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The Microscope

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Components and Functions of the Microscope
The Vernier Scale: What it is, how to read it
How to use a Microscope

Publicado en: Educación
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The Microscope

  1. 1. THE MICROSCOPE Components and Functions
  2. 2. Eye Piece Body Tube Limb Nose Piece Objective Lens Stage Stop Fine Focus Course Focus (Although not shown!) On/off switch Iris Diaphragm/Rheostat Base Light Source Condenser Stage
  3. 3. THE STAGE COMPONENTS Mechanical Stage Control Vernier Scale Apertur e Stage Clip Stage Lock Control
  4. 4. FUNCTIONS. Body Tube Hollow tube housing eye piece in top and nose piece in lower end Eye Piece • Contains ocular and field lens • Magnifying primary image formed by objective lens • Commonly magnify x10
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS Limb Connects base with body and supports microscope structure Nose Piece In base of body tube housing & objective lenses in rotating turret Objective Lens Commonly four housed within nosepiece: • x4 Scanning • x10 Low Power • x40 High Dry • x100 Oil Immersion Stage Stop Safety feature to prevent stage coming into contact with objective lens
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS Fine Focus Adjustment provides subtle adjustment to stage height improving clarity of image Course Focus Adjusts stage height to provide initial focusing of the specimen Iris Diaphragm/Rheostat • A lever controlled aperture that modifies the amount of light passing through the condenser • Some have coloured filters (e.g. blue to reduce the amount of red or yellow Condenser • Two lens fitted below stage • Light is condensed from light source providing a sharp and bright image • Adjusts accordingly • Image is viewed upside down and reversedLight Source • Bulb controlled by rheostat (controls amount of power supply) • Turn light down prior to switching off to preserve bulb! Base Firmly supports other components
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE STAGE Part Function Stage Clip Holds microscope slide in place Aperture Window held within the stage Mechanical Stage • Hole in centre allows light from condenser to illuminate specimen • Holds slide in place, facilitate movement of slide (east-west, north-south) Mechanical Stage Control Enables the slide holder to be moved left, right, up or down Vernier Scale Vertical (X axis) and horizontal (Y axis) main scales used to relocate a specific point on the slide Stage Lock Locking device fixing the stage in place
  8. 8. USING THE MICROSCOPE 1. Plug the microscope into the power socket 2. Clean the eye pieces and condenser lens with lint free, lens cleaning tissue 3. Use rheostat to turn the light intensity to the lowest setting to avoid bulb damage 4. Turn on the power switch at the wall and on the microscope 5. Rack down mechanical stage to its lowest point using the course focus knob 6. Select the lowest power objective lens and lock into place using the rotating turret 7. Place prepared slide onto stage and secure with stage clips – ensure slide is correct way up, frosted edge to the left
  9. 9. USING THE MICROSCOPE 8. Before looking into the eye piece, rotate the course focus knob until the stage is at its highest position 9. Adjust rheostat to a medium setting 10. Adjust height of the sub stage condenser to a few mm below the stage 11. Using the course focus knob, move the stage downwards until the image comes into focus 12. Use fine focus to refine detail 13. Adjust condenser and diaphragm accordingly 14. Increase the objective lens power in order and accordingly
  10. 10. THE BATTLEMENT TECHNIQUE This technique is when viewing an object using x100 (oil immersion).
  11. 11. THE VERNIER SCALE First, we need to look where the 0 is. We can see here that it is between 10cm and 10.1 cm. Because it is in the middle, you should use the lower value, so 10cm. Next, it needs to be determined where the main scale marries up with the vernier scale. Here, the lines marry up at 2. Vernier Scale = 10.2
  12. 12. THE VERNIER SCALE The 0 lies between 3 and 4. So, we need to use the lower value of 3. The main scale and vernier scale marries up at 3. Vernier Scale = 3.3 ** If the 0 falls on a whole number (i.e. not in between two values), then the vernier scale reading wont be required (e.g. 34.0)**
  13. 13. HAVE A GO… Vernier Scale = 5.6