) Ampersand-‘&’ not ‘and’
For three and more authors: (Williams et al.
• Williams et al. (1999)
For three and more authors: (Williams et al.,
• Williams et al. (1999) Note punctuation
References in the references or
Berman Brown, R. and
Saunders, M. (2008).
Dealing with statistics:
What you need to know.
Berman Brown, R. &
Saunders, M. (2008).
Dealing with statistics: What
you need to know.
•Note use of ‘and’ and ‘&’
98. Apa 7th Edition Paraphrase
Narrative Citation Parenthetical Citation
One author Bryman (2016) (Bryman, 2016).
Two authors According to Bryman and Bell
(Bryman & Bell, 2020).
Saunders et al. (2021) (Saunders et al., 2021).
Group author, first
The Ministry of Revenues (MOR;
(Ministry of Revenues [MOR], 2021).
Group author, late
The MOR (2021) (MOR, 2021).
99. D)Critical Evaluation of the Information
• Has the emphasis been given to the most important and
relevant authors and works?
• Are the sources up to date?
• Is the survey critical of authors and their work where
• Does the literature review focus on the research concerns
and questions (and not deviate)?
• Does it read well?
100. Research Development (RD)
• RD is a set of strategic, proactive, and capacity-building activities designed to
facilitate individual faculty members, teams of researchers, and central
research administrations in attracting extramural research funding, creating
relationships, and developing and implementing strategies that increase
• These activities are typically practiced at universities, but are also in use at a
variety of other research institutions.
103. What is a research design?
• A research design provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data.
• A choice of research design reflects decisions about the priority being given to a
range of dimensions of the research process.
• These include the importance attached to:
• expressing causal connections between variables;
• generalizing to larger groups of individuals than those actually
forming part of the investigation;
• understanding behavior and the meaning of that behavior in its
specific social context;
• having a temporal (that is, over time) appreciation of social
phenomena and their interconnections.
May 28, 2023 103
104. What is a research design?...Cont’d
• Early in the research process, as the problem and research objectives are
forming, researchers can begin to understand which research design will
be most appropriate.
• Their aim is to match basic research designs to given problems and
• The choice of research design also is dependent on how much we
already know about the problem and research objective.
May 28, 2023 104
105. Research design vs. Research method
• A research method is simply a technique for collecting data.
• A research method can involve a specific instrument, such as a
self-completion questionnaire or a structured interview
schedule, or participant observation whereby the
researcher listens to and watches others.
May 28, 2023 105
106. • Broadly speaking, two prominent designs are available to study
a problem in social research namely:
• Deductive method
• Inductive method
Approaches of Research Design
107. • Deductive approach represents the most common view of the
relationship between theory and social research.
• In this, the researcher on the basis of a theoretical consideration
deduces hypothesis/es which is subjected to empirical scrutiny.
• This means that the social scientist needs to specify how data
can be collected in relation to the concepts that help to test the
• Thus, the research starts with a given theory as the basis, for
which hypothesis/es is developed.
• Subsequently research is undertaken and hypothesis/es is either
confirmed or rejected based on the data acquired using
observation or experimentation.
109. • Under the inductive approach, the researcher starts with a specific observation, based on which
develops a general pattern and tentative hypothesis/es and eventually presents a theory as illustrated
Inductive Reasoning: Building Theory
110. • This difference has implications for research
• Because the deductive approach implies that a set of
theoretical ideas give direction to the collection and analysis of
• where as inductive approach suggests a more open-ended
strategy in which theoretical ideas emerge out of the data.
Deductive Vs Inductive approach
111. Reflective activity, 10 minutes
• Why Research Design is required in research?
• Discuss the characteristics of good research design
May 28, 2023 111
113. Types of Research Designs…. cont.
• Research designs based on the nature of investigation:
• Exploratory research design,
• Descriptive research design,
• Explanatory research (causal or correlation research
• Experimental research design,
• Quasi-experimental research design
May 28, 2023 113
114. Exploratory research design
• Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, informal research
that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of
the research problem.
• By unstructured, we mean that exploratory research does not have a
predetermined set of procedures. Rather, the nature of the research changes
as the researcher gains information.
• Exploratory research is informal in that there is no formal set of objectives,
sample plan, or questionnaire. Often, small, non-representative, samples
are used in exploratory research.
May 28, 2023 114
115. Exploratory research design…Cont’d
• Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not
know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires
new or more recent information.
• Exploratory research is used in a number of situations:
• to gain background information
• to define terms
• to clarify problems and hypotheses, and
• to establish research priorities.
When very little is known about the problem, exploratory research may he
used to gain much needed background information.
May 28, 2023 115
116. Descriptive research design
• Descriptive research is undertaken to describe answers to questions of who,
what, where, when, and how.
• who our customers are,
• what brands they buy and in what quantities,
• where they buy the brands,
• when they shop, and
• how they found out about our products?
• Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different
• The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs
as it exists at present.
May 28, 2023 116
117. Descriptive research design…Cont’d
• Data, which are typically numeric OR Words, are collected through surveys,
interviews, or through observation.
• In descriptive research, the investigator reports the numerical results for one
or more variable(s) or descriptive results on the participants (or unit of
analysis) of the study.
• Statistics: histograms, means, percentages
May 28, 2023 117
118. Explanatory Research Design
• Explanatory research design is the research whose primary purpose is to explain
why events occur to build, elaborate, extend or test theory
• This can be classified into causal and correlational research design
• 1. correlational research design:
• Attempts to determine whether and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more
• The purpose of a Correlational study is either to establish relationships or to use relationships to
• Correlation is a quantitative measure of the degree of relationship between two or more variables.
• The degree of correspondence between variables is measured by a correlation coefficient, which
is a number between -1.00 and +1.00.
May 28, 2023 118
119. Correlational …..
• Two variables that are not related will have a correlation coefficient
near zero (0),
• Two variables that are highly related will have a correlation coefficient
near -1:00 or +1.00.
• A correlation that is positive means that as one variable increases,
the other variable also increases.
• A correlation that is negative means that when one variable increases
the other variable decreases.
May 28, 2023 119
120. Causal- comparative research
• Aimed at making cause-effect statement about the performance
of two or more groups, methods or programs.
• The alleged cause, that is the characteristic believed to make a
difference is often referred to as the treatment or independent
• The difference, or effect of the independent variable is called
the dependent variable because it is dependent on what
happens to the independent variable.
• the researcher has no control over the independent variable,
so For this reason it is called ex-post facto research.
May 28, 2023 120
121. Causal …...
• Independent variables are those variables over which the
researcher has control and wishes to manipulate.
• Examples include level of advertising expenditure, type of advertising appeal, display
location, price, and type of product.
• Dependent variables are those variables over which we
have little or no direct control but a strong interest in
• Examples include sales, market share, customer satisfaction, sales force turnover, and
• Extraneous variables are those that may have some
effect on a dependent variable but yet are not independent
May 28, 2023 121
122. Experimental Design
• Experimental research like causal-comparative research attempts to establish
cause-effect relationship among the groups of participants that make up the
independent variable of the study, but in the case of experimental research,
the cause (the independent variable) is under the control of the researcher.
• The researcher randomly assigns participants to the groups or conditions that
constitute the independent variable of the study and then measures the effect
this group membership has on another variable, i.e. the dependent variable of
• There is a control and experimental group, some type of “treatment” and
participants are randomly assigned to both: Control Group, manipulation,
May 28, 2023 122
123. Quasi-Experimental Design
• Quasi-experimental designs provide alternate means for
examining causality in situations which are not conducive
to experimental control.
• The designs should control as many threats to validity as
possible in situations where at least one of the three
elements of true experimental research is lacking (i.e.
manipulation, randomization, control group).
May 28, 2023 123
124. Cross-sectional studies VS. Longitudinal studies
• Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of
the population at only one point in time (one-time
measurements), they are often described as “snapshots”
of the population.
• Longitudinal studies repeatedly measure the same
sample units of a population over a period of time.
Because longitudinal studies involve multiple
measurements, they are often described as “movies” of
May 28, 2023 124
126. 2) Longitudinal studies…Cont’d
There are two types of panels:
• Continuous panels ask panel members the same
questions on each panel measurement.
• Discontinuous panels vary questions from one panel
measurement to the next.
May 28, 2023 126
127. 3.5 Sampling and Sample Design
• Sampling has its own basic terminology: population,
census, sample, sample unit, sample frame, sample frame
error, and sample error. In figure see below:
May 28, 2023 127
128. Basic terminology of Sampling and Sample Design
• Population: all members of a specified group
• Target population- the population to which the researcher
ideally wants to generalize.
• Accessible population- the population to which the researcher
• A census is defined as an accounting of the complete
• Sample: A subset of population that suitably represents
that entire group.
• A sample unit is the basic level of investigation.
May 28, 2023 128
129. Basic terminology…Cont’d
• A sample frame is a master source of sample units in the
• A sample frame invariably contains sample frame error. A
listing of the population may be incomplete and/or inaccurate
and thus contain sample frame error.
• Sampling error is any error in a survey that occurs because a
sample is used.
May 28, 2023 129
STRATEGIES FOR DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE
• using a census for small populations, is attractive (e.g., 200 or
• imitating a sample size of similar studies,
• using published tables, and
• applying formulas to calculate a sample size.
May 28, 2023 131
132. Why use a sample?
• Destruction of test units
May 28, 2023 132
133. Steps of sampling
• Definition of target population
• Selection of a sampling frame (list)
• Probability or Nonprobability sampling
• Sampling Unit
– Random sampling error (chance fluctuations)
• Nonsampling error (design errors)
May 28, 2023 133
134. Target Population (step 1)
• Who has the information/data you need?
• How do you define your target population?
• Operational Definition -A definition that gives meaning to a
concept by specifying the activities necessary to measure it.
- Eg. Student, employee, user, area, major news paper.
- What variables need further definition?
(Items per construct)
May 28, 2023 134
135. Sampling Frame (step 2)
• List of elements
• Sampling Frame error
• Error that occurs when certain sample elements are not listed or
available and are not represented in the sampling frame
May 28, 2023 135
137. Probability or Nonprobability Sample Design (step 3)
• A sampling technique in which every member of the population will
have a known, nonzero probability of being selected
• Non-Probability Sample:
• Units of the sample are chosen on the basis of personal judgment or
• There are NO statistical techniques for measuring random sampling
error in a non-probability sample. Therefore, generalizability is never
May 28, 2023 137
138. 3.3 Types/Classification of Sampling Methods
May 28, 2023 138
139. 1. Simple Random Sampling
Each unit in the population has equal chance of being selected.
Can be lottery method or a random number table
It requires a complete list of the study population. The researcher
assigns each member of sampling frame a number before selecting
Helps to eliminate the inadvertent introduction of sample bias.
May 28, 2023 139
140. 2. Systematic Random sampling
• Population has N units. Plan to sample n units and then
• The sampling interval/skip= N/n------K
• Line-up all N units and Randomly select a number between 1 and K
• Select the randomly selected unit and every kth unit after that
• Does not result in a truly random sample or suffers from the problem of
May 28, 2023 140
141. 3. Stratified sampling
• Involves a process of stratification or segregation, followed by
random/purposive/sample from each stratum.
• 1st: divide or classify the population into strata, or groups, on the basis of
some common characteristics such as sex, race, or institutional affiliationetc.
• Mutually exclusive groups: the classification should be done so that every
member of the population is found in one and only one stratum.
• Separate samples are drawn from each stratum. (proportionately or
• It ensures homogeneity within each stratum, but heterogeneity between strata
May 28, 2023 141
142. 4.Cluster sampling
• It involves division of elements of a population into groups-
the groups are termed clusters
• Recommended when:
• it is necessary to study a large geographical area and
• It is difficult to identify the sampling frame
• The geographical distribution of the members is scattered
May 28, 2023 142
143. Cluster …… Cont.
Stages in cluster sampling
1. The sampling frame is the complete list of clusters rather than individuals
2. Select a few clusters, normally using simple random sampling technique.
3. then collect data from the cases within the selected clusters either using
census or by taking sample.
Note: Cluster sampling can also be done at several stages, and then called
multistage cluster sampling.
• Different from stratified sampling because Every cluster is not
sampled where as every stratum is sampled in the case of
May 28, 2023 143
144. Non-probability sampling designs
• Can work well for exploratory studies
• Useful if it is not important to obtain accurate estimates of population
• The units are selected at the discretion of the researcher
• Cheaper and easier to carry out than probability designs
Some of the disadvantages of non-probability sampling:
• one cannot estimate parameters from sample statistics
• Such samples would not be a representative of the population : does not rely
on random sampling
May 28, 2023 144
145. 1. Convenience sampling
• also called haphazard or accidental sampling
• Involves collecting information from members of the population who are
conveniently available to provide it.
• For example: collecting information from Volunteers
• Criteria: The availability/ the ease of obtaining/ and willingness to respond
• convenient and economical to sample employees in a nearby area
• During election times TV channels often present man-on-the-street interviews to reflect public
May 28, 2023 145
146. 2. Quota sampling
• selecting a quota of individual units with defined characteristics in the same
proportion as they exist in the population.
• address the issue of representativeness ( gender: two categories: male, female;
Class level: social-economic class: upper, middle, lower)
• A type of stratified sample in which selection of cases within strata is entirely non-
• Example: A researcher is interested to assess the attitudes of
employees towards working condition. male are 60 percent and
female are 40% in the organizations: If Sample size is 30 employees,
then 18 conveniently available male and 12 female workers will be
May 28, 2023 146
147. 3. Purposive sampling
• Is judgmental/ deliberate sampling
• It invites the researcher to identify and target individuals who
are believed to be typical of the population being studied.
• The researcher uses his own judgment about which
respondents to choose, and picks only those best meet the
purposes of the study.
Expert sampling: involves selecting persons with known
experience or expertise in an area.
• With purposive sampling the sample is ‘hand picked’ for the
May 28, 2023 147
148. 4. Snowball sampling/referral sampling
• Snowball: Individuals are discovered initially, and then each
individual is used to locate others (the names & addresses)
who possess similar characteristics and who, in turn, identify
• Used when members of a population cannot be located easily
by other methods and where the members of a population know
or are aware of each other.
• Example: we may want to sample very small populations who
are not easily distinguishable from the general population or
who do not want to be identified, example drug users,
May 28, 2023 148
149. Sampling Error and Sampling Bias
• Sampling error is any error in a survey that occurs
because a sample is used.
• Sampling error is caused by two factors.
• First, there is the method of sample selection, includes sample
• The second factor is the size of the sample.
• Sampling error is an error in the findings deriving from
research due to the difference between a sample and the
population from which it is selected. This may occur even
though probability sampling has been employed.
May 28, 2023 149
150. Sampling Error and Sampling Bias…Cont’d
• Sampling Bias: is introduced when the sample used is
not representative of the population or inappropriate for
the question asked.
• Sampling bias is a distortion in the representativeness of
the sample that arises when some members of the
population (or more precisely the sampling frame) stand
little or no chance of being selected for inclusion in the
May 28, 2023 150
151. Determining Sample Size
• What data do you need to consider
• Variance or heterogeneity of population
• The degree of acceptable error (confidence interval)
• Confidence level
• Generally, we need to make judgments on all these variables
152. Formula in Determining the Sample Size
According to Taro Yamane (1967:886) provides a simplified
formula to calculate sample sizes. This formula was used to
calculate the sample sizes. A 95% confidence level and P=
.5 The Formula is:
n is the sample size, N is the population size, and e is the
level of precision.
153. Example of sample size determination
• Suppose our evaluation of farmers’ adoption of the new
practice only affected 2,000 farmers.
• The sample size would be 333 farmers
156. What is the Research proposal ?
• After the selection of a research problem and setting proper direction for
investigation, the researcher should write out a proposal, synopsis, or plan for
• The research proposal is a systematic plan, which brings to focus the
preliminary planning that will be needed to accomplish the purpose of the
• It is just like a blueprint, which the architect peppers before the construction of
157. What is research proposal?...Cont’d
• The key that unlocks the door to the research endeavor
• A research proposal is intended to convince others that you
have a worthwhile research project and that you have the
competence and the work-plan to complete it.
• Also called prospectus, plan, outline, statement, draft.
• A written statement of the research design that includes a
statement explaining the purpose of the study.
158. The Research Proposal
A written statement of the research design that includes a
statement explaining the purpose of the study.
Detailed outline of procedures associated with a
particular research methodology.
It includes information on cost and deadlines.
The proposal must communicate exactly what information,
how and where it will be obtained through the study.
Questionnaires and other supporting documents should
be attached for reference.
159. The Research Proposal
Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements
involved in the research process and include sufficient information for
the readers to evaluate the proposed study.
Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose,
all research proposals must address the following questions:
what you plan to accomplish,
why you want to do it and
how you are going to do it.
160. The Organization of Research Proposal:
• A specific structure of the business research proposal
depends on the types of research, institutional and
organizational requirements and may vary from institutions
• However, the variability does not usually affect the basic
structural model, which includes the following major
161. The importance of research proposal
• It serves as a basis for determining the feasibility of the
• It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the
researcher to follow.
• It gives the research supervisor a basis for guiding the
researcher while conducting the study.
• It reduces the probability of costly mistakes 161
162. Components of the Research Proposal
•Three parts of proposal
A. The preliminaries
B. The body
C. The supplemental
163. Components of the Research Proposal
• Title/Cover page
• Table of content
164. Title/Cover page
Identifying information is correct (i.e., the title page of the
proposal contains; the name of your
University/College/department, thesis title, student’s name,
ID#, purpose/reason of conducting the thesis, the name of
your advisor(s), date of delivery and place of work in
Title pages must be printed on white, and use centered
Title is a label: it is not a sentence.
Titles should almost never contain abbreviations.
The title page has no page number and it is not counted in
any page numbering.
Retain the same font type (Times New Roman) and font size;
either 14 or 16 points for all text in the title page
165. Table of Contents
• Table of Contents contains list of contents entire of the
thesis paper align with the page numbers to the right and
accurately place the "dots".
• Begin page numbering with the Table of Contents
numbered “i” at bottom center of the page.
• Use these same steps to prepare the list of tables and lists
• Abstracts for each component appear on separate pages
before chapter one (introduction).
• Each Abstract is no more than 150 words, single
paragraph, single spaced, with Italic font type.
• An abstract should be covered purpose of the study,
methodology and keywords at proposal phase.
167. Components of the Research Proposal-The Body
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research Questions/Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Operational Definition of Key Terms (If)
1.9 Organization of the study
168. The background of study
A research proposal should provide relevant background for the
proposed study. Specifically, the proposal should precisely define the
problem at hand.
This section should be used to put the work into context, what has
been done before, and how will the proposed work adds to it.
This section identifies the problem that needs to be resolved as a
result of the research and outlines the proposed activities and
describes the expected outcomes.
Background outlines the background and rationale of the thesis.
After providing sufficient background information to allow the reader
to understand the context, you need to show how your work will build
on and add to the existing knowledge.
Should not be lengthy (1 – 1½ page)
169. Statement of the problem
A clear, concise statement of the problem to be solved by the proposed research,
usually in few sentences.
The problem provides the context for the research study and typically generates
questions which the research hopes to answer.
The problem statement should “hook” the reader and establish a persuasive context
for what follows.
The problem statement should close with question.
Effective problem statements answer the question “Why does this research need to be
Shouldn’t not be lengthy ½ - 1of a page is enough.
170. Objectives of the study
Statement(s) identifying the purpose of the research.
The objective(s) should be phrased in positive terms (e.g., to develop, to
determine, to measure, rather than broad generalities, such as, to investigate,
Need not be vague
Exclude objectives stated in terms of recommendations
The wording you use in the objectives can give an indication to the type of
research approaches (qualitative, quantitative or mixed).
It has: General objective – align with your Thesis title and Specific
objectives – related to research questions or hypothesis and conceptual
171. Research questions
• Avoid asking for obvious facts
• Avoid questions to be answered by “yes” or “no”
• Make sure the research questions are linked to the title
and research problem as well as specific objectives.
is proposed explanation on observable phenomenon. A hypothesis is a logical
supposition, a reasonable guess and educated conjecture. It provides a tentative
explanation for a phenomenon under investigation.
A useful hypothesis is testable statement which may include a prediction.
States on expected relationships or difference between two variables.
A good hypothesis is stated clearly and concisely, express the relationship between
two variables and defines those variables in measurable form.
173. Significance of the study
It briefly includes the findings of the literature search (also known as literature
review) related to the research to be conducted.
There should be well justification for conducting and choosing your topic and
research problem in such a way that either there has been no other research
on the problem with the same approach or that the proposed research project
will extend, modify or refine prior research.
Thus, the proposed research should be related to past research
accomplishments and how it builds upon rather than duplicating any previous
The relevance of the study might be seen from three dimensions.
These are academic, professional, practitioners, and policy maker.
174. Scope of the study
• The boundary of the research topic needs to be
• You need to justify your research population
• Why this study area or topic? Why not the others? -
Inclusion and exclusion criteria need to be clearly
• Its covers thematically, geographically, time horizon,
variables of research and methodology scope.
175. Limitation of the study
• Are not challenges (such as lack of money or time constraint)
• How far the study claims not complete need to be shown
• It often relates to the limitation of the applied methodology
• Methodological and conceptual limitations
176. Operational definition
• The point is that even though you use the same words, those
words can (and often do) have quite distinctly different
meanings in your study.
177. Organization of the paper
• Chapters can be organized conventional in five chapters.
• But, you have to follow the university/college guideline.
178. Components of the Research Proposal-The Body…Cont’d
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.2 Theoretical literature review (including theories)
2.3 Empirical literature review
2.4 Research gap
2.5 Conceptual framework
179. Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature…Cont’d
The review of related literature should provide an overview of the topic and
present references related to what is known about the topic.
The literature sets a context for the topic and identifies prior research that
can support the significance of the study. The literature review also
provides a basis of identifying hypothesis.
Literature review provides justification for the future research as well as for
the effort that the writer has already contributed to studying the subject
Beware that research is conducted in a context of existing ideas,
evidences and thinking
Look for current debates and dialogue
Beware of how the theory you reviewed shape your research questions.
180. Importance of Literature Review
Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your
Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.
Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research
issues related to your research question.
Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing
Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the
conceptual framework for your research.
Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a
significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving
an important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the
181. Most of the time literature reviews suffer from the following
• Lacking organization and structure
• Lacking focus, unity and coherence
• Being repetitive and verbose
• Failing to cite influential papers
• Failing to keep up with recent developments
• Failing to critically evaluate cited papers
• Citing irrelevant or trivial references
• Depending too much on secondary sources
182. Components of the Research Proposal-The Body…Cont’d
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.2 Research Philosophy (positivism, critical realism, interpretivism, postmodernism and pragmatism)
3.3 Research Approach (qualitative, quantitative or mixed)
3.4 Research Design (descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, concurrent or sequential mixed research method)
3.5 Population and Sample Size (including the sample size determination)
3.7 Sampling Techniques (which one from probability and non-probability sampling methods)
3.8 Type of data (primary, secondary or both) and ssource of data (respondents, study area data base or governmental
or international organizations)
3.9 Methods of Data Collection (questionnaire, interview, FGD, observation for primary source and document review for
3.10 Description of variables
3.11 Methods of Data Analysis (descriptive, exploratory, inferential, predictive, and causal)
3.12 Validity and Reliability
3.13 Ethical Considerations 182
183. Components of the Research Proposal -the
Work plan and time schedule
184. Work plan and Budget
• In the work plan:
• Different components/phases/stages of the study should
• Description of activities in each phase
• The time required to accomplish the various aspects of the
study should also be indicated
185. Budget, References, Appendices/Annexes
Budget items need to be explicitly stated cost for every budget item should be
You must give references to all the information that you obtain from books, papers in
journals, and other sources based on the college/university guideline.
Include in the appendices of your proposal any additional information you think might
be helpful to a proposal reviewer such as questionnaire & other collection forms.
186. Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing
Failure to provide the proper context to frame the research question.
Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research.
Failure to cite landmark studies.
Failure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by
Failure to stay focused on the research question.
Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed
Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.
Too much rambling — going "all over the map" without a clear sense of
direction. (The best proposals move forward with ease and grace like a
Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.
Too long or too short.
Failing to follow the appropriate referencing style (APA or Harvard style).
187. Guideline for Technical evaluation of Research proposal
• Appropriateness and clarity of conceptual/theoretical framework
• Logical relationship between the conceptual/theoretical framework and the
problem of the study.
• Clarity and adequacy of research method
• Realistic work Plan/Activities
• Itemized financial breakdown of the total project cost.
190. A primary data is an original data source, that is, one in which the
data are collected firsthand by the researcher for a specific research
purpose or project.
Examples: Interviews, surveys, and fieldwork.
Secondary data are pieces of information that have already been
collected for a different purpose, but may be relevant to the research
problems at hand.
Existing data collected for another purposes, that you use to
answer your research question.
Source of Data
191. Importance Of Secondary Data
Estimating market potential.
Analyzing market competitors.
Assessing industry trends.
Alerting the manager to potential problems.
Examples of Secondary data: Files/records, annual reports,
computer databases, industry or government reports, census data
and household survey data, electronic mailing lists and discussion
groups, documents (budgets, organizational charts, policies and
procedures, maps, monitoring reports),newspapers and television
Source of Data
192. As a general rule, primary data sources are preferred to secondary
sources since the primary source contains much pertinent
collection methods and
limitations associated with the data.
If the information is derived from a secondary source, for instance,
it is possible that the data might have been altered for some reason.
Source of Data
193. Primary Data vs Secondary Data
BASIS FOR COMPARISON PRIMARY DATA SECONDARY DATA
1. Meaning Primary data refers to the first hand data
gathered by the researcher himself.
Secondary data means data collected by
someone else earlier.
2. Data Real time data Past data
3. Process Very involved Quick and easy
4. Source Survey, observations, experiments,
questionnaire, personal interview, etc.
Government publications, websites, books,
journal articles, internal records etc.
5. Cost effectiveness Expensive Economical
6. Collection time Long Short
7. Specific Always specific to the researcher's needs. May or may not be specific to the
8. Available in Crude form Refined form
9. Accuracy and
More Relatively less
194. Before performing any analysis, you must first get to know;
Types of variables and
Measurement scales of data.
Because data presentation, data analysis, interpretation
Both types of variable and data measurement scales.
Types of Variables
195. A variable is a characteristic that may assume more than one set of
values to which a numerical measure can be assigned.
Sex, age, height, market price, income, household saving and mode
of transportation to work are all examples of variables.
Variables can be broadly classified into:
Qualitative (or Categorical) Variable
Quantitative (or Numerical) variable
Types of Variables
196. Qualitative variable: A variable or characteristic which can not be measured in
quantitative form but can only be observed and sorted by name or categories.
Example: Sex, occupation, educational level, level of customer satisfaction etc.
Quantitative variable: A variable that can be measured (or counted) and
Example: Height, weight, etc.
Quantitative variable is further divided into two:
Types of Variables
197. Qualitative variable: A variable or characteristic which can not be measured in
quantitative form but can only be observed and sorted by name or categories.
Example: Sex, occupation, educational level, level of customer satisfaction etc.
Quantitative variable: A variable that can be measured (or counted) and
Example: Height, weight, etc.
Quantitative variable is further divided into two:
Types of Variables
198. It is a quantitative variable that has ‘separate’ values at
specific points along the number line, with gaps between
them, is called a discrete variable.
Such variables can only take on certain values, which are
usually integers (whole numbers), and are often defined to
be count numbers (i.e., obtained by counting).
Example: The number of people in a particular shopping mole per hour, the
number of shares traded during a day
A Discrete variable
199. o A quantitative variable that has a ‘connected’ string of possible values at all
points along the number line, with no gaps between them, is called a continuous
o In other words, a variable is said to be continuous if it can assume an infinite
number of real values within a certain range.
o The values of such variables are often obtained by measuring.
o Examples of a continuous variable are:
The distance between the hospital to the house,
Weights of babies born in a hospital during a year,
time, age, temperature, cholesterol level, etc.
A Continuous Variable
200. Based on how data are categorized, counted, or measured we classified
scale of measurement into four types;
oNominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio scales
All measurements are not the same.
oMeasurement weight = e.g. 40kg
oMeasuring the status of a patient scale = “improved”, “stable”, “not
Scales of Measurement
201. It is the first and simplest scale of measurement in which data
are classified into mutually exclusive and exhausting categories.
The nominal scale assigns numbers as a way to label or identify
The numbers assigned have no quantitative meaning beyond indicating
the presence or absence of the characteristic under investigation.
1) Nominal Scale
202. Examples: sex, race, marital status, etc.
For example, we can record the gender of respondents as 0 and
1, where 0 stands for male and 1 stands for female.
The numbers we assign for the various categories are purely
arbitrary, and any arithmetic operation applied to these
numbers is meaningless.
1) Nominal Scale
203. The ordinal scale ensures that the possible categories can be
placed in a specific order (rank) or in some ‘natural’ way.
The numbers are not obtained as a result of a counting or
measurement process, and consequently, arithmetic
operations are not allowed.
• Examples: Patient status (none, mild, moderate & Severe),
cancer stages, social class, etc.
2) Ordinal Scale
204. • Examples: Patient status (none, mild, moderate & Severe), cancer
stages, social class, etc.
• For example, responses for health service provision can be coded as:
1 for poor – 2 for moderate – 3 for good – 4 for excellent.
• It is quite obvious that there is some natural ordering: the category
'excellent' (which is coded as 4) indicates a better health service
provision than the category 'moderate' (which is coded as 2) and,
thus, order relations are meaningful.
2) Ordinal Scale
205. Unlike the nominal and ordinal scales of measurement, the numbers
in an interval scale are obtained as a result of a measurement process
and have some units of measurement.
Also the differences between any two adjacent points on any part of
the scale are meaningful. However, a point can not be considered to
be a multiple of another, that is, ratios have no meaningful
It has not true zero value. Means “0” is arbitrary and doesn’t indicate
a total absence of quantity being measured.
3) Interval Scale
206. However, a temperature of 20 degree Celsius can not be interpreted
as twice as hot as a temperature of 10 degree Celsius.
For example, Celsius temperature is an interval scale. There is a
meaningful difference between 30 degree Celsius and 12 degree
However, a temperature of 20 degree Celsius can not be interpreted
as twice as hot as a temperature of 10 degree Celsius.
3) Interval Scale
207. The ratio scale represents the highest form of measurement precision.
In addition to the properties of all lower scales of measurement, it possesses the
additional feature that ratios have meaningful interpretation.
Furthermore, there is no restriction on the kind of statistics that can be computed
for ratio scaled data.
For example, the height of individuals (in centimeters), cholesterol level, the number of cases of
each reportable disease reported by a health worker and the annual profit of hospitals (in Birr)
represent ratio scales.
The statement ‘the annual profit of hospital X is twice as large as that of hospital Y’ has a
4) Ratio Scale
208. 1) knowing the level of measurement helps you decide on how to interpret the
data. For example, if your measure is nominal, then you know that the
numerical values are just short codes for (qualitative) categories.
2) the level of measurement helps you decide on how to present data in tabular
and graphical forms. For example, if you know that a measure is nominal, then
you don’t go for a grouped frequency distribution or a histogram.
3) knowing the level of measurement helps you decide what type of statistical
analysis is appropriate.
o If a measure is nominal, for instance, then you know that you would never average the data
values or apply parametric statistical methods.
Why is level of measurement important?
210. Types of data
a) Time series data
Here data is over a period of time on one or more variables.
Time series data have associated with a particular frequency of observation.
It has frequency: interval over which the data is collected.
The daily average price of coffee in ECX for the past 90 days,
A firm’s quarterly sales over the past 5 years, etc.
b) Cross-sectional data
Cross-sectional data are data on one or more variables collected
at a single point in time.
Such data do not have a meaningful sequence.
Eg. the data might be on:
Sales of 30 companies (say, in 2016)
number of customers of 50 sales branches.
C) Panel data
Repeated measures of one or more variables on more than
Panel data has its own advantage. It helps to control
unobserved time invariant factors.
H1 H2 H3 H4 H5
t1 H11 H21 H31 H41 H51 ….
t2 H12 H22 H32 H42 H52 ….
t3 H13 H23 H33 H43 H53 ….
213. Sources of Errors in Measurement
• Errors in Measurement should be precise and unambiguous in an ideal
• This objective, however, is often not met with in entirety.
• As such the researcher must be aware about the sources of error in
• The following are the possible sources of error in measurement.
214. Sources of Errors in Measurement …
• Respondent: At times the respondent may be reluctant/unwilling to
express strong negative feelings or it is just possible that he may have
very little knowledge but may not admit his ignorance.
• All this reluctance is likely to result in an interview of ‘guesses.’
Transient factors like fatigue, boredom, anxiety, etc. may limit the
ability of the respondent to respond accurately and fully.
215. Sources of Errors in Measurement …
• Situation: Situational factors may also come in the way of correct
measurement. Like Covid-19
• Any condition which places a strain on interview can have serious
effects on the interviewer-respondent rapport. For instance, if
someone else is present, he can distort responses by joining in or
merely by being present.
• If the respondent feels that anonymity is not assured, he may be
reluctant to express certain feelings.
216. Sources of Errors in Measurement …
• Measurer: The interviewer can distort responses by rewording or
• His behavior, style and looks may encourage or discourage certain
replies from respondents.
• Careless mechanical processing may distort the findings. Errors may
also creep in because of incorrect coding, faulty tabulation and/or
statistical calculations, particularly in the data-analysis stage.
217. Sources of Errors in Measurement …
• Instrument: Error may arise because of the defective measuring
• The use of complex words, beyond the comprehension of the
respondent, ambiguous meanings, poor printing, inadequate space for
replies, response choice omissions, etc. are a few things that make the
measuring instrument defective and may result in measurement errors.
Another type of instrument deficiency is the poor sampling of the
universe of items of concern.
219. What is Reliability?
• Reliability is the consistency of your measurement instrument.
• The degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time
it is used under the same condition with the same subjects
220. What is Validity?
• Validity asks: If an instrument measures what it is supposed to
and how “true” or accurate the measurement is.
• Validity refers to the issue of whether or not an indicator (or
of indicators) that is devised to gauge a concept really
measures that concept.
• Several ways or types of validity:
1. Face validity
2. Concurrent validity
3. Predictive validity
4. Construct validity and
5. Convergent validity
221. Face Validity
• It refer to logical link between the questions and the objectives
of the study.
• Each question or item on the research instrument must have
logical link with an objective.
• Establishment of this link is called face validity.
222. Content Validity
• It is equally important that the items and questions cover the full
range of the issue or attitude being measured .
• Assessment of the items of an instrument in this respect is
called as content validity.
• Each aspect should have similar and adequate representation
in the questions or items.
• Content Validity can be judged on the basis of the extent to
which statements or questions represent the issue they are
supposed to measure, as judged by you as a researcher, your
readership and experts in the field.
223. Concurrent validity
• Concurrent validity is judged by how well an instrument
compares with a second assessment concurrently done.
• For example we can collect data from respondents based on
questionnaire, similteniouly we can collect data by observing
respondents on the same issue then we compares the results
to establish concurrent validity for the instrument used in the
224. Predictive Validity
• Predictive validity is judged by the degree to which an
instrument can forecast an outcome.
• For example an entrance test of predicts the ability of the
candidate admit into a course and the ability to pursue the
• It is possible to express predictive validity in terms of the
correlation coefficient between the predicted status and the
• Such a coefficient is called a validity coefficient.
225. Construct Validity
• It is a more sophisticated technique for establishing the validity
of an instrument.
• It is based upon statistical procedures.
• It is determined by ascertaining the contribution of each
construct to the total variance observed in a phenomenon.
• For example if you want assess the level of job satisfaction,
you may consider working conditions, compensation policy and
style of the management as the issues or constructs.
226. Construct Validity
• After data collection you can use statistical procedures to
establish the contribution of each construct to the total variance
• The contribution of these factors to the total variance is an
indication of the degree of validity of the instrument.
• The greater the variance attributable to the constructs, the
higher the validity of the instrument
• The main disadvantage of construct validity is that you need
to know about the required statistical procedures.
227. The concept of reliability
• We use the work reliable in our lives.
• When we say that a person is reliable it means she/he is
dependable, consistent, predictable, stable and honest.
• The concept of reliability in relation to a research instrument
has similar meaning as mentioned above.
• If a research instrument or tool is consistent and stable,
hence predictable and accurate, it is said to reliable.
228. The concept of reliability
• The greater the degree of consistency and stability in an
instrument ,the greater the reliability.
• So a scale or test is reliable to the extent that repeat
measurements made by it under constant conditions will give
the same result.
• The concept reliability can be looked from two sides.
1.How reliable an instrument?
2. How unreliable it is?
229. The concept of reliability
• The first question focuses on the ability of the instrument to produce
• When you collect the same set of information more than once using the
same instrument and get the similar results under the similar condition,
then the instrument is considered to be reliable.
• The second question focuses on the degree of inconsistency in the
measurement made by the instrument.
• When you collect the information more than once using the same
instrument and get the different results under similar conditions, then the
instrument is unreliable.
• The lower the degree of difference or error in an instrument the higher
230. Factors affecting the reliability of research
• In the social sciences it is impossible to have a research tool
which is 100% accurate, not because the tool but because it is
impossible to control the factors affecting reliability.
• Some of the factors are given below.
The wording of question
The physical setting
The respondent’s mood
The interviewer’s mood
The nature of interaction
The regression effect of an instrument.
231. Validity and Reliability in qualitative research
• According to Guba and Lincolan, trustworthiness in qualitative
study is determined by four indicators
These four indicators reflect validity and reliability in qualitative
232. Putting Reliability and Validity Together
• Every instrument can be evaluated on two dimensions:
• Reliability: How consistent it is given the same conditions
• Validity: If it measures what it is supposed to and how accurate it
234. Primary Data Collection Approaches
4) Focus group discussion (FGD)
235. 1) Questionnaires
• Questionnaires are one of the most widely used primary data
• Questionnaires should be used when they fit the objectives of
• Most questionnaires will also contain, probably at the start, a
set of instructions for completing them.
• This is important, and it should not be assumed that
respondents will all know that they should, say, only tick one
choice for each question.
236. Why Questionnaires?
• They are low cost in terms of both time and money.
• The inflow of data is quick and from many people.
• Data analysis of closed questions is relatively simple, and
questions can be coded quickly.
• Respondents’ anonymity can be assured.
• These is a lack of interviewer bias.
237. Designing Questionnaires
Avoid the following issues when constructing individual questions:
• Imprecision: Avoid vague phrases such as ‘average’, ‘regularly’ and ‘a
• Leading questions: These suggest a possible answer and hence
promote bias. E.g. Why do you think the organization has been successful in the
past three years.
• Double questions: These should be avoided because they are
impossible to answer. E.g. Do you like chocolate and strawberry ice-cream?
• Assumptive questions: Avoid questions that make assumptions about
people’s beliefs or behaviors. E.g. How often do you drink alcohol?’
• Memory recall: People may have difficulty recalling what has occurred
even quite recently.
• Hypothetical questions: Try to avoid hypothetical questions such as:
‘Suppose you were asked to …’ 238
238. Types of question
• Open questions: Open questions have no definitive response
and contain answers that are recorded in full.
Hence, the questionnaire must be designed in such a way
that respondents are able to provide such a response without
the restriction of lack of space.
Open questions often begin with words such as ‘How’,
‘Why’, ‘What’, etc.
E.g. What aspects of the government’s healthy living campaign
do you find the least useful? Please write in.
239. Types of question…Cont’d
• Closed questions: A closed question is one to which the
respondent is offered a set of pre-designed replies.
such as Yes/No, True or False’, multiple-choice responses,
or is given the opportunity to choose from a selection of
numbers representing strength of feeling or attitude.
• Closed questions can be useful in providing respondents with
some structure to their answers.
• There are a number of approaches to asking closed questions
Ranking questions 240
240. List questions
• These provide the respondent with a list of (many) responses,
any of which they can select.
243. Scale questions
• A common type is the Likert scale on which respondents are
asked to indicate how strongly they agree or disagree with a
series of statements.
• Furthermore, the design of a questionnaire differs according
–how it is delivered,
–returned or collected and
–the amount of contact you have with the respondents.
245. Steps in Developing Effective Questionnaires
1. Decide what information you need.
2. Determine sample – respondents.
3. Develop accurate, user-friendly questionnaire.
4. Develop plan for distribution, return, and follow-up.
5. Provide clear instructions and a good cover letter.
6. Pilot test.
246. 2) Observation
• Is watching people, programs, events, communities, etc.
• Involves all 5 senses: sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste
• observation includes more than just “seeing”
Observation is used:
• To provide information about real-life situations and
• To assess what is happening
• Because you cannot rely on participants’ willingness and
ability to furnish information
247. 2) Observation…Cont’d
Observations need to be recorded to be credible. You might
• Observation guide
• Recording sheet
• Field note
• Combination of the above
248. 3) Interviews
• Verbally asking program participants the program evaluation
questions and hearing the participant’s point of view in his or
her own words.
• Talking and listening to people
• Verbally asking program participants the program evaluation
questions and hearing the participant’s point of view in his or
her own words. Interviews can be either structured or
unstructured, in person or over the telephone.
• Done face-to-face or over the phone