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Gagne's Learning Theories

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Gagne's Learning Theories

  1. 1. Robert Gagne and Learning Hierarchy (Contributions to Science Instruction) Prepared and Presented by : KRISTINE ANN B. DE JESUS BEEd 4-23
  2. 2. I-TOPIC: Gagne’s Impacts to Science Teaching SUB-TOPICS: A. Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes B. Terminal Tasks C. Difference between Procedural Tasks Analysis and Hierarchal Tasks Analysis
  3. 3. I-TOPIC: Gagne’s Impacts to Science Teaching SUB-TOPICS: D. Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning E. Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction F. Curriculum Implementation of Learning Hierarchy G. Gagne’s Contribution to Education- (Science Teaching)
  4. 4. After the discussion the students of BEEd 4-23 are expected to: a. describe the different types of Learning Outcomes according to R. Gagne; b. describe terminal tasks; c. Differentiate Procedural Tasks Analysis from Hierarchal Analysis;
  5. 5. d. identify Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction and their corresponding processes; e. identify Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning; f. link Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning to Science Instruction; g. Illustrate a Hierarchal Task Analysis
  6. 6. GUIDE QUESTIONS:  According to Gagne, there are different types of Learning. What are these?  Enumerate and describe Gagne’s 9 events of instruction  Illustrate Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  7. 7. • What are the Learning Outcomes introduced by Robert Gagne? • What are internal conditions? • What are external conditions? • What are some of Gagne’s contribution to science instruction? GUIDE QUESTIONS:
  8. 8. • Born in 1916 in North Andover, Massachusetts • Received Bachelors of Arts and earned his doctoral from Brown University Robert Gagne’s Theoretical Background Gagne built on the work of behavioral and information processing theories by translating principles from their learning theories into practical instructional strategies that teachers could employ with directed instruction.
  9. 9. • Well known for “Theory of Conditional Learning” • Consist of 3 distinct component : Taxonomy of learning outcomes - learning domain 9 instructional events Specific learning condition - Hierarchy of Learning Robert Gagne’s Background & Published Works
  10. 10. Gagne’s 5 Types of Learning Outcomes
  11. 11. Learning Domains : 5 types of learning outcome Outcome or Ability Meaning Performance example *Intellectual skill Ability to interact with surroundings using concept symbols Identify the diagonal of a square. Explaining why ice freezes at 0˚C. Predicting the rate of growth of a plant based on conditions of water, soil, light, etc. Cognitive strategy Ability to control the individual’s behaviour to learn, remember & think. To draw a chart for organizing data. To reason backwards to solve problem. Breaking up a problem into various parts.
  12. 12. 4 Levels of Intellectual Skills 1. Discrimination- Making different responses to the different members of a particular class. 2. Concrete Concept-Responding in a single way to all members of a particular class of observable events. 3. Rule Using-Applying a rule to a given situation or condition by responding to a class of inputs with a class of actions. 4. Problem Solving-Combining lower level rules to solve problems in a situation never encountered.
  13. 13. Learning Domains : 5 types of learning outcome Outcome or Ability Meaning Performance example *Intellectual skill Ability to interact with surroundings using concept symbols Identify the diagonal of a square. Explaining why ice freezes at 0˚C. Predicting the rate of growth of a plant based on conditions of water, soil, light, etc. Cognitive strategy Ability to control the individual’s behaviour to learn, remember & think. To draw a chart for organizing data. To reason backwards to solve problem. Breaking up a problem into various parts.
  14. 14. Outcome or Ability Meaning Performance Example *Verbal Information Development of information using language Naming the parts of an electric circuit & the function of each part. Listing objects that can be recycled. Stating characteristic of light. Motor skills Manipulative skills & carrying out routine work. Preparing a microscope slide. Build a model of a simple machine. Measuring the weight of an object using a balance. Attitude Change of attitude towards an object, another person, situation & change in effective domain. Making choices in the preparation of an insects collection. Visit science museum voluntarily & choose to borrow a book on dinosaurs.
  15. 15. VERBAL INFORMATION 1.) Labels & Facts- Naming or making a verbal “response” to a specific unit. 2.) Bodies of knowledge- Recalling a large body of interconnected facts.
  16. 16. Outcome or Ability Meaning Performance Example *Verbal Information Development of information using language Naming the parts of an electric circuit & the function of each part. Listing objects that can be recycled. Stating characteristic of light. Motor skills Manipulative skills & carrying out routine work. Preparing a microscope slide. Build a model of a simple machine. Measuring the weight of an object using a balance. Attitude Change of attitude towards an object, another person, situation & change in effective domain. Making choices in the preparation of an insects collection. Visit science museum voluntarily & choose to borrow a book on dinosaurs.
  17. 17. Internal Conditions of Learning • essential prerequisites - particular skills that become an integral part of new learning • supportive prerequisites - capabilities that facilitate learning, regardless of the type of outcome
  18. 18. External Conditions of Learning External events are those events outside the learner that activate and support the internal processes of learning. The appropriate provision of external events is the framework for planning instruction.
  19. 19. Determining the Learning Structure *Learning Hierarchies: Provide one of the ways to describe the “structure” of any topic, course, or discipline ---In the analysis of topic---- 1. Begin with the statement of the terminal objectivity. 2. Identify a subordinate set of tasks or subtopics, each an individual learning act, that must be considered pre-requisites for the learning. 3. Analyze each of the tasks or subtopics until one has arrived at performances that learners are known to possess, at which point the analysis stops.
  20. 20. Terminal Task TASK A TASK B TASK C A-1 B-1 B-2 C-1 The Learning Hierarchy : It’s Structure
  21. 21. In constructing the Learning Hierarchy of subordinate (pre-requisite) learnings for a given task, these questions are asked: “What must the learner already know how to do, in order to learn this performance/task?” and/or “What would the learner have to know how to do, in order to learn this performance/task, given instructions such as_____________________________?”
  22. 22. Terminal Task TASK A TASK B TASK C A-1 B-1 B-2 C-1 The Learning Hierarchy : It’s Structure Subordinate (pre-requisite tasks) TASK ANALYSIS -the process of identifying the subordinate/pre- requisite tasks
  23. 23. Subordinate Tasks Terminal Objective Terminal Task TASK ANALYSIS LEARNING HIERARCHY
  24. 24. Some Basic Differences Between a Procedural Task Analysis and a Hierarchical Analysis • Hierarchical Task Analysis "What must the learner know or be able to do to achieve this task?" • Procedural Task Analysis "What are the mental and/or physical steps that the learner must go through in order to complete this task?"
  25. 25. Some Basic Differences Between a Procedural Task Analysis and a Hierarchical Analysis • Hierarchical Task Analysis 1. Developed bottom up, from general to specific. 2. Based on learning taxonomies, starting from the most complex to the least complex • Procedural Task Analysis 1. Developed linearly and sequentially, step-by-step. 2. Not concerned with the levels of the learning taxonomies, it is procedural in nature.
  26. 26. Some Basic Differences Between a Procedural Task Analysis and a Hierarchical Analysis • Hierarchical Task Analysis 3. Represented in terms of levels of tasks. 4. Read bottom-up • Procedural Task Analysis 3. Represented in the form of a flowchart or an outline. 4. read from left to right or from top to bottom
  27. 27. Some Basic Differences Between a Procedural Task Analysis and a Hierarchical Analysis • Hierarchical Task Analysis 5. Each task is a prerequisite to the task directly above it. • Procedural Task Analysis 5. You can break down some of the tasks within the flowchart into an outline format if those tasks have subtasks.
  28. 28. Some Basic Differences Between a Procedural Task Analysis and a Hierarchical Analysis • Hierarchical Task Analysis 6. List all your givens or assumptions as prerequisites at the very bottom of the hierarchy. • Procedural Task Analysis 6. You must always have a START and an END
  29. 29. PROCEDURAL TASK ANALYSIS
  30. 30. HIERARCHAL TASK ANALYSIS
  31. 31. Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  32. 32. • WHAT IS LEARNING? -Change in behavior -A result of reinforced practice -Consists of Stimuli, Learner and Responses • WHAT IS HIERARCHY? WHAT IS LEARNING HIERARCHY? -Set of specified intellectual capabilities according to an ordered relationship to each other. Thus the entire set of ordered intellectual skills formed a hierarchy that was considered to bear some relation to a plan for effective instruction. -Classification of a group -A system in which people or things are placed in a series of levels with different importance or status
  33. 33. The development of “intelectual skills requires learning that amounts to a building process. Lower level skills provide a necessary foundation for higher level ones. To teach a skill, a teacher must first identify its prerequisite skills and make sure the students possess them. The list of building block skills is called learning hierarchies. Learning Hierarchies
  34. 34. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning 1) Signal Learning  Learn how to respond to a signal, like Pavlov’s dog (Pavlov’s classical conditioned response)  Usually the response is emotional 2) Stimulus(S) – Response(R) Learning  Learn precise response to precise signal / stimulus  Different from signal learning, signal learning leads to involuntary responses, whereas the responses in S-R learning are voluntarily controlled.
  35. 35. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning 3) Psychomotor Connection Learning “CHAINING”  Occurs when a chain of stimuli and responses are formed  Lean to follow procedures  Able to chain 2 or more stimulus-response 4) Verbal Association Learning  Use terminology in verbal chains 5) Multiple Discrimination Learning  Learn how to distinguish between similar stimuli
  36. 36.  Make different responses to each type of stimulus, even when they may be perceptually similar. 6) Concept Learning  Ability to generalize, or classify 7.) Principle/RULE Learning  Viewed as a chain of two or more concepts.  “PROCESS SKILLS”  Learn to apply rules Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  37. 37. PROCESS SKILLS Basic Science Processes o Observing o Classifying o Measuring o Using space-time relations o Communicating o Inferring o Predicting Integrated Science Processes o Formulating Hypothesis o Defining Operationally o Controlling variables o Interpreting data o Experimenting (most complex)
  38. 38. 8)Problem Solving  Highest learning type which lead to the discovery of higher order rules  All other types of learning must have been completed for it to be present. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  39. 39. 4 Important Types of Learning to Science Teaching 1. Stimulus-response learning (S-R) -Learners concentrate on linking names & objects, objects & events, actions & reactions 2. Multiple Discrimination Learning -Learning depends on concrete materials and rich experiences
  40. 40. 3. Concept Learning - If the learners have the skill in separating and identifying the characteristics of objects and events, they will be able to infer and create concepts. 4. Principle Learning (Process Skills) A. Basic Science Processes B. Integrated Science Processes 4 Important Types of Learning to Science Teaching
  41. 41. PROBLEM SOLVING • Terminal task • Sub-tasks to terminal tasks • Pre-requisites to subtasks arranged in a systematic way from simple to complex • “Smoothly guided tour” of a constructed learning hierarchy • Highly structured and organized learning • Instructional objectives stated in behavioral terms Facts, Concepts, Principles Elementsnecessaryforproblem solving CharacteristicsofLearningHierarchy *PROBLEM-SOLVING IN LEARNING HIERARCHY
  42. 42. • Set of component skills that must be learned before the complex skill of which they are a part can be learned • Classifying different types of learning in term of the “degree of complexity” of the mental involved. • Higher orders of learning build upon the lower levels. • The lowest 4 orders tend to focus on the more behavioral aspects. • The highest 4 focus on the more cognitive aspects Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
  43. 43. Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning Problem Solving Principle Learning Concept Learning Multiple Discrimination Learning Verbal Association Learning Psychomotor Connection Learning Stimulus – Response Learning Signal Learning Increasingcomplexity More to behavioral aspects More to cognitive aspects
  44. 44. Curriculum Implementation of the Learning Hierarchy  AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) curriculum- Science-A Process Approach (S-APA) -The development of intellectual skills (process skills) relevant to science in a systematic manner  Gagne’s approach is that of “behavioral learning engineering” -A smoothly guided instructional sequence, which starts from the simple stimulus-response and ends with problem-solving
  45. 45. Gagne has had considerable influence on education and training in corporate and government sectors as well as some influence in public schools. *Field of instructional design that seeks to take what is known about human learning and apply it to instruction. *“Father of instructional design.” He had wide influence on people who follow a systematic approach to designing instruction. *His ideas about domains of learning *His concept of instructional events. His Contributions
  46. 46. 49 The Nine Events of Instruction Event of Instruction • 1. Gaining attention Giving learner a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction Learning Process • Attention Methods for gaining learners’ attention include: — Stimulate students with novelty, uncertainty and surprise — Pose thought-provoking questions to the students — Have students pose questions to be answered by other students
  47. 47. 50 The Nine Events of Instruction Event of Instruction • 2. Informing the learner of the objective Telling learner what they will be able to do for the instruction • 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge Learning Process • Expectancy • Retrieval to working memory
  48. 48. 51 The Nine Events of Instruction Event of Instruction • 4. Presenting the stimulus Displaying the content Learning Process • Pattern recognition; selective perception Ways to present and cue lesson content include: — Present vocabulary — Provide examples — Present multiple versions of the same content, e.g., video, demonstration, lecture, podcast, group work — Use a variety of media to address different learning preferences
  49. 49. 52 The Nine Events of Instruction Event of Instruction • 5. Providing learner guidance Supplying organization and relevance to enhance understanding Learning Process • Chunking, rehearsal, encoding Methods to provide learning guidance include: — Provide instructional support as needed — Model varied learning strategies — Use examples and non-examples — Provide case studies, analogies, visual images and metaphors
  50. 50. 53 The Nine Events of Instruction Event of Instruction • 6. Eliciting performance Asking learners to respond, demonstrating learning Learning Process • Retrieval, responding Ways to activate learner processing include: — Elicit student activities — Elicit recall strategies — Facilitate student elaborations — Help students integrate new knowledge
  51. 51. 54 The Nine Events of Instruction Events of Instruction • 7. Providing Feedback Giving immediate feedback on learner's performance. Learning Process • Reinforcement, error correction
  52. 52. 55 The Nine Events of Instruction Events of Instruction • 8. Assessing performance Assessing and providing feedback to learners Learning Process • Responding, retention Methods for testing learning include: — Pretest for mastery of prerequisites — Conduct a post-test to check for mastery of content or skills — Embed questions throughout instruction through oral questioning and/or quizzes — Include objective or criterion-referenced performances which measure how well a student has learned a topic
  53. 53. 56 The Nine Events of Instruction Events of Instruction • 9. Enhancing retention and transfer Providing diverse practice to generalize the capability Learning Process • Retention, retrieval, generalization Methods for helping learners internalize new knowledge include: — Paraphrase content — Use metaphors — Generating examples — Create concept maps or outlines — Create job-aids, references, templates, or wizards
  54. 54. REMEMBER! • According to Robert Gagne, there are nine events and corresponding cognitive processes that activate processes needed for effective learning. Gagne believed all lessons should include this sequence of events. • He believed that basic concepts must be understood first before moving to a higher level.
  55. 55. Gagne’s structured learning hierarchies has greatly influenced the new elementary science curriculum. -Analyzing a task into subtasks and this analysis continues until the simplest pre-requisite is identified. Task Analysis is the heart of Instructional Design -New level of skill and knowledge are attained if process and product skills are developed in proper sequence  Although Gagne proposes 8 Types of Learning, there are 4 that are most relevant to science teaching.
  56. 56. 1. Stimulus-Response Learning 2. Multiple Discrimination Learning 3. Concept Learning 4. Principle Learning (Process Skill) a. Basic Science Processes b. Integrated Science Processes Gagne’s Approach is that “Behavioral Learning Engineering” (smoothly guided instructional sequence starting from stimulus-response learning and ends with problem solving
  57. 57. THANK YOU!

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