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Curriculum evaluation

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curriculum development

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Curriculum evaluation

  1. 1. PED 109 (Curriculum Development) FACILITATORS # 4 S.Y. 2015-2016 Topic: CURRICULUM EVALUATION Facilitators:  SENIT, MARY ROSE ANNE  BIBAS, HENRY M.  ETQUIBAL, YCA TRINA  SALVADOR, DANNICA JOY  REBOLLOS, ELYZA JOYCE BSED III-C DR. ALICIA T. BALDICANO PED 109 Instructor
  2. 2. FACILITATOR TOPIC STRATEGY Mary Rose Anne Senit What , Why, How, to Evaluate a Curriculum Oral/ Written Presentations  Task Card Henry M. Bibas Curriculum Evaluation through Learning Assessment Achieve Learning Outcomes Strategies/ Tools to Asses the Curriculum  Level of Hierarchy  Concept Web Yca Trina A. Etquibal Recording devices/ tools Non-Test Monitoring and Assessment Bubble Quotes Structured Overview Dannica Joy Salvador Planning, Implementing, Evaluating Understanding the Connections  Bubble quotes Elyzza Joyce Rebollos Planning, Implementing, Evaluating Understanding the Connections  Flow Chart
  3. 3. EVALUATING THE CURRICULUM • Module Overview This module is all about curriculum evaluation in the context of its definition and the role of the teacher as an evaluator. It will present the ways of evaluating the curriculum as written, planned or implemented . It will reference popular models of curriculum models currently used in educational programs here and abroad.
  4. 4. Curriculum evaluation is a component of curriculum development that responds to public accountability. It looks into educational reforms or innovations that happen in the teacher’s classrooms, the school, district, division or the whole educational system as well. It is establishing the merit and worth of a curriculum . Test results will only be used as one of the pieces of evidence of evaluation. For at the end, the purpose of evaluation is to improve and not to prove.
  5. 5. • What, Why, and How to Evaluate a Curriculum • Curriculum Evaluation Through Learning Assessment • Planning, Implementing, Evaluating, Understanding the Connections
  6. 6. WHAT, WHY AND HOW TO EVALUATE A CURRICULUM Strategy: Oral/Written Presentations & Task Card Facilitator: Senit, Mary Rose Anne S.
  7. 7. WHAT?
  8. 8. PERSONS DEFINITION
  9. 9. Persons Definition Ornstein, A. & Hunkins , F. (1998) Curriculum evaluation is a process done in order to gather data that enables one to decide whether to accept, change, eliminate the whole curriculum of a textbook. McNeil, J. (1997) Evaluation answers two questions . 1. Do planned learning opportunities , programs, courses and activities as developed and organized actually produced desired results? 2. How can a curriculum best be improved? Gay, L. (1985) Evaluation is to identify the weaknesses and strengths as well as problems encountered in the implementation ,to improve the curriculum development process. It is to determine the effectiveness of and the returns on allocated finance . Olivia , P. (1988) It is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging alternatives for purposes of modifying, or eliminating the curriculum.
  10. 10. WHY?
  11. 11. • Any aspect of an activity or undertakings should be evaluated for purposes of better performance in the future. • If evaluated objectively, this brings good result and achieves quality performance. • Curriculum assessment is not a one shot deal.
  12. 12. PART 1: CURRICULUM FOUNDATIONS Guiding principles, educational theory, curriculum orientations PART 4: CURRICULUM APPLICATIONS PART 5: AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT PART 3: CURRICULUM CONTENT PART 2: CURRICULUM DESIGN Planning instruction The relationship between generic skills ,learning outcomes & content skills Allowing for relevant assessment The intention and inherent challenges of change
  13. 13. • Graphic shows it is part of a process. • Therefore, it is a continuous process from what is intended to what is implemented to what is achieved.
  14. 14. Bilbao, et. Al. (2003) differentiated what is intended, implemented and achieved. • Intended curriculum-refers to the planned objectives, goals, and purposes of the curriculum. Answers what the curriculum maker/ framer wants to do. • Implemented curriculum–refers to the various learning experiences provided to the students to achieve the goals. • Achieved curriculum- refers to the learning outcomes measured by learning performances.
  15. 15. What are the objectives of curriculum evaluation? These are the general objectives of curriculum evaluation:  examine and evaluate the historical, philosophical, ethical, social, economic and political influence on curriculum.  evaluate curriculum methods and structures in relation to national curricular standards and to national value-added mandates.
  16. 16.  Relate cognitive and brain-based research to curricular methods, structure and intents.  Analyze the compatibility of the curriculum and related assessments.  Explore the effects of curriculum on teaching, learning, supervision and policy.  Evaluate the curricular demands of a digital age.  Define personal philosophy and approaches regarding curriculum design, development and implementation.
  17. 17. 4 Reasons for Curriculum Evaluation • Curriculum evaluation identifies the strengths and weaknesses of an existing curriculum that will be the basis of the intended plan, design or implementation. • When evaluation is done in the middle of the curriculum development, it will designed or implemented curriculum can produce or is producing the desired results . This is related to monitoring. • Curriculum evaluation will guide whether the results have equaled or exceed the standards ( sometimes called as TERMINAL ASSESSMENT)
  18. 18. • Curriculum evaluation provides information necessary for teachers, school managers, curriculum specialist for policy recommendations that will enhance achieved learning outcomes. This ids the basis of decision making. In curriculum evaluation , important processes were evolved such as (a) needs assessment, (b) monitoring, (c) terminal assessment and (d) decision making.
  19. 19. HOW?
  20. 20.  Steps in Conducting a Curriculum Evaluation
  21. 21. • Steps in Conducting a Curriculum Evaluation 8. Preparing modes of display 7. Preparing evaluation report 6. Identifying Techniques 5. Identifying established standards and criteria 4. Identifying techniques for collecting data 3. Identifying data source 2. Identifying critical issues 1.Identifying Primary Audiences
  22. 22. DIFFERENT CURRICULUM EVALUATION MODELS PERSONS EVALUATION / MODEL SHORT DESCRIPTION
  23. 23. DIFFERENT CURRICULUM EVALUATION MODELS PERSONS EVALUATION/ MODEL SHORT DESCRIPTION L.H . BRADLEY RALPH TYLER DANIEL STUFFLE BEAM ROBERT STAKE MICHAEL SCRIVEN HAMMONDS PARLETT AND HAMILTON KEMMIS
  24. 24. Steps What to Consider 1. Identifying primary audiences •Curriculum Program Sponsors, managers and administrators. School heads, participants (teachers& students) content specialist; and other stake holders. 2. Identifying critical issues/ problems •Outcomes(expected, desired, intended) process (implementation) resources (inputs) 3. Identifying data source • people(teachers, students , parents , curriculum developers) existing documents , available records ,evaluation studies 4. Identifying techniques for collecting data •Standardized test, informal test, sample of students work, interview, participant observations, checklist, anecdotal record 5. Identifying established standards and criteria •Standards previously set by agency( DepEd, CHED, Professional Oragnization) 6.Identifying techniques in data analysis •Content, process analysis, statistics, comparison , evaluation process
  25. 25. 7. Preparing evaluation report • Written, oral; progress; final ; summary ; descriptive; graphic; evaluative and judgmental ; list of recommendations 8.Preparing modes of display • Case studies; test scores summary ; testimonies; multi media presentations ; product display (exhibit); technical report  The steps are easy to follow. Begin thinking of how curriculum evaluators will proceed in finding out if there is a need to modify , enhance or continue with the implementation of the curriculum . After all, the main purpose of evaluation is to improve the existing condition, so that it would benefit the students.
  26. 26. Despite of variety o methods in curriculum evaluation , the approaches are usually classified in to two broad areas :  Traditional evaluation – is concerned with determining the extent to which students achieve the outcomes of curriculum.(relies heavily on the testing of students)  New-wave evaluation –testing should not play the only role in evaluation but that a great variety of factors should be considered. Following are several models consistent with the traditional and new wave approaches.
  27. 27. Different Curriculum Evaluation Models PERSONS EVALUATION/ MODEL SHORT DESCRIPTION L.H . BRADLEY BRADLEY EFFECTIVENESS MODEL RALPH TYLER TYLER’S OBJECTIVE CENTERED MODEL DANIEL STUFFLE BEAM DANIEL STUFFLE BEAM MODEL (CIPP) ROBERT STAKE STAKE’S COUNTENACE MODEL (1967) , STAKE RESPONSIVE MODEL(1976), STAKE’S CASE STUDY MODEL(1978) MICHAEL SCRIVEN SCRIVEN CONSUMER ORIENTED EVALUATION HAMMONDS HAMMOND’S GOAL- ATTAINMENT MODEL PARLETT AND HAMILTON (1976) ILLUMINATIVE MODEL KEMMIS KEMMI’S (1974) SURROGATE EXPERIENCE MODEL
  28. 28. CURRICULUM EVALUATION MODEL S  Curriculum models by Ralph Tyler and Hilda Taba end with evaluation. Evaluation is a big idea that collectively tells about the value or worth of something that was done.  curriculum specialist have proposed an arrays of models which are useful for classroom teachers and practitioners.  Let’s look some of these.
  29. 29. BRADLEY EFFECTIVENESS MODEL -first , you have to identify what curriculum you will evaluate , then find out if the curriculum you are evaluating answers yes or no. answering yes to all questions means good curriculum as describe by Bradley. TYLER OBJECTIVE CENTERED MODEL - Involves: establishing goals or objective; stating the objectives in behavioral terms; measuring aspects of student performance at the completion of teaching ; comparing test results with behavioral objectives - it is a continuing process
  30. 30. DANIEL STUFFLEBEAM MODEL- CIPP - The model made emphasis that the result of evaluation should provide data for decision making. There are four stages of program operation. These include: 1. context evaluation 2. input evaluation 3. process evaluation 4. product evaluation - however, any evaluator can only take any of the four stages as the focus of evaluation
  31. 31. STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL -model emphasizes the importance of both description and observation in evaluation. -distinguishes between the evaluators description and judgment at the different stages of implementing a curriculum or program; antecedents’, transactions’ and outcomes’. STAKE RESPONSIVE MODEL - is oriented more directly to program activities than the program intents. Evaluation focuses more on the activities rather than intent or purposes.
  32. 32. STAKE’S CASE STUDY MODEL - The case study model is so called because of its emphasis on the specific situation to be investigated. SCRIVEN CONSUMER ORIENTED EVALUATION - uses criteria and checklist as a tool for either formative or summative evaluation purposes. The use of criteria and checklist was proposed by Scriven for educational evaluators.
  33. 33. HAMMOND’S GOAL-ATTAINMENT MODEL - Five steps for determining whether a curriculum has achieved its objectives:  Isolating the program or part of the curriculum to be evaluated  Defining the descriptive variables  Stating objectives in behavioral terms  Assessing the behavior described in the objectives  Analyzing results to arrive at conclusions about the objectives
  34. 34. PARLETT & HAMILTON’S ILLUMINATIVE MODEL -this model aims to illuminate the audience’s understanding of a curriculum or program. -illuminative evaluation is less restricting than traditional evaluation. - Is more concerned with description and interpretation tan measurement and prediction. KEMMI’S SURROGATE EXPERIENCE MODEL -based on the view that curriculum cannot be measured in precise and objective ways, but requires a broad evaluation involving the interaction of many variables.
  35. 35. PED 109 (Curriculum Development) FACILITATOR # 2 Main Topic: CURRICULUM EVALUATION THROUGH LEARNING ASSESSMENT HENRY M. BIBAS Facilitator SUBTOPIC STRATEGY ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES Level of Hierarchy STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM Concept Web
  36. 36. Dummy for the ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES LEVEL Of H I E R A R C H Y
  37. 37. Expected Outcome for the ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES LEVEL Of H I E R A R C H Y PERFORMANCE UNDERSTANDING PROCESS KNOWLEDGE
  38. 38. Dummy for the STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM
  39. 39. Expected Outcome for the STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM Essay Select Response Strategies/Tool s to Assess the Curriculum Paper-and-Pencil Strategy Combination of Strategies Oral Strategy Personal Communication Strategy Observational Strategy Performance Based Strategy Reflective Strategy Performance Task Exhibition/ Demonstration Interview Conference Questions & AnswersClassroom Presentation Self- Assessment Response Journal Portfolio
  40. 40. CLOSURE We have gone a long way in understanding, interpreting and applying the concept of curriculum development. We will continue to understand that curriculum can be evaluated right in the teacher’s classroom. Finding out if the planned, written, implemented curriculum are functioning as intended in the assessment of learning is very crucial. how does a teacher know, that the students have learned from what is been taught? Many educational practitioners agree that the measure of one’s teaching is indicated by what the children have learned. The teacher cannot claim that he/she has taught if the students have not learned anything.
  41. 41. Assessment of learning is an evaluation process that tells whether the intended learning outcomes, through the teaching- learning process, have been converted into achieved learning outcomes. Learning outcomes can be measured through the use of different assessment tools.
  42. 42. ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES Achieved learning outcomes is an outcomes based education as a product of what are have been intended in the beginning of the teaching-learning process. Indicators of the learning outcomes which are accomplished are called achieved learning outcomes. Standards and competencies are used as the indicators and measures of these outcomes.
  43. 43. ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMESLEVEL Of H I E R A R C H Y PERFORMANCE Products or performance which can be used as an evidence of learning. UNDERSTANDING Big concepts or ideas. PROCESS Skills that students use based on facts and information for making meaning and understanding. KNOWLEDGE Factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge and metacognition.
  44. 44. Knowledge, Process, and Understanding are learning outcomes. Students who can show that they have gained knowledge, can apply such knowledge and have achieved several meaning on the particular knowledge have achieved the learning outcomes. Level IV of the learning outcomes can be assessed through Performance or Product. These learning outcomes can best be done through the use of authentic evaluation.
  45. 45. STRATEGIES/TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM Assessment Strategies are the structures through which student knowledge and skills are assessed. Finding out what students know and can do requires multiple sources of information and differing types of assessment. The key is to match the learning and the assessment tool. The selection of a strategy is determined both by what is to be assessed and the reasons or purposes for the assessment. The phase of the learning process at which the teacher and the students are working affects the selection of the assessment strategy and the tools used as one tool maybe unsuitable for different purposes.
  46. 46. STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM EXAMPLES OF ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES: 1.) PAPER-and-PENCIL-STRATEGY 2.) PERFORMANCE BASED STRATEGY 3.) OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY 4.) PERSONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY 5.) ORAL STRATEGY 6.) REFLECTIVE STRATEGY 7.) COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES
  47. 47. PAPER-AND-PENCIL STRATEGY THE ESSAY -Is a writing sample used to assess student understanding and/ or how well students can analyse and synthesize information. -A student constructs a response to a question, topic or a brief statement. -Provides the student with the opportunity to communicate his/her reasoning in a written response. THE SELECT RESPONSE -An assessment in which the student is used to identify the correct one answer; -Is a commonly used procedure for gathering formal evidence about student learning, specifically in memory, recall and comprehension.
  48. 48. PERFORMANCE BASED STRETEGY THE PERFORMANCE TASK - Is the assessment which is requires students to demonstrate a skill or proficiency by asking them to create, produce, or perform. -May be an observation of a student or group of students performing a specific task to demonstrate skills and or knowledge through open-ended, “hands-on” activities. THE EXHIBITION/DEMONSTRATION - Is a performance in which a student demonstrates individual achievement through application of specific skills and knowledge. - Is used to assess progress in task that require students to be actively engaged in an activity. (e.g. performing an experiment)
  49. 49. OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY OBSERVATION - Is a process of systematically viewing and recording student behaviour for the purpose of making programming decisions; permeates the entire teaching process by assisting the teacher in making the decisions required in effective teaching.
  50. 50. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY THE CONFERENCE - Is a formal or informal meeting between/among the teacher and student and/or parent; - Has a clear focus on learning for discussion. THE INTERVIEW - Is a form of conversation in which all parties (teacher, student and parent) increase their knowledge and understanding.
  51. 51. ORAL STRATEGY THE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Questions: -Are posed by the teacher to determine if the students understand what is being/has been presented or to extend thinking, generate ideas or problem- solved. Answers: -To provide opportunities for oral assessment when the student responds to a question by speaking rather than writing. THE CLASSROOM PRESENTATION -Is an assessment which requires students to verbalized their knowledge, select and present samples of finished work and organize thoughts, in order to present a summary of learning about topic.
  52. 52. REFLECTIVE STRATEGY SELF ASSESSMENT -Is the process of gathering information and reflecting on one’s own learning; -Is the student’s own assessment of personal progress in knowledge, skills, processes, or attitudes; -Leads a student to a greater awareness and understanding of himself or herself as a learner. THE RESPONSE JOURNAL -Provides frequent written reflective responses to a material that a student is reading, viewing, listening to, or discussing.
  53. 53. COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES THE PORTFOLIO -Is a purposeful collection of samples of a student’s work that is selective, reflective, and collaborative; -Demonstrates the range and depth of a student’s achievement, knowledge, and skills overtime and across a variety of contexts; -Has student involvement in selection of portfolio materials as part of the process; -Is a visual presentation of a student’s accomplishments, capabilities, strengths, weakness, and progress over a specified time.
  54. 54. RECORDING DEVICES/ TOOLS Strategies: Bubble Quotes and Structured Overview Facilitator: Etquibal, Yca Trina
  55. 55. Strategy: Bubble Qoutes
  56. 56. Learning Log Rubric Anecdotal Record Checklist Rating Scale Recording Devices Tools
  57. 57. RECORDING DEVICES/ TOOLS Recording devices provide various means of organizing the recordings of information about student achievement. Teachers can choose or develop recording devices which suit the teacher’s style, the students and the activity or learning being assessed. These are: 1. Anecdotal Record 2. Checklist 3. Rating Scale 4. Rubric 5. Learning Log
  58. 58. THE ANECDOTAL RECORD • Is a short narrative describing both a behaviour and the context in which the behaviour occurred; • Should objectively report specific and observed behaviours; • Describes student’s performance in detail and in writing.
  59. 59. THE CHECKLIST • Is a list of actions or descriptions that a rater (teacher) checks off as the particular behaviour or expectation is observed. • Is a written list of performance criteria which is used to assess student performance through observation, or may be used to assess written work. • Is a list of skills, concepts, behaviours, processes, and/or attitudes that might, or should occur in a given situation.
  60. 60. THE RATING SCALE • Is a simple tool for assessing performance on a several- point scale ranging from low to high. It may have as few as 3 points, or as many as 10 points. • Assess the extent to which specific facts, skills, attitudes, and/or behaviours are observed in a student’s work or performance. • Is based on a set of criteria which allows the teacher to judge performance, product, attitude, and/or behaviour along a continuum. • Is used to judge the quality of a performance.
  61. 61. THE RUBRICS • Is a series of statements describing a range of levels of achievement of a process, product or a performance. • Contains a brief, written descriptions of the different levels of student performance. • Defines desired expectations with specific performances outlined for each level. • Uses criteria and associated descriptions to assess the actual performance.
  62. 62. THE LEARNING LOG • Is an on going record by the student of what he/she does while working on a particular task or assignment. • Makes visible what a student is thinking and/or doing through frequent recordings over time.
  63. 63. NON- TEST MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT
  64. 64. Strategy: Structured Overview
  65. 65. Non-Test Monitoring and Test Debates GamesJournal Teacher observa -tion Oral and written reports Discus- sions Organize note sheets and study guides Checklist Cartooning Models Problem solving Notes Demons- tration Learning centers Daily Assign- ments Anec- dotal Record Panel Projects Portfolio of student’s work Slates or Hand Signal
  66. 66. Non- Test Monitoring and Assessment Many of the following suggestions are similar to the suggested teaching strategies. Those who advocate increased use of non-test monitoring and assessment argue that instruction and assessment at their best are intertwined. Good instruction involves observing and analyzing student performance and the most valuable assessment activities should be learning experiences as well.
  67. 67. 1. Oral and Written Reports- Students research a topic and then present either orally or in written form. 2. Teacher Observation- The teacher observes student while they work to make certain the students understand the assignment and are on task. Example: Cooperative Learning. 3. Journal- Student write daily on assignment or personal topics. Example: What is the thing you remember about yesterday’s lesson. 4. Portfolio of Student’s Work- Teacher collects samples of student’s work and saves for determined amount of time. Example: Dated sample of student’s writing, test, etc. 5. Slates or Hand Signals- Student’s use slates or hand signals as a means of signaling answers to the teacher. Example: Review questions – write answers and hold up slate.
  68. 68. 6. Games -Teachers utilize fun activities to have the students practice and review concepts. Example: Science Trivia. 7. Projects-The students research on a topic and research on a topic and present it in a creative way. 8. Debates- The students take opposing position on a topic and defend their position. Examples: The pros and cons of an environment legislation. 9. Checklist- The teacher will make a list of objectives that students need to master and then check off the skill as the students masters it. 10. Cartooning- Students will use drawings to depict situation and ideas. Example: Environmental Issues.
  69. 69. 11. Models-The student produce a miniature replica of a given topic. Example: Molecules. 12. Notes-Students write a summary of a lesson. 13. Daily Assignments-The students complete work assigned on a daily basis to completed at the school or home. Example: Worksheets issues. 14. Anecdotal Record- The teachers record a student’s behaviour. Example: A daily log of student’s success. 15. Panel- A group of students verbally present information. Example: A discussion presenting both the pros and cons of the environmental issues.
  70. 70. 16. Learning Centers- Students use teacher provided activities for hands- on learning. Example: An activity folder on frog dissection. 17. Demonstration- Students present a visual enactment of a particular skill or activity. Examples: Proving that air has a weight. 18. Problem Solving- Student follow a step by step solution of a problem. 19. Discussions- Students in a group verbally interact on a given topic. Example: Environmental issues. 20. Organize Note Sheets and Study Guides- Students collect information to help pass a test. Example: one 3x5 note card with information to be used during a test.
  71. 71. PLANNING,IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING-UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTIONS Facilitators: Salvador, Dannica Joy and Rebollos, Elyza Joyce Strategies: Chain of Event and Placemat
  72. 72. Evaluation strategies Setting goals and Indicators Evaluation centres Regional technology Training Centres Implementing the evaluation design Identifying target population
  73. 73. Understanding the Connections Planning Implementing Evaluating
  74. 74. PLANNING • Planning is an initial process in curriculum development. It includes determining the needs through an assessment. Needs would include those of the learners, the teachers , the community and the society as these relate to curriculum. After the needs have been identified the intended outcomes should be SMART. Intended outcomes should be double, achievable and desired.
  75. 75. • After establishing these, then a curricularist should find out in planning the ways of achieving the desired outcomes .These are ways and means and the strategies to achieve outcomes .Together with the methods and strategies are the identification the support materials. All of these should be written, and should to include the means of evaluation.
  76. 76. IMPLEMENTING • What should be implemented ? The planned curriculum which was written should be implemented. It has to be put into action or used by a curriculum implementer who is the teacher, curriculum plans should not remain as a written document. • A curriculum planner can also be a curriculum implementor. In fact a, curriculum planner who implements the curriculum must have a full grasp of what is to be done.
  77. 77. • With the well written curriculum plan a teacher can execute this with the help of instructional materials, equipment, resources materials and enough time. The curriculum implementor must also see to it that the plan which serves as guide is extended correctly. The skill and the ability of the teacher to impart guide learning are necessary in the curriculum implementation
  78. 78. EVALUATING • Curriculum evaluation as a big idea may follow evaluation models which can be used for programs and projects. These models discussed in the previous lesson guide the process and the corresponding tools that will be used to measure outcomes. • However when used for assessment of learning, which is also evaluation more attention is given to levels of assessment for the levels of learning outcomes. • As defined by the Department of Education , the use of the description for the proficiency the learner described by the qualified values of the weighted test scores in an interval scale.
  79. 79. EVALUATING • That broader perspective mentioned above requires a less constricting view of both the Purposes and foci of curriculum evaluation. • In reviewing the literature and acquiring a Broader understanding of purpose, two concepts delineated by Guba and Lincoln (1981) • Seem especially useful: merit and worth. Merit, as they use the term, refers to the intrinsic • Value of an entity—value that is implicit, inherent, and independent of any applications. • Merit is established without reference to a context. Worth, on the other hand, is the value Of an entity in reference to a particular context or a specific application. • It is the “pay off” Value for a given institution or group of people.
  80. 80. • The same course, however may have relatively little worth for a teacher instructing unmotivated working- class • Youth in an urban school: It may require teaching skills that the teacher has not mastered And learning materials that the students cannot read. • In this sense, then, curriculum evaluation should be concerned with assessing both merit and worth.
  81. 81. EVALUATION STRATEGIES The following are strategies that successful administrators use in developing assessment and evaluation programs. • Setting Goals and Indicators The evaluation and assessment process must be linked back to the original mission statement and objectives of the district. Indicators of successful curriculum integration for the purposes of evaluation should be established during the early planning stages of the program.
  82. 82. • Identifying Target Populations Successful evaluation and assessment procedures should focus on targeting specific external and internal population groups. Parents and community represent external groups. Trustees, administrators, teachers, and students represent internal target groups. Data collection needs to focus specifically on these target areas and how they relate to school and curriculum. • Evaluation Centers Provides a wealth of information on technology evaluation and assessment.
  83. 83. • Regional Technology Training Centers They also provide conferences and workshops on evaluation strategies. Regardless of the process used to evaluate a program, planners need to be willing to utilize data and make changes and adjustments where necessary. They must understand that curriculum improvement and instructional improvement are interconnected and that a change in one area will probably elicit a change in another area
  84. 84. . Problems and concerns Can cloud issues at hand, making evaluation an important tools. With higher-quality and more detailed information at our disposal, curriculum leaders will be able to focus more on how technology can help teachers with student achievement in the future.
  85. 85. • Implementing the Evaluation Design With the design developed, the evaluation team can move expeditiously to implement the design and report the results. Two matters should be stressed here: First, the implementation process should be flexible. If new issues develop or if additional data sources become apparent, they should be built into a revised design and incorporated into the implementation process. Second, the results should be reported in ways that will accommodate the special needs of the several audiences
  86. 86. • Thus, several reports might be envisioned: a summary written in plain language for the public, an action plan presented to the board and school administrators, and a detailed technical report for the broader educational community. Once people know, firsthand, and are able to measure the benefits of effective curriculum planning and evaluation, the public support for funding will become viable. Indicators of success used to measure the impact of student achievement in schools will be a determining factor.
  87. 87. • It is hoped that future research will be based on these indicators to give educational planners a more complete picture as to the impact of technology on teaching and learning in our nation’s classrooms. A key to the success of any curricular program in the future is the ability of school leaders to develop awareness and understanding through the implementation of an effective evaluation program. Throughout the entire evaluation process, the focus for administrators should be on combination appropriate strategies with measurable results indicating positive correlations with teaching and learning.
  88. 88. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!!

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